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Nemaska Lithium (NMX.V)
Corporate Presentation
How to profit from the
booming lithium markets
January 2016TSX-V NMX and OT...
Forward-looking Statements
During the course of this presentation, Nemaska Lithium Inc. will
make a number of statements w...
Lithium Supply and Demand
100,000t
of new lithium
carbonate
equivalent
(LCE) needed by
2021
Lithium Demand Expected to Outstrip Supply
4
Lithium Demand and Production by Source
5
Lithium Demand by End-Use 2007 to 2020 Forecast
6
Megafactories Pushing on Demand for Lithium
7
• Total new capacity of 87 GWh should require an additional 70,000t to
100,0...
4
major
producers of
lithium globally
Lithium Production is Limited
88
New Production From Existing Brines Unlikely
• Chile
– Producers - SQM &
Albemarle
– Moratorium on new
production permits ...
New Production From Existing Hard Rock Unlikely
• Australia/China
– Producer – Talison and
Chinese Transformers
– Talison ...
4
Lithium projects
permitted
globally today
Lithium New Comers to Meet New Demand
Nemaska
Lithium
(Canada)
Orocobre
(Argen...
Project Infrastructure,
Reserves & Resources and
Proprietary Process
Nemaska Lithium Overview
• Advanced hard rock lithium company with high-grade mining assets
• CDN patent notice of allowan...
Quebec, Very Good Location and Jurisdiction
• Mine and concentrator
located in Eeyou Istchee
James Bay territory,
Northern...
Excellent Infrastructure at Mine Site
15
Grade is KING + Low levels of Mica, Sodium and Potassium
16
Reserves Resources
Category Tonnage (Mt)* Li2O (%) Category To...
17
Hydromet Plants existing buildings in Shawinigan, Quebec
Phase 1 plant
Commercial plant
Nemaska Added Value : Produce Directly LiOH•H2O
Lithium
Sulfate
Solution
Primary
Impurity
Removal
Secondary
Impurity
Remov...
Feasibility Study Highlights,
Sensitivity Analysis, Financing
Options – Plan Nord
Feasibility Study Highlights and Comparables
Expected Mine Life and pay back period 26 years with 3.7 years pay back perio...
Feasibility Study and Sensitivity Analysis
21
(All figures are rounded in CAD$,
unless otherwise stated)
Feasibility Study...
22
Supportive Quebec Government
• Investor in Nemaska since its inception
through various exploration and
development fund...
Business Plan and Market
Penetration Strategy
Nemaska Lithium Business Plan
• Achieve Market Penetration While Building Commercial Plant
– Build and operate a Phase 1 P...
Phase 1 Production Plant – Why?
• Designed to produce ~500 t/y of lithium compounds using commercial size
equipment
• Purp...
De-risk and Shorten Time to Nameplate Production
 Benefits of Phase 1 plant:
• Shorten ramp-up time of commercial plant t...
Conclusion, Capital Structure,
Management and Board of
Directors
Conclusion – Why Nemaska Lithium
• Given the forthcoming shortage in lithium hydroxide supply, Nemaska
Lithium is perfectl...
Capital Structure (December 31, 2015)
Shares outstanding 206,615,385
Options (average exercise price $0.27)
Warrants (aver...
Guy Bourassa, President and CEO
Mr. Bourassa is President and CEO since Nemaska’s inception in 2008. He brings more than 3...
Management and Board of Directors (continued)
François Biron, Director
Mr. François Biron is a senior professional mining ...
Management and Board of Directors (continued)
Judy Baker, Director
Ms. Baker holds an Honours B. Sc. Geological Engineerin...
Appendix
RB Energy Comparison
Main Differences Between Whabouchi Mine and Quebec
Lithium Project (according to respective FS)
Ore Grade 55% higher at Wh...
Whabouchi Deposit: Surface resources classification in plan view
Sources:
Met-Chem Canada, 2014
Feasibility Study on the W...
Whabouchi Deposit: Vertical Section with Block model Grades
Sources:
Met-Chem Canada, 2014
Feasibility Study on the Whabou...
Appendix
Supply/Demand
38
Market Share by Main Players in the Lithium Field
Lithium Supply by Sources – 2005 to 2014
39
Why Lithium Hydroxide over Lithium Carbonate
40
Cathode material Lithium raw material supply
LCO (small portable device) L...
