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Symbolic Interactionism, Structural-Functional Theory and Conflict Theory

Symbolic Interactionism, Structural-Functional Theory and Conflict Theory

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Symbolic Interactionism, Structural-Functional Theory and Conflict Theory

  1. 1. Symbolic Interactionism, Structural-Functional Theory and Conflict Theory M. VIJAYALAKSHMI M.SC., M.PHIL. (LIFE SCIENCES), M.ED., M.PHIL. (EDUCATION), NET (EDUCATION), PGDBI ASSISTANT PROFESSOR (FORMER), SRI RAMAKRISHNA MISSION VIDYALAYA COLLEGE OF EDUCATION (AUTONOMOUS), COIMBATORE – 641020.
  2. 2. Symbolic Interactionism • A theoretical perspective through which scholars examine the relationship of individuals within their society by studying their communication (language and symbols). • Symbolic interactionism is a theoretical approach to understanding the relationship between humans and society. • The basic notion of symbolic interactionism is that human action and interaction are understandable only through the exchange of meaningful communication or symbols. • In this approach, humans are portrayed as acting, as opposed to being acted upon.
  3. 3. • It is a micro-level theory that focuses on meanings attached to human interaction, both verbal and non-verbal, and to symbols. • Communication—the exchange of meaning through language and symbols—is believed to be the way in which people make sense of their social worlds.
  4. 4. • Charles Horton Cooley introduced the looking-glass self (1902) to describe how a person’s self of self grows out of interactions with others, and he proposed a threefold process for this development: 1) we see how others react to us, 2) we interpret that reaction (typically as positive or negative) and 3) we develop a sense of self based on those interpretations. • “Looking-glass” is an archaic term for a mirror, so Cooley theorized that we “see” ourselves when we interact with others.
  5. 5. The main principles of symbolic interactionism are:  Human beings act toward things on the basis of the meanings that things have for them  These meanings arise out of social interaction  Social action results from a fitting together of individual lines of action
  6. 6. • George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) is considered a founder of symbolic interactionism, though he never published his work on this subject (LaRossa and Reitzes 1993). Mead’s student, Herbert Blumer, actually coined the term “symbolic interactionism” and outlined these basic premises: humans interact with things based on meanings ascribed to those things; the ascribed meaning of things comes from our interactions with others and society; the meanings of things are interpreted by a person when dealing with things in specific circumstances (Blumer 1969). • If you love books, for example, a symbolic interactionist might propose that you learned that books are good or important in the interactions you had with family, friends, school, or church; maybe your family had a special reading time each week, getting your library card was treated as a special event, or bedtime stories were associated with warmth and comfort.
  7. 7. • Social scientists who apply symbolic-interactionist thinking look for patterns of interaction between individuals. Their studies often involve observation of one-on-one interactions. • For example, while a conflict theorist studying a political protest might focus on class difference, a symbolic interactionist would be more interested in how individuals in the protesting group interact, as well as the signs and symbols protesters use to communicate their message and to negotiate and thus develop shared meanings.
  8. 8. • The focus on the importance of interaction in building a society led sociologists like Erving Goffman (1922–1982) to develop a technique called dramaturgical analysis. • Goffman used theater as an analogy for social interaction and recognized that people’s interactions showed patterns of cultural “scripts.” • Since it can be unclear what part a person may play in a given situation, as we all occupy multiple roles in a given day (i.e., student, friend, son/ daughter, employee, etc.), one has to improvise his or her role as the situation unfolds (Goffman 1958).
  9. 9. • Studies that use the symbolic interactionist perspective are more likely to use qualitative research methods, such as in-depth interviews or participant observation, because they seek to understand the symbolic worlds in which research subjects live. • Constructivism is an extension of symbolic interaction theory which proposes that reality is what humans cognitively construct it to be. We develop social constructs based on interactions with others, and those constructs that last over time are those that have meanings which are widely agreed-upon or generally accepted by most within the society.
  10. 10. Criticism • Research done from this perspective is often scrutinized because of the difficulty of remaining objective. Others criticize the extremely narrow focus on symbolic interaction. Proponents, of course, consider this one of its greatest strengths and generally use research methods that will allow extended observation and/or substantive interviews to provide depth rather than breadth. • Interactionists are also criticized for not paying enough attention to social institutions and structural constraints. For example, the interactions between a police officer and a black man are different than the interactions between a police officer and a white man. Addressing systemic inequalities within the criminal justice system, including pervasive racism, is essential for an interactionist understanding of face-to-face interactions.
  11. 11. Structural-Functional Theory
  12. 12. Functionalism / Structural-Functional Theory • A theoretical approach that sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of individuals that make up that society • Functionalism, also called structural-functional theory, sees society as a structure with interrelated parts designed to meet the biological and social needs of the individuals in that society. • Functionalism grew out of the writings of English philosopher and biologist, Hebert Spencer (1820– 1903), who saw similarities between society and the human body; he argued that just as the various organs of the body work together to keep the body functioning, the various parts of society work together to keep society functioning (Spencer 1898). • The parts of society that Spencer referred to were the social institutions, or patterns of beliefs and behaviors focused on meeting social needs, such as government, education, family, healthcare, religion, and the economy.
  13. 13. • Emile Durkheim, another early sociologist, applied Spencer’s theory to explain how societies change and survive over time. • Durkheim believed that society is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent parts that work together to maintain stability (Durkheim 1893), and that society is held together by shared values, languages, and symbols. • He believed that to study society, a sociologist must look beyond individuals to social facts such as laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashion, and rituals, which all serve to govern social life.
