SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez nos Conditions d’utilisation et notre Politique de confidentialité.
SlideShare utilise les cookies pour améliorer les fonctionnalités et les performances, et également pour vous montrer des publicités pertinentes. Si vous continuez à naviguer sur ce site, vous acceptez l’utilisation de cookies. Consultez notre Politique de confidentialité et nos Conditions d’utilisation pour en savoir plus.
Everything which surrounds us may collectively be
termed as Environment.
It includes living things and natural forces.
Living things do not simply exists in their environment
but they constantly interact with it.
It deals with the interaction amongst plants, animals,
soil, water, temperature, light and other living and non-
What is Environment???
Elements of weather and
Measuring the weather
Weather is the day-to-day conditions of a particular place.
Most weather phenomena occur in the troposphere, just below the
Weather is driven by air pressure (temperature and moisture)
differences between one place and another.
These pressure and temperature differences can occur due to
the sun angle at any particular spot, which varies by latitude
from the tropics.
Higher altitudes are cooler than lower altitudes due to
differences in compressional heating.
On Earth, temperatures usually range ±40 °C (100 °F to −40 °F)
The coldest air temperature ever recorded on Earth is −89.2 °C
(−128.6 °F), at Vostok Station, Antarctica on 21 July 1983.
The hottest air temperature ever recorded was 57.7 °C (135.9 °F) at
'Aziziya, Libya, on 13 September 1922.
However, weather is not limited to planetary bodies.
A star's corona is constantly being lost to space, creating what is
essentially a very thin atmosphere throughout the Solar System.
The movement of mass ejected from the Sun is known as the solar
Sunny weather Cold weather
Rainy weather Rainy with Thunder
Different types of weather
Climate is the average weather in a place over many years or the
average weather, usually over a 30-year interval.
It is measured by assessing the patterns of variation in
temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind, precipitation etc.
It takes hundreds, thousands, even millions of years to change.
Climate is different from weather, in that weather only describes
the short-term conditions.
The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain, and
altitude, as well as nearby water bodies and their currents.
Elements of Weather and Climate
There are several elements that make up the weather and climate of a
place. The major of these elements are five:
Analysis of these elements can provide the basis for forecasting weather
and defining its climate. These same elements make also the basis of
climatology study, of course, within a longer time scale rather than it
does in meteorology.
• Temperature is how hot or cold the atmosphere is, how many
degrees it is above or below freezing. Temperature is a very
important factor in determining the weather, because it influences or
controls other elements of the weather, such as precipitation,
humidity, clouds and atmospheric pressure.
Wind is the movement of air masses, especially on the
Humidity is the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere.
• Precipitation is the product of a rapid condensation
process (if this process is slow, it only causes cloudy
skies). It may include snow, hail, sleet, drizzle, fog, mist
Atmospheric pressure (or air pressure) is the weight of air
resting on the earth's surface. Pressure is shown on a
weather map, often called a synoptic map, with lines called
Measuring the weather
Weather stations are places where a variety of instruments are used
to record regular data on the weather. The most important instruments
used in a weather station are shown below.
Hygrometers are special thermometers that measure
humidity by calculating the amount of water vapour in
Rain gauges are containers that collect and measure
rainfall or any other form of precipitation. Levels of rainfall
are measured in millimetres (mm).
Barometers are used to measure atmospheric pressure.
They may be either mercury or aneroid (vacuum)
barometers. Often they are attached to a pen that charts
movements in pressure on a piece of paper. The resulting
chart is called a barograph.
Maximum and minimum thermometers measure the highest
and lowest temperature in degrees celsius. From the lowest
temperatures to the highest temperatures.
Maximum and minimum thermometers