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Nemaska Lithium Corporate Presentation Jan 04 2016 FINAL

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Nemaska Lithium Corporate Presentation Jan 04 2016 FINAL

  1. 1. Nemaska Lithium (NMX.V) Corporate Presentation How to profit from the booming lithium markets January 2016TSX-V NMX and OTCQX – NMKEF Constituent of the S&P/TSX Venture Select
  2. 2. Forward-looking Statements During the course of this presentation, Nemaska Lithium Inc. will make a number of statements with regard to the Company’s projects, business strategy and plan, which could be construed as forward-looking. Such forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties that could cause results to be materially different than expectations. It is uncertain if further work will in fact lead to production of a mineral resource and of lithium compounds. Nemaska has filed on SEDAR a NI-43-101 compliant feasibility study as of May 13, 2014 and all technical information should be reviewed according to this feasibility study. 2
  3. 3. Lithium Supply and Demand
  4. 4. 100,000t of new lithium carbonate equivalent (LCE) needed by 2021 Lithium Demand Expected to Outstrip Supply 4
  5. 5. Lithium Demand and Production by Source 5
  6. 6. Lithium Demand by End-Use 2007 to 2020 Forecast 6
  7. 7. Megafactories Pushing on Demand for Lithium 7 • Total new capacity of 87 GWh should require an additional 70,000t to 100,000t of LCE by 2021, this supply currently does not exist
  8. 8. 4 major producers of lithium globally Lithium Production is Limited 88
  9. 9. New Production From Existing Brines Unlikely • Chile – Producers - SQM & Albemarle – Moratorium on new production permits for past 4 years – Govt. declared lithium a strategic metal • Argentina – Producer - FMC – Challenging jurisdiction - Revenues to be converted to Argentine currency prior to being distributed – Pressure to use local suppliers, special taxes, etc. 99
  10. 10. New Production From Existing Hard Rock Unlikely • Australia/China – Producer – Talison and Chinese Transformers – Talison jointly owned by Tianqi Lithium (51%) and Albemarle (49%) – Tianqi currently at maximum transformation capacity – Mine output capacity increase unlikely for a few years 1010
  11. 11. 4 Lithium projects permitted globally today Lithium New Comers to Meet New Demand Nemaska Lithium (Canada) Orocobre (Argentina) Western Lithium (Argentina) Neometal (Australia) 1111
  12. 12. Project Infrastructure, Reserves & Resources and Proprietary Process
  13. 13. Nemaska Lithium Overview • Advanced hard rock lithium company with high-grade mining assets • CDN patent notice of allowance granted for processes to produce high purity lithium hydroxide and carbonate, additional patents filed in multiple jurisdictions • Key asset: Whabouchi – a world class lithium deposit – Federal and Provincial permits granted, ready to build – North America’s richest hard rock NI 43-101 Compliant Proven and Probable lithium deposit - average grade 1.53% Li2O – 2nd richest and largest deposit in the world with 27.3 MT Proven and Probable Reserves for an initial 26 years mine life with large potential for increase • Production costs for lithium hydroxide and carbonate competitive to peers (brines and hard rock) as per Feasibility Study • Strong economics based on Feasibility Study: NPV $924M, IRR 25.2% Pre-tax • Constituent of the S&P/TSX Venture Select 13
  14. 14. Quebec, Very Good Location and Jurisdiction • Mine and concentrator located in Eeyou Istchee James Bay territory, Northern Quebec • Concentrate trucked to Chibougamau, transferred to rail to Shawinigan for processing • Top ranked mining jurisdiction • Established infrastructure in place at mine site • Available, reliable and affordable hydro electricity power 14 Shawinigan
  15. 15. Excellent Infrastructure at Mine Site 15
  16. 16. Grade is KING + Low levels of Mica, Sodium and Potassium 16 Reserves Resources Category Tonnage (Mt)* Li2O (%) Category Tonnage (Mt)* Li2O (%) Open pit Proven 11.7 1.58 Measured 12.998 1.60 Probable 8.3 1.46 Indicated 14.993 1.54 Proven and probable 20.0 1.53 M + I 27.991 1.57 Underground Inferred 4.686 1.51 Proven 1.6 1.27 Probable 5.7 1.29 Proven and probable 7.3 1.28
  17. 17. 17 Hydromet Plants existing buildings in Shawinigan, Quebec Phase 1 plant Commercial plant
