Renaissance Architecture

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Renaissance Architecture

  1. 1. San Lorenzo The Basilica di San Lorenzo (Basilica of St Lawrence) is one of the largest churches of Florence, Italy, situated at the centre of the city’s main market district. Architectural type Church Architectural style Renaissance Ground-breaking 15th century Completed c. 1740 The project was begun around 1419 and completed 1740.
  2. 2. Plan Despite its history, the building is seen as one of the great examples of the new style. Its more notable features include: the attempt to create a proportional relationship between nave and aisle (aisle bays are square whereas nave bays are 2X1). the articulation of the structure in pietra serena (Italian: “dark stone”). the use of an integrated system of column, arches, entablatures. a clear relationship between column and pilaster, the latter meant to be read as a type of embedded pier. the use of proper proportions for the height of the columns the use of spherical segments in the vaults of the side aisles. There are significant problems in the design, most, however, occur at the level of detail. Already Giorgio Vasari thought that the columns along the nave should have been elevated on plinths.[3] That the pilasters along the wall of the side aisles rest on a floor that is three steps higher than the nave, is also considered an error. San Lorenzo is often compared with Santo Spirito, also in Florence. Santo Spirito, which Brunelleschi began somewhat later, is considered to have been constructed more or less in conformity with his ideas, even though Brunelleschi died before most of it was built.
  3. 3. Michelozzo Michelozzo produced several innovations in the design of the Florentine palazzo, or palace. The basic plan called for a blocklike structure, usually three stories high, with a central open court. • Palazzo Medici Riccardi • Santissima Annuzi Florence • Tomb of Antipop John XXII • Villa Medici • Cortile, Florence ‘
  4. 4. Palazzo Medici Riccardi • The palace was designed by Michelozzo di Bartolomeo for Cosimo de' Medici, head of the Medici banking family, and was built between 1444[2] and 1484. • It was well known for its stone masonry includes rustication and ashlar. • The tripartite elevation used here expresses the Renaissance spirit of rationality, order, and classicism on human scale. • Michelozzo di Bartolomeo was influenced in his building of this palace by both classical Roman and Brunelleschian principles. • The transition from the rusticated masonry of the ground floor to the more delicately refined stonework of the third floor makes the building seem lighter and taller as the eye moves upward to the massive cornice that caps and clearly defines the building's outline.
  5. 5. Plan Towards 1444 Cosimo the Eldest, the patriarch of the Medici family, commissioned to Michelozzo a palace to be built in via Larga (now via Cavour), close to the church of San Lorenzo: the palace is the first Renaissance building erected in Florence. Characterised by clearly delineated and rusticated floors and a huge cornice crowning the roofline, the palace stands out for the arched windows arranged along its front and the partially closed loggia on the corner of the building. By 1460 the palace was complete (it was also the residence of Lorenzo the Magnificent), although in 1517 the original building was altered by closing the loggia and adding the two "kneeling" windows according to Michelangelo's project. Originally designed as a sort of cube with ten windows for each ground and three big doors in the facade.
  6. 6. Santissima Annunziata, Florence • The Basilica della Santissima Annunziata (Basilica of the Most Holy Annunciation) is a Roman Catholic minor basilica in Florence, Italy, the mother church of the Servite order. • It is located at the northeastern side of the Piazza Santissima Annunziata. • This church is entered from the Chiostrino dei Voti. The Baroque decoration of the church interior was begun in 1644, when Pietro Giambelli frescoed the ceiling with an Assumption as a centerpiece based on designs by Baldassare Franceschini.
  7. 7. Plan• The present structure took shape between 1444 and 1477, when Michelozzo began the tribune with its radiating chapels, later finished by Leon Battista Alberti. • The breath-taking interior, with arches and piers sheathed in coloured marble (16th and 17th century), has a golden ceiling decorated between 1664 and 1670 to a design by Baldasarre Franceschini, known as Volterrano, who also painted the canvas of the Assumption. • Towards the end of the 15th century the height of the nave was increased. The church was consecrated in 1516. • Outside, above the central arch of the portico, built in 1601 by the architect Giovanni Battista Caccini, there are traces of frescoes painted between 1513 and 1514 by Pontormo, and the central doorway is surmounted by a mosaic of the Annunciation by Davide Ghirlandaio (1509).
