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• It is a process of making a group or class of people less important or
relegated to a secondary position.
• It is the process with which something is pushed to edge of group and
assigned lesser important.
• Marginalisation also called social exclusion
Types of Marginalization
SC/ST and other
• Inclusive education is about how we develop and design our schools,
classrooms, programs and activities so that all students learn and
• Including the disabled instead of exclusion, separation and
• Inclusive education is about ensuring access to quality education for
all students by effectively meeting their diverse needs in a way that is
responsive, accepting, respectful and supportive. Students participate
in the education program in a common learning environment with
support to diminish and remove barriers and obstacles that may lead
Inclusive education allows students of all backgrounds to learn
and grow side by side, to the benefit of all.
• A child who have long term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory
impairment which in interaction with various barriers may hinder
their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with
Physical Social Emotional
• Visually Impaired
• Hearing Impaired
• Speech Impaired
• Neuro Developmental Disability
• Locomotor Disability
• Anxiety Disorder
• Bipolar Disorder
The educational needs of each children are different for each other so proper aid should be
given according to their level of vision impairment.
Totally Blind Children Tape Recorder, Braille, Software, Typewriters, maps, Relif
maps, Clay modelling, Geographical patterns, CD Player,
Headphones , Abacus
Bigger Font Books (more than 12pt.) CD player, magnifying
glass, Software which can convert text to speech
KurzWeil Personal Reader (Device converting printed word to
They should be made to sit in
Teacher should write in bigger
Teacher should speak what they
child is impaired in processing
linguistic information through hearing,
with or without amplification
Minimal Hearing Loss (MHL)
hearing impairment but which can
cause problems for students is defined
as a loss between 16 and 25 dB
A person either totally or
partially not able to
receive sound through the
Needs of Partially Hearing Impaired Child
• Reduce the background sound
• Let them sit in front (as they can lip read
and understand/speech reading)
• Use clear speech
• Non-verbal Communication
Curricular Adaptation for Hearing Impaired Child
• Diagram, Figures
• Speech Training
• Visual aids
Trainer, Hearing Aid,
hearing aid test box
• Speech disorder or speech impairment are types of
communication disorder where normal speech is
Needs of Children with Speech
• Tactile prompts
• Audio-Visual aids
• Locomotor disability means problem in moving from one place to
another, that is disability in legs.
• But in general disability is related to bones, joints and muscles.
• It causes problem in child/Person’s movement (like walking, picking,
or holding things in hand etc.)
The children in class have individual difference, thus an effective teacher
addresses the class with equity and equality. No student should be deprived of
Every learner needs to be encouraged to build self esteem apart from their
disability, as education is core of equality and empowerment.
Focuses on Needs of physically disabled children in school.