  18. 18. Nemaska Added Value : Produce Directly LiOH•H2O Lithium Sulfate Solution Primary Impurity Removal Secondary Impurity Removal Ion Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Lithium Hydroxide Solution Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate Lithium Carbonate Remove Fe, Al, Si, Cu Remove Ca, Mg Remove impurities to ppb levels 18 • Proprietary process to produce directly LiOH•H2O : – without using soda ash (Na2CO3) or caustic soda (NaOH) – without producing any salt cake by-product (Na2SO4) – producing lithium carbonate using CO2 – CDN Patent Notice of Allowance Received * Exchange rate as per Feasibility Study $1.00 CAD = $0.90 US C$3,450/t *US$ 3,105/t C$4,190/t *US$ 3,771/t
  19. 19. Feasibility Study Highlights, Sensitivity Analysis, Financing Options – Plan Nord
  20. 20. Feasibility Study Highlights and Comparables Expected Mine Life and pay back period 26 years with 3.7 years pay back period Life of Mine Revenue $6.9 Billion (average of $267M/yr for 26 yrs) Cash Flow $3.4 Billion net of CAPEX (average of $151M/yr before initial CAPEX) Pre-Tax After tax NPV $924M 8% Discount $680M 10% Discount $580M 8% Discount $412M 10% Discount Internal Rate of Return (IRR) 25.2% 21% Total Initial Capital Costs of $521 Million C$448M in CAPEX + (C$52M in Contingency and C$21M in Working Capital) Average Cost Per Tonne Spodumene Concentrate Highly to the advantage of NMX Nemaska C$189/t (US$170/t) FOB Whabouchi Mine C$239/t (US$215/t) CIF Valleyfield Hard rock (Chinese converters) US$200/t FOB Greenbushes Mine US$475/t CIF Chinese plant (average) Brines South America average N/A Average Cost Per Tonne Lithium Hydroxide Highly to the advantage of NMX C$3,450/t (US$3,105/t) US$6,000/t FOB US$5,000/t FOB Average Cost Per Tonne Lithium Carbonate Clear advantage over the Chinese producers C$4,190/t ($US3,771/t) US$5,500/t FOB US$4,000/t FOB Yearly average production ≈213,000 tonnes of concentrate (6%) Mine site ≈28,000 tonnes of lithium hydroxide Hydromet plant in Valleyfield ≈3,250 tonnes of lithium carbonate Hydromet plant in Valleyfield Exchange Rate $C to $US 1 : 0.9 Sales Prices FOB Valleyfield Lithium Hydroxide US$8,000/t, Lithium Carbonate US$5,000/t (All calculations assume a 6% Li2O spodumene concentrate) (All figures are quoted in $CDN, unless otherwise specified) 20
  21. 21. Feasibility Study and Sensitivity Analysis 21 (All figures are rounded in CAD$, unless otherwise stated) Feasibility Study Base case Realistic scenario* Optimistic scenario* CAPEX (including contingency 500 M 500 M 500 M Revenue USD / tonne LiOH-H2O $8,000 US $9,000 US $11,000 US Yearly average production(LCE) 28,000 28,000 28,000 LOM Revenue 6.9 B 8.7 B 10.5 B LOM Before Tax Cash Flow 3.4 B 4.9 B 6.7 B Pre-Tax IRR % 25.2% 51.5% 67.3% Pre-Tax NPV @ 8% 924 M 1.51 B 2.14 B Pre-Tax NPV @ 10% 680 M 1.18 B 1.69 B Debt / Equity ratio 0% / 100% 60% / 40% 60% / 40% Payback period (years) 3.7 years 1.9 years 1.4 years FX rate USD to CAD 0.90 : 1.00 0.80 : 1.00 0.80 : 1.00 *Internal Analysis Not NI43-101 Compliant
  22. 22. 22 Supportive Quebec Government • Investor in Nemaska since its inception through various exploration and development funds • “Plan Nord” program to support the development of resources in Northern Quebec (North of 49th parallel) • Special fund of $1B to take direct equity positions (up to 20%) in companies • Nemaska project qualifies • Special tax incentives for value added resource transformation projects could represent up to $40M in tax reductions • Nemaska project qualifies 22
  23. 23. Business Plan and Market Penetration Strategy
  24. 24. Nemaska Lithium Business Plan • Achieve Market Penetration While Building Commercial Plant – Build and operate a Phase 1 Production Plant to: • Engage customers with product in advance of commercial production • Customer evaluation can take up to 12 to 18 months, Phase 1 Production Plant will produce enough commercial samples to enable customers to qualify the product • Total budget of $38M ($13M in grant from SDTC secured, MOU with Johnson Matthey Battery Materials (JMBM) for $12M upfront payment to be repaid with lithium products, in discussions for balance of budget) • Sign Commercial Off-Take Agreements • MOU with JMBM contemplates off-take agreement from commercial plant • Start Commercially Producing Lithium Hydroxide and Lithium Carbonate – Attract a strategic partner to participate in the financing of commercial production – Put financing in place in Q1/Q2-2016; Begin construction of mine, concentrator and hydromet plant in Q3-2016; and start Commercial production in Q1-2018 – Total budget of $521M (see May 2014 Feasibility study for more details) 24