  8. 8. Tomb of Antipope John XXIII • The Tomb of Antipope John XXIII is the marble-and-bronze tomb monument of Antipope John XXIII (Baldassare Cossa, c. 1360–1419), created by Donatello and Michelozzo for the Florence Baptistry adjacent to the Duomo. • It was commissioned by the executors of Cossa's will after his death on December 22, 1419 and completed during the 1420s, establishing it as one of the early landmarks of Renaissance Florence. According to Ferdinand Gregorovius, the tomb is "at once the sepulchre of the Great Schism in the church and the last Papal tomb which is outside Rome itself"
  9. 9. Plan • The tomb monument adapted to the conditions imposed by the Calimala and integrated with the interior of the Baptistry. • The setting starves the tomb monument of light, especially when the Baptistry’s doors are closed, which is normally the case. • It would be even darker were it not for the "screen" back wall protruding 48.4 centimetres (19.1 in) from the Baptistry wall. • The white and brown (and whitish-brown) marble further integrates the structure with the polychromatic white and green of the Baptistry interior. • The canopy’s interaction with the columns and conceit of being supported by the Baptistry cornice make the tomb monument further "wedded to the architecture" around it, even if the marriage is morganatic.[49] Apart from the effigy on the sarcophagus, all the other sculpted figures are in high relief.
  10. 10. Leon Battista Alberti He epitomised the Renaissance Man. Although he is often characterized as an "architect" exclusively, as James Beck has observed, "to single out one of Leon Battista's 'fields' over others as somehow functionally independent and self- sufficient is of no help at all to any effort to characterize Alberti's extensive explorations in the fine arts Notable work • Tempio Malatestiano • Palazzo Rucellai • Santa Maria Novella
  11. 11. Tempio Malatestiano • Architect(s) Leon Battista Alberti • Architectural type Church • Architectural style Romanesque • Groundbreaking 800 • Completed 1468
  12. 12. Plan The church is immediately recognizable from its wide marble façade, decorated by sculptures probably made by Agostino di Duccio and Matteo de' Pasti. Alberti aspired to renew and rival the Roman structures of Antiquity, though here his inspiration was drawn from the triumphal arch, in which his main inspiration was the tripartite Arch of Constantine in Rome, though as Rudolf Wittkower remarked,he drew details (the base, the half- columns, the discs, mouldings) from the Arch of Augustus. The large arcades on the sides are reminiscent of the Roman aqueducts. In each blind arch is a sarcophagus, a gothic tradition of interment under the exterior side arches of a church.
  13. 13. Palazzo Rucellai • Palazzo Rucellai is a palatial 15th-century townhouse on the Via della Vigna Nuova in Florence, Italy. • The Rucellai Palace is believed by most scholars to have been designed by Leon Battista Alberti between 1446 and 1451 and executed, at least in part, by Bernardo Rossellino. • Its facade was one of the first to proclaim the new ideas of Renaissance architecture based on the use of pilasters and entablatures in proportional relationship to each other.
  14. 14. Plan • Like traditional Florentine palazzi, the façade is divided into three tiers. But Alberti divided these with the horizontal entablatures that run across the facade (an entablature is the horizontal space above columns or pliasters). • The first tier grounds the building, giving it a sense of strength. • This is achieved by the use of cross-hatched, or rusticated stone that runs across the very bottom of the building, as well as large stone blocks, square windows, and portals of post and lintel construction in place of arches. • Both of these tiers also have pilasters, although on the second tier they are of the Ionic order, and on the third they are Corinthian. The building is also wrapped by benches that served, as they do now, to provide rest for weary visitors to Florence.
