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Lectures on demo

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Lectures on demo

  1. 1. Demography by Dr Sajid HameedCourse Objectives1.Define different tools of demography and vitalstatistics2.Name major sources of data3.Describe the Demographic transition4.Interpret and compute different mortality,fertilityand morbidity related measures5.Describe factors that effect on mortality andfertility6.Impact of population growth
  2. 2. Demography• Demo (People) + Graphien (write)• The quantitative study of Characteristics of human population 1. Size 2.Age and Sex distribution 3.Density 4.Growth 5.Vital statistic
  3. 3. Calculation of TFR• Divide the population of women of childbearing age(15 to 45 or 49 years)• Record the total number of women in each age group (a)• Record the total number of live births in each age group (b)• Divide (b) by (a) to get ASFR• TFR=Sum of all age groups ASFR X 5
  4. 4. Summary Implications• Shortage of :- • Increase In :-1. Educational facilities 1. Unemployment2. Health Services 2. Land Fragmentation3. Housing Units 3. Food Imports4. Food 4. Environmental5. Living Space Pollution6. Clean water 5. Overcrowding 6. Katchi Abadis 7. Poverty 8. Unrest & Crime
  5. 5. Sources of Population Data• Vital registration1. Births2. Deaths3. Marriages4. Population registers5. Service statistics6. International; migration statistics• NADRA• Demographic Sample Surveys• Population & Housing Censes
  6. 6. Population Doubling Time• How long a population would take at its current Growth Rate to double in size? 70• Doubling Time in Years = ------------------ Gr. Rate in %• e.g if Gr.Rate= 2% then population doubling time = 70/2 =35 Years
  7. 7. Population Pyramid• A graphical representation designed to give a picture of the Age & Sex Structure of a population• Salient features of a population pyramid
  8. 8. Population Equation• Pn = Po + B - D+ I – E• Pn = Population at time n• Po = Population at previous time• B = All Births• D = All Deaths• I = Immigration• E = Emigration
  9. 9. What does immediately comes to the mind when we think of population?• People: • Characteristics of1. Size population: 1. Ethnic2. Age 2. Marital3. Sex 3. Economic4. Regional Distribution 4. Educational5. Change 5. Residential6. Population trends 6. Religion 7. Language
  10. 10. Factors Affecting Fertility• Age at marriage & duration of married life.• Family planning & Child spacing• Education• Economic Status• Cast & Religion• Nutrition• Other factors( Physical,Biological,Socio- cultural).
  11. 11. Why we should study demography?• Food Security• Pollution• Inflation• Income• Energy• Unemployment• Literacy• Individual freedom
  12. 12. Tools of Demography• Counts• Rates• Ratios• Proportions
  13. 13. Demographic Processes• Fertility• Mortality• Marriage• Migration• Social Mobility
  14. 14. Population Momentum• The tendency of a population to continue to grow after replacement level fertility has been achieved
  15. 15. Important Definitions• Demography • Population growth• Population change rate• Sources of • Population doubling demographic data time• Age-sex composition • Population doubling time• Fertility • Population pyramid• Mortality • Replacement level• Net-Migration fertility• Urbanization • Momentum of population
  16. 16. Basic Fertility Measures• Crude birth rate (CBR)• General fertility rate (GFR)• Age-specific fertility rate (ASFR)• Total fertility rate (TFR)• Gross reproductive rate (GRR)• Net reproductive rate (NRR)• General marital fertility rate (GMFR)
  17. 17. Reasons for high mortality• Acute and chronic food shortages• Epidemic diseases• Poor public health conditions
  18. 18. Causes Of Rapid Mortality Decline• Increased agriculture production• Industrialization• Improved transportation• Specific reforms• Control of temperature and humidity• Public sanitation• Improved personal hygiene• Immunology
  19. 19. Mortality• Crude death rate (CDR)• Age specific death rate (ASDR)• Infant mortality rate (IMR)• Early neonatal M.R• Late neonatal M.R• Post neonatal M.R• Perinatal mortality rate• Maternal mortality ratio (MMR)
  20. 20. Demographic transition• High Stationary • Late expanding• Early expanding • Low stationary • Declining
  22. 22. TYPES OF COMMUNICATION• One way communication• Two way communication• Verbal communication• Non verbal communication• Formal and informal communication• Visual communication• Telecommunication and internet
  23. 23. BARRIERS OF COMMUNICATION• Physiological• Psychological• Environmental• Cultural
  24. 24. HEALTH EDUCATION• DEFINITION:- – A process aimed at encouraging people to want to be healthy, to know how to stay healthy, to do what they can individually and collectively to maintain health, and to seek help when needed.
  25. 25. AIMS / OBJECTIVES• To encourage people to adopt and sustain health promoting lifestyle and practices.• To promote the proper use of health services available to them• To arouse interest provide new knowledge. Improve skills and change attitudes in making rational decisions to solve their own problems.• To stimulate individual and community self – reliance and individual and community involvement at every step from identifying problems to solving them.
  26. 26. APPROACH TO HEALTH EDUCATION• Regulatory approach (managed prevention)• Service approach• Health education approach• Primary health care approach
  27. 27. HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROPAGANDA EDUCATION PROPAGANDA OR PUBLICITYKnowledge and skills actively Knowledge instilled in the minds ofacquired peopleMakes people think for themselves Prevents or discourages thinking by readymade slogansDisciplines primitive desires Arouses and stimulates primitive desires
  28. 28. HEALTH EDUCATION AND PROPAGANDA (contd)Develops reflective behaviour. Develops reflexive behaviour:Trains people to use judgments aims at impulsive actionsbefore actingAppeals to reason Appeals to emotionKnowledge acquired through self – Knowledge is spoon-fed andreliant activity passively receivedThe process is behaviour centered The process is information centred– aims at developing favourabel – no change of attitude or ehaviourattitudes, habits skills designed
  29. 29. CONTENTS OF HEALTH EDUCATION• Human biology• Nutrition• Hygiene• Family health• Disease prevention and control• Mental health• Prevention of accidents• Use of health services
  30. 30. PRINCIPLES OF HEALTH EDUCATION• Credibility• Interest• Participation• Motivation• Comprehension• Reinforcement• Learning by doing• Known to unknown• Setting on example• Good human relations• Feedback• Leaders
  31. 31. HEALTH COMMUNICATIONIndividual approach Group approach Mass approach Personal contact Lectures Televisions Home visits Demonstrations Radio Personal letters Discussion methods News paper Group discussion Printed material Panel discussion Direct mailing Symposium Posters Workshop Health museums and exhibitions Conferences Folk methods Seminars Internet Role play