  25. 25. Phase 1 Production Plant – Why? • Designed to produce ~500 t/y of lithium compounds using commercial size equipment • Purpose • Supply on a continuous basis commercial samples to end users around the world • Allow potential customers to visit and sample the product as it is produced • Confirm homogeneity of the product on a continuous basis • Secure multiple off-take agreements with customers • Fulfill the supply agreement with Johnson Matthey Battery Materials Ltd., a LFP cathode material producer in Candiac, Quebec, Canada 25
  26. 26. De-risk and Shorten Time to Nameplate Production  Benefits of Phase 1 plant: • Shorten ramp-up time of commercial plant to nameplate production − Important savings • De-risk the technology for investors and strategic partners − Given recent industry failure to produce adequate products, investors and customers are requesting guarantees − Meet that requirement without full Capex investment • Allows for important savings on ramp-up and qualification delays − Usually expect 12 to 24 months to qualify products by customers, resulting in high costs − Phase 1 Plant should allow to significantly reduce that period 26
  27. 27. Conclusion, Capital Structure, Management and Board of Directors
  28. 28. Conclusion – Why Nemaska Lithium • Given the forthcoming shortage in lithium hydroxide supply, Nemaska Lithium is perfectly timed to enter the chain of supply • Phase 1 production plant is a sound decision, significantly reduces funds required and de-risk start up of commercial production • Permitted 2nd richest and largest lithium hard rock mine in the world with at least 26 years reserves • State of the art processes of producing lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate - leading advantage over peers • Ready to start project financing and construction • Supportive Quebec Government • MOU with JMBM a large credible end user, upfront payment for product and future off-take 28
  29. 29. Capital Structure (December 31, 2015) Shares outstanding 206,615,385 Options (average exercise price $0.27) Warrants (average exercise price $0.23) 9,720,575 19,235,150 Fully Diluted 235,571,110 Distribution on a fully diluted basis Management Tianqi Retail, Institutional and Funds ≈11 % ≈8 % ≈81 %
  30. 30. Guy Bourassa, President and CEO Mr. Bourassa is President and CEO since Nemaska’s inception in 2008. He brings more than 30 years of experience in the mining industry to this role. Among other things he was instrumental in identifying and negotiating the acquisition of the Whabouchi lithium property and securing over $35 million through financings in the capital markets to develop this project. Through his leadership, the Company brought an historical lithium showing to a world class deposit and has developed new innovative processes of producing high purity lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate, which should allow Nemaska to become a world leader in these lithium compound markets. Mr. Bourassa is a recognized leader in the lithium industry having spoken at several international lithium and mining conferences and events. Mr. Bourassa holds a law degree from Université Laval. Michel Baril, Chairman of the Board and President of the Audit Committee Mechanical engineer, with over 30 years of experience in management. Mr. Baril was an executive with Bombardier Inc. Presently he acts as director of numerous public and private companies. Steve Nadeau, Chief Financial Officer Mr. Nadeau is a CPA since October 1998 and is the Chief Financial Officer of Nemaska since it’s inception in 2008. Mr. Nadeau brings more than 20 years of experiences and knowhow in management, accounting and finance. Prior to joining Nemaska, he held several senior financial positions for companies which were either extracting or manufacturing products related to the granite industry, electronics and automotive field. Since June 2011, Mr. Nadeau is also Chief Financial Officer of Monarques Gold Corporation, a junior mining company now focusing in gold exploration projects in the province of Quebec. Management and Board of Directors Jean-François Magnan, Eng. M.Sc. Technical Manager. Mr. Magnan is a professional engineer with more than 20 years of experience in the metallurgical industry. During his career, he held several positions within the lithium industry including: R&D Advisor, R&D Project Manager, Consultant and Quality Control Metallurgist. He also acted as Project Manager for Phostech Lithium Inc. in 2000 and 2001. Mr. Magnan is the author/inventor of several patents in the lithium rechargeable batteries field. He holds a Master's Degree in Materials Engineering from Laval University. 30