  15. 15. Basilica of Santa Maria Novella • Year consecrated : 1420 • Ecclesiastical or organizational status • Architectural type :Church • Architectural style :Gothic-Renaissance • Groundbreaking :1279 • Completed :14th century
  16. 16. Plan The vast interior is based on a basilica plan, designed as a Latin cross and is divided into a nave, two aisles with stained-glass windows and a short transept. The large nave is 100 metres long and gives an impression of austerity. There is a trompe l'oeil-effect by which this nave towards the apse seems longer than its actual length. The slender compound piers between the nave and the aisles are ever closer when you go deeper into the nave. The ceiling in the vault consists of pointed arches with the four diagonal buttresses in black and white. The interior also contains corinthian columns that were inspired by the Classical era of Greek and Roman times.
  17. 17. Donato Bramante Bramante's architecture has eclipsed his painting skills: he knew the painters Melozzo da Forlì and Piero della Francesca well, who were interested in the rules of perspective and illusionistic features in Mantegna's painting. Around 1474, Bramante moved to Milan, a city with a deep Gothic architectural tradition, and built several churches in the new Antique style. The Duke, Ludovico Sforza, made him virtually his court architect, beginning in 1476, with commissions that culminated in the famous trompe-l'oeil choir of the church of Santa Maria presso Notable Work: • St. Peter's Basilica • San Pietro in Montorio • Santa Maria delle Grazie • Santa Maria della Pace
  18. 18. St. Peter's Basilica • Architectural style Renaissance and Baroque • Groundbreaking 18 April 1506 • Completed 18 November 1626 • Length 730 feet (220 m) • Width 500 feet (150 m) • Height (max) 448.1 feet (136.6 m)[1] • Dome dia. (outer) 137.7 feet (42.0 m) • Dome dia. (inner) 136.1 feet (41.5 m)
  19. 19. Plan Bramante had envisioned that the central dome be surrounded by four lower domes at the diagonal axes. The equal chancel, nave and transept arms were each to be of two bays ending in an apse. At each corner of the building was to stand a tower, so that the overall plan was square, with the apses projecting at the cardinal points. Each apse had two large radial buttresses, which squared off its semi-circular shape. At this point Antonio da Sangallo the Younger submitted a plan which combines features of Peruzzi, Raphael and Bramante in its design and extends the building into a short nave with a wide façade and portico of dynamic projection. His proposal for the dome was much more elaborate of both structure and decoration than that of Bramante and included ribs on the exterior. Like Bramante, Sangallo proposed that the dome be surmounted by a lantern which he redesigned to a larger and much more elaborate form.[32] Sangallo's main practical contribution was to strengthen Bramante's piers which had begun to crack.
  20. 20. San Pietro in Montorio • San Pietro in Montorio is a church in Rome, Italy, which includes in its courtyard the Tempietto, a small commemorative martyrium (tomb) built by Donato Bramante. • Year consecrated 1500 • Leadership Cardinal James Francis Stafford • Patron Saint Peter • Architect(s) Donato Bramante • Architectural type Church • Groundbreaking 1481
  21. 21. Plan The church is decorated with artworks by prominent 16th- and 17th-century masters. The first chapel on the right contains Sebastiano del Piombo's Flagellation and Transfiguration (1516–1524). Michelangelo, who had befriended Sebastiano in Rome, supplied figure drawings that were incorporated into the Flagellation. The second chapel has a fresco by Niccolò Circignani (1654), some Renaissance frescoes from the school of Pinturicchio, and an allegorical sibyl and virtue attributed to Baldassarre Peruzzi. The fourth chapel has a ceiling fresco by Giorgio Vasari. Although there is no grave marker, tradition has it that Beatrice Cenci—executed in 1599 for the murder of her abusive father and made famous by Percy Bysshe Shelley, among others—is buried either in this chapel or below the high altar. The ceiling of the fifth chapel contains another fresco, the Conversion of St. Paul, by Vasari. The altarpiece is attributed to Giulio Mazzoni, while the funerary monument of Innocenzo Ciocchi Del Monte, Cardinal Giovanni Maria Del Monte and Roberto Nobili are by Bartolomeo Ammannati. Facade of San Pietro in Montorio, with entrance to the cloister at right. Until 1797, Raphael's final masterpiece, the Transfiguration graced the high altar; it is now in the Vatican pinacoteca. The altar currently displays a copy by Cammuccini of Guido Reni's Crucifixion of St. Peter (also now in Vatican museum).