  14. 14. • Alfred Radcliff-Brown (1881–1955) defined the function of any recurrent activity as the part it played in social life as a whole, and therefore the contribution it makes to social stability and continuity (Radcliff-Brown 1952). • In a healthy society, all parts work together to maintain stability, a state called dynamic equilibrium by later sociologists such as Parsons (1961).
  15. 15. • Durkheim believed that individuals may make up society, but in order to study society, sociologists have to look beyond individuals to social facts. • Social facts are the laws, morals, values, religious beliefs, customs, fashions, rituals, and all of the cultural rules that govern social life (Durkheim 1895). Each of these social facts serves one or more functions within a society. • For example, one function of a society’s laws may be to protect society from violence, while another is to punish criminal behavior, while another is to preserve public health.
  16. 16. • Another noted structural functionalist, Robert Merton (1910–2003), pointed out that social processes often have many functions. • Manifest functions are the consequences of a social process that are sought or anticipated, while latent functions are the unsought consequences of a social process. • A manifest function of college education, for example, includes gaining knowledge, preparing for a career, and finding a good job that utilizes that education. • Latent functions of your college years include meeting new people, participating in extracurricular activities, or even finding a spouse or partner. Another latent function of education is creating a hierarchy of employment based on the level of education attained. Latent functions can be beneficial, neutral, or harmful. • Social processes that have undesirable consequences for the operation of society are called dysfunctions. In education, examples of dysfunction include getting bad grades, truancy, dropping out, not graduating, and not finding suitable employment.
  17. 17. Criticism • One criticism of the structural-functional theory is that it can’t adequately explain social change. Also problematic is the somewhat circular nature of this theory; repetitive behavior patterns are assumed to have a function, yet we profess to know that they have a function only because they are repeated. • Furthermore, dysfunctions may continue, even though they don’t serve a function, which seemingly contradicts the basic premise of the theory. Many sociologists now believe that functionalism is no longer useful as a macro- level theory, but that it does serve a useful purpose in some mid-level analyses.
  18. 18. Conflict Theory • A theory that examines society as a competition for limited resources • This perspective is a macro-level approach most identified with the writings of German philosopher and sociologist Karl Marx (1818–1883), who saw society as being made up of individuals in different social classes who must compete for social, material, and political resources such as food and housing, employment, education, and leisure time. • Social institutions like government, education, and religion reflect this competition in their inherent inequalities and help maintain the unequal social structure. • Some individuals and organizations are able to obtain and keep more resources than others, and these “winners” use their power and influence to maintain social institutions. • Several theorists suggested variations on this basic theme
  19. 19. • Polish-Austrian sociologist Ludwig Gumplowicz (1838–1909) expanded on Marx’s ideas by arguing that war and conquest are the basis of civilizations. • He believed that cultural and ethnic conflicts led to states being identified and defined by a dominant group that had power over other groups (Irving 2007).
  20. 20. • German sociologist Max Weber agreed with Marx but also believed that, in addition to economic inequalities, inequalities of political power and social structure cause conflict. • Weber noted that different groups were affected differently based on education, race, and gender, and that people’s reactions to inequality were moderated by class differences and rates of social mobility, as well as by perceptions about the legitimacy of those in power.
  21. 21. • German sociologist Georg Simmel (1858–1918) believed that conflict can help integrate and stabilize a society. He said that the intensity of the conflict varies depending on the emotional involvement of the parties, the degree of solidarity within the opposing groups, and the clarity and limited nature of the goals. • Simmel also showed that groups work to create internal solidarity, centralize power, and reduce dissent. • Resolving conflicts can reduce tension and hostility and can pave the way for future agreements.
  22. 22. • In the 1930s and 1940s, German philosophers, known as the Frankfurt School, developed critical theory as an elaboration on Marxist principles. • Critical theory is an expansion of conflict theory and is broader than just sociology, including other social sciences and philosophy. • A critical theory attempts to address structural issues causing inequality; it must explain what’s wrong in current social reality, identify the people who can make changes, and provide practical goals for social transformation (Horkeimer 1982).
  23. 23. • More recently, inequality based on gender or race has been explained in a similar manner and has identified institutionalized power structures that help to maintain inequality between groups. • Janet Saltzman Chafetz (1941–2006) presented a model of feminist theory that attempts to explain the forces that maintain gender inequality as well as a theory of how such a system can be changed (Turner 2003). • Similarly, critical race theory grew out of a critical analysis of race and racism from a legal point of view. • Critical race theory looks at structural inequality based on white privilege and associated wealth, power, and prestige.
  24. 24. Conflict Theory Assumptions • In current conflict theory, there are four primary assumptions which are helpful to understand: • Competition – tangible and intangible resources • Revolution – social classes - power • Structural inequality – human relationships and social structures - power • War – unifier or cleanser of societies
  25. 25. Criticism • Just as structural functionalism was criticized for focusing too much on the stability of societies, conflict theory has been criticized because it tends to focus on conflict to the exclusion of recognizing stability. Many social structures are extremely stable or have gradually progressed over time rather than changing abruptly as conflict theory would suggest. • One common criticism of conflict theory is that it fails to capture the way in which economic interactions can be mutually beneficial to the different classes involved.
  26. 26. Key Takeaways  Conflict theory focuses on the competition between groups within society over limited resources.  Conflict theory views social and economic institutions as tools of the struggle between groups or classes, used to maintain inequality and the dominance of the ruling class.  Marxist conflict theory sees society as divided along lines of economic class between the proletarian working class and the bourgeois ruling class.  Later versions of conflict theory look at other dimensions of conflict among capitalist factions and between various social, religious, and other types of groups.

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