  31. 31. Management and Board of Directors (continued) François Biron, Director Mr. François Biron is a senior professional mining engineer with 40 years of experience in the mining industry. His extensive experience in mining operations has been developed through acting in several senior site-based positions with well-known international mining companies, and recently he has acquired experience in the executive management of a Canadian industrial minerals company. Mr. Biron has an entrepreneurial vision oriented towards business development and a perspective of industry growth with respect to the environment. He participate in the management of major open pit mines with the best operating standards to achieve goals and corporate objectives. Mr. Biron elaborate recently a new mining project in introducing the social acceptability concept and public consultations in the local communities where the project will be implement, based on the latest automation mining technologies and to improve the mining process. Vivian Wu, Director Ms. Vivian Wu is General Manager of Sichuan Tianqi Lithium Industries Inc., a lithium chemical producer that converts spodumene concentrate in different lithium compounds, since December 2012. From May 2009 to December 2012, Ms. Wu acted as Vice President (Corporate Development) of Chengdu Tianqi Industry Group Co., Ltd., an integrated corporation group involved in three main business areas: lithium compounds, minerals and agricultural machinery. Gordon Gao, Director Mr. Gordon Gao is Vice President of TQC Equipment Inc. (TQCE), the Canadian subsidiary of Chengdu Tianqi Industry Group Co., Ltd.. Before joining TQCE in 2009, he worked as an international business manager of Chengdu Enwei Group Co., Ltd. from 2002, which is specialized in medicine and health products. Mr. Gordon Gao holds a Bachelor degree of Economics of East China Normal University, Shanghai, China (2000). Paul-Henri Couture, Director Mr. Paul-Henri Couture has over 35 years of experience as a financial management and investment professional. He has held senior positions at the Caisse de dépôt and placement du Québec and at Sentient Asset Management Canada. During his tenure at the Caisse, Mr. Couture led a team responsible for a $3 billion investment portfolio with a focus on financial institutions and natural resources sectors. While at the Caisse, Mr. Couture also launched two innovative mining funds: Groupe Sodémex Inc. and MinQuest Capital. He built and developed a $3-billion portfolio in turnarounds and corporate restructurings. Mr. Couture is President of Minvest Capital, a business providing management and investing consulting services. 31
  32. 32. Management and Board of Directors (continued) Judy Baker, Director Ms. Baker holds an Honours B. Sc. Geological Engineering in mineral resources exploration and a MBA and has more than 20 years of experience in the mining and mineral exploration sector. She most recently was the Chief Executive Officer, a director and founder of Superior Copper Corporation (previously Cenit Corporation), a copper exploration company. Previously to this, Ms. Baker was instrumental in either restructuring or acquiring projects related to the lithium industry. René Lessard, Director Mr. Lessard was the Sales Manager of Campagna Motors Inc. from September 2008 to October 2009. From October 2004 to October 2007, he was a sales manager of T-Rex Vehicles Inc. From February 2001 to July 2004, he was the Sales Manager of Distribution GLR inc. in Québec City. From March 1997 to October 2000, he was a sales representative of Ray-Flammes Inc. of Quebec City. 32
  33. 33. Appendix RB Energy Comparison