  22. 22. Santa Maria Presso San Satiro Architect(s) Donato Bramante; Giovanni Architectural type Church Architectural style Mannerism Groundbreaking 1476 Completed 1482
  23. 23. Plan The edifice has a nave and two aisles with barrel vault. The nave is surmounted by a hemispherical dome at the crossing with the transept. The choir, which had to be truncated a depth of only 90 cm (3.0 ft) due to the presence of a main road, was replaced by Bramante with a painted perspective, realizing in this way one of first examples of trompe l'oeil in history of art. Originally the interior was decorated with white and gold paint. The walls had frescoes by Borgognone, now transferred to the Pinacoteca di Brera. The ancient sacellum of San Satiro was also covered with cotto decoration and enriched with a terracotta portraying the Dead Christ by Agostino de Fondulis. The bell tower is still that of the Romanesque edifice preceding the 1480s reconstruction. Also from the 15th century is the baptistry annexed to the church.
  24. 24. Antonio da Sangallo the Younger Antonio da Sangallo the Younger (April 12, 1484 – August 3, 1546), born Antonio Cordiani, was an Italian architect active during thHe often worked with his brother Giovanni Battista da Sangallo. The two worked on numerous projects together, Giovanni Battista responsible for measuring and surveying.e Renaissance. Notable Structures : • St. Peter’s Basilica • Palazzo Farnese • Villa Farnese • Fortezza da Basso
  25. 25. St. Peter's Basilica • Architectural style Renaissance and Baroque • Groundbreaking 18 April 1506 • Completed 18 November 1626 Specifications • Length 730 feet (220 m) • Width 500 feet (150 m) • Height (max) 448.1 feet (136.6 m) • Dome dia. (outer) 137.7 feet (42.0 m) • Dome dia. (inner) 136.1 feet (41.5 m)
  26. 26. Plan Bramante had envisioned that the central dome be surrounded by four lower domes at the diagonal axes. The equal chancel, nave and transept arms were each to be of two bays ending in an apse. At each corner of the building was to stand a tower, so that the overall plan was square, with the apses projecting at the cardinal points. Each apse had two large radial buttresses, which squared off its semi-circular shape. At this point Antonio da Sangallo the Younger submitted a plan which combines features of Peruzzi, Raphael and Bramante in its design and extends the building into a short nave with a wide façade and portico of dynamic projection. His proposal for the dome was much more elaborate of both structure and decoration than that of Bramante and included ribs on the exterior. Like Bramante, Sangallo proposed that the dome be surmounted by a lantern which he redesigned to a larger and much more elaborate form.[32] Sangallo's main practical contribution was to strengthen Bramante's piers which had begun to crack.
  27. 27. • Architect Antonio da Sangallo • Location Rome, Italy map • Date 1534 • Building Type palace, large house • Construction System cut stone masonry • Context urban • Style Italian Renaissance Palazzo Farnese
  28. 28. Plan One of the vault and ceiling fresco by Annibale Carracci is Galleria Farnese, an art gallery. According to Ann Sutherland Harris, "The Galleria frescoes make even more extensive use of ancient sculptural and architectural sources, and in addition take their basic structure from two ceilings by the most prestigious artists of the High Renaissance in Rome, the Loggia of Psyche by Raphael and Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling". Carracci adopted the quadri riportati, which the ceiling is divided into units and turned it into a collection of framed paintings, along with the cast masks among the garlands, and carved putti, and sculptures supporting the central scene. This large central scene depicts the triumphal progress of Bacchus and Ariadne. Two smaller paintings are attached to the top and bottom of the central picture, and two vertical pictures on either side, filled with sphinxes, Pan, and two satyrs.