  34. 34. Main Differences Between Whabouchi Mine and Quebec Lithium Project (according to respective FS) Ore Grade 55% higher at Whabouchi : Whabouchi 1.46% Li2O QLI 0.94% Li2O Stripping ratio 2.5 time lower at Whabouchi: Whabouchi 2.2/1 QLI 5.5/1 Dilution far greater at QLI: QLI has over 50 narrow veins compared to one main thick dyke at Whabouchi making it a lot easier to control grade and dilution to feed the concentrator Ore mined versus LCE output: NMX to make 40% more LCE final products by mining 30% less ore. Concentrate grade: The required grade of the spodumene concentrate to produce lithium carbonate and hydroxide is 6% Li2O. Whabouchi ore steadily reached that grade. QLI was targeting 5% Li2O. 34
  35. 35. Whabouchi Deposit: Surface resources classification in plan view Sources: Met-Chem Canada, 2014 Feasibility Study on the Whabouchi Lithium Deposit and Hydromet Plant NI 43-101, June 2014 Nemaska Lithium Website: www.nemaskalithium.com Category Tonnes Li2O Grade Proven 6,605,000 0.92% Probable 10,459,000 0.95% Total 17,064,000 0.94% Cut-off Grade Whabouchi Mineral Reserves 0.6% Location Abitibi, Quebec, canada 100% owned YES Life of mine 14.9 years Stripping Ratio 5.5 : 1 Li-Hydroxide producer YES Whabouchi Deposit informations Sources: Technology Management Group, 2012, Feasibility Study Updated, NI 43-101 Technical Report Quebec Lithium Project, La Corne Township Quebec, October Canada Lithium Corp. Website: www.canadalithium.com Category Tonnes Li2O Grade Proven 13,300,000 1.54% Probable 14,000,000 1.39% Total 27,300,000 1.46% Cut-off Grade Whabouchi Mineral Reserves 0.43% Category Tonnes Li2O Grade Proven 6,605,000 0.92% Probable 10,459,000 0.95% Total 17,064,000 0.94% Cut-off Grade 0.6% Quebec Lithium Mineral Reserves Location Abitibi, Quebec, Canada 100% owned YES Life of mine 14.9 years Stripping Ratio 5.5 : 1 Li-Hydroxide producer NO Li-Carbonate producer YES Quebec Lithium Deposit Informations Location James Bay, Quebec, Canada 100% owned YES Life of mine 26 years Stripping Ratio 2.2 : 1 Li-Hydroxide producer YES Li-Carbonate producer YES Whabouchi Deposit Informations Nemaska Lithium and RB Energy (CLQ) Same Scale Comparison 35
  36. 36. Whabouchi Deposit: Vertical Section with Block model Grades Sources: Met-Chem Canada, 2014 Feasibility Study on the Whabouchi Lithium Deposit and Hydromet Plant NI 43-101, June 2014 Nemaska Lithium Website: www.nemaskalithium.com Elev 300 m Elev 200 m Elev 100 m Elev 0 m Elev -100 m Sources: Technology Management Group, 2012, Feasibility Study Updated, NI 43-101 Technical Report Quebec Lithium Project, La Corne Township Quebec, October Canada Lithium Corp. Website: www.canadalithium.com 0m 100m 200m 300m 400m Category Tonnes Li2O Grade Proven 13,300,000 1.54% Probable 14,000,000 1.39% Total 27,300,000 1.46% Cut-off Grade Whabouchi Mineral Reserves 0.43% Category Tonnes Li2O Grade Proven 6,605,000 0.92% Probable 10,459,000 0.95% Total 17,064,000 0.94% Cut-off Grade 0.6% Quebec Lithium Mineral Reserves Location Abitibi, Quebec, Canada 100% owned YES Life of mine 14.9 years Stripping Ratio 5.5 : 1 Li-Hydroxide producer NO Li-Carbonate producer YES Quebec Lithium Deposit Informations Location James Bay, Quebec, Canada 100% owned YES Life of mine 26 years Stripping Ratio 2.2 : 1 Li-Hydroxide producer YES Li-Carbonate producer YES Whabouchi Deposit Informations Nemaska Lithium and RB Energy (CLQ) Same Scale Comparison 36
  37. 37. Appendix Supply/Demand
  38. 38. 38 Market Share by Main Players in the Lithium Field
  39. 39. Lithium Supply by Sources – 2005 to 2014 39
  40. 40. Why Lithium Hydroxide over Lithium Carbonate 40 Cathode material Lithium raw material supply LCO (small portable device) Lithium carbonate required NCA (such as Tesla S, Toyota Prius) Lithium hydroxide required NMC (such as GM Volt, Nissan Leaf) Lithium hydroxide required since high nickel content LFP (such as for ESS (Electric Storage Systems), Electric buses) Lithium hydroxide is used by the top quality producers (currently ≈50% of world production is using lithium hydroxide) LMO Lithium carbonate required • Lithium hydroxide has many technical advantages over lithium carbonate depending on the chemistry of the cathode material and the process to synthetize the cathode material • The cathodes materials with the highest potential to increase in demand are the ones to be used in the automotive industry and electric storage systems …which will mainly require lithium hydroxide • Cathodes materials vs raw lithium supply:

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