  29. 29. Villa Farnese • Date1560 • Building Type large house, country villa - a renaissance castle • Construction Systembearing masonry • Context rural, town edge • StyleItalian Renaissance • Notes Pentagonal plan with curving inner facades around a circular courtyard on the inside, and a moat around the outside. Elaborate multi-stage entry sequence. Famous circular staircase.
  30. 30. Plan The villa's interiors are arranged over five floors, each floor designed for a different function. The main rooms are located on the first floor or piano nobile, where a large central loggia (now glazed in) looks down over the town, its main street and the surrounding countryside. This hall is known as the Room of Hercules on account of its fresco decorations, and was used as a summer dining hall. It has a grotto-like fountain with sculpture at one end. To either side of the loggia are two circular rooms: one is the chapel, the other accommodates the principal staircase or Scala Regia, a graceful spiral of steps supported by pairs of Ionic columns rising up through three floors and frescoed by Antonio Tempesta.
  31. 31. Raphael His work is admired for its clarity of form, ease of composition, and visual achievement of the Neoplatonic ideal of human grandeur. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period. The best known work is The School of Athens in the Vatican Stanza della Segnatura. Notable Art: • The Madonna of the Meadow • The School of Athens" The Signature Room, The Vatican, Rome. • The Triumph of Galatea 1512 • The Vision of Ezekiel 1518. Oil on Panel, Palazzo Pitti, Florence.
  32. 32. The Madonna of the Meadow The Madonna with the Christ Child and Saint John the Baptist is a 1506 painting by Raphael, now held in the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna. It is also known as Madonna del prato (Madonna of the Meadow) or Madonna del Belvedere (after its long residence in the imperial collection in the Vienna Belvedere). The three figures in a calm green meadow are linked by looks and touching hands. The Virgin Mary is shown wearing a gold-bordered blue mantle set against a red dress and with her right leg lying along a diagonal. The blue symbolizes the church and the red Christ's death, with the Madonna the uniting of Mother Church with Christ's sacrifice. With her eyes fixed on Christ, her head is turned to the left and slightly inclined, and in her hands she holds up Christ, as he leans forward unsteadily to touch the miniature cross held by John. The poppy refers to Christ's passion, death and resurrection.
  33. 33. The School of Athens: The Signature Room The largest of the twelve rooms is the Sala di Costantino ("Hall of Constantine"). Its paintings were not begun until Pope Julius and indeed, Raphael himself had died. The room is dedicated to the victory of Christianity over paganism. Its frescoes represent this struggle from the life of the Roman Emperor Constantine, and are the work of Giulio Romano, Gianfrancesco Penni and Raffaellino del Colle. Because they are not by the master himself, the frescos are less famous than works in the neighboring rooms. Continuing a long tradition of flattery, Raphael's assistants gave the features of the current pontiff, Clement VII, to Pope Sylvester in the paintings.
  34. 34. The Vision of Ezekiel The work is remembered by Renaissance art biographer Giorgio Vasari as property of a Bolognese nobleman, Vincenzo Ercolani. There is trace of payment by him to Raphael for 8 ducats in 1510, but this is generally considered just a down payment, since stylistically the work (inspired for example by Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel ceiling) cannot be dated before 1518. In Florence since as early as 1589, it was ceded to Francesco I de' Medici and was placed at the Uffizi. The painting is known to be at Palazzo Pitti in 1697. In 1799 it was robbed by the French, who kept it in Paris until returning it back in 1816. The work was once considered to be by the hand of Giulio Romano, with Raphael providing only the drawing. However, it has been subsequently assigned to Raphael.
  35. 35. Thank You!

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