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Changing structure of family


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Changing structure of family

  1. 1. Reporter: Aileen A. Tarrayo BSA 1-10
  2. 2.  As Filipino society undergoes transition from the traditional agricultural to the modern industrial type , changes also occur both within the family and in the family’s relation to the kin group.  These changes started in the early 19o0s but have gradually become manifest since the post World War II era.  Among the changes which have been noted are those involving size and composition of the household.
  3. 3. Table I Trends in size of Households: Philippines, 1970,1990,1995,2000 Indicators 1970 1990 1995 2000 Mean 5.9 5.3 5.1 4.92 Household Size % Household with 5 or more members 66. 4 59.9 56.2 n.a. % Household with 1 member 2.3 2.9 3. 45 n.a.
  4. 4.  One rich area for research is living arrangement, particularly with the respect to parent and adult child co-residence.  The analysis of Perez (1995:74-76) of 13,000 households in 13 regions of the country reveals that large sib size , low household income, and rural residence increase the probability of nest-living by an adult child.
  5. 5.  One aspect of the family structure which has gradually undergone some modifications as modernization progresses is the pattern of authority.  Traditionally, deference is given to age.  Headship of the household is automatically assumed by the oldest male.  Although the deference may still be given to the elderly as the formally acknowledge head of the family, the young and better-educated breadwinner today may actually be the decision-maker and real manager of the household.
  6. 6.  By tradition also, family and household headship is generally bestowed on the breadwinner who used to be almost always the husband/father.  Thus majority (87.7 percent) of the acknowledge heads are male and only 12.2 percent are female according to the 1995 Census.  Many household today are sustained by the earnings of both husband/father and wife/mother ad other members of the household.
  7. 7.  Urbanization and industrialization have weakened family ties.  The development of trade and business, cultural and educational facilities and commercialized recreation has attracted the family members away from home, thereby loosening the once strong bond between them.  Separation due to overseas contract work is even worse.
  8. 8. Solo Parent families and other Family Forms  Widow or widower and his/her children- this is caused by the death of one spouse where the surviving spouse does not remarry. It is more often that the widow survives rather than the widower because of the longer life expectancy of the female.  Single man or woman ad his/her adopted child/children- the value of the children is recognized and accepted in the Philippine society. Homosexuals, particularly, who have achieve d high socio-economic status adopt a child of their own to give greater meaning to their success.
  9. 9.  Separated parent and his/her child/children- this caused by separation by various reasons: divorce , legal separation, annulment of marriage, abandonment, estrangement, or temporary absence of one person. By 1998 , the number of overseas Filipino workers more than doubled from 3 million in the ’80s to 6.79 million and also the number of solo parent families.  Unwed woman and her child/children- The reasons why a woman does not marry even after conception is varied.
  10. 10.  Mistress and her child/children by a married man- this is the second family of a married man. This happens when a married man develops extra-marital attachments with another woman ad maintains the family thus formed.  Concern for solo parent families have recently been expressed in Congress with the sponsorship of a bill requiring the state , particularly the DSWD and other related agencies to draw up a comprehensive package of benefits which includes tax breaks, housing benefits, health and education insurance . (Jumilla 1999:19)
  11. 11. Functions of the Family and Kin Group  The family acts as a link between the individual and the larger social structures.  The family fulfills both the needs of its members and the requirements essential for the existence of society.  It contributes to societal maintenance through its reproduction function.  The family also trains the individuals for occupational pursuits to become functioning adults in the community.
  12. 12. Sex and Reproduction  One of the important functions of the family in all known societies is the reproductive function.  Society is especially interested in this function due to its desire to replenish itself, preserve its existence and insure its continuity.  Children are looked upon as a sort of investment or insurance policy with the expectation of support in old age.  They believed that the more children they have the more blessed they are.
  13. 13.  Parents also see their children as a source of happiness, wealth, and a grace from God.  Because of high value placed on children, the Philippines has a relatively high birth rate.  However, the crude birth rate has been declining in such that the by 1996 it was down to 29.0 (Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific, 1997:425). The total fertility rate or completed family size also declined from 4.1 in 1993 to 3.7 in 1998 ( National Demographic and Health Survey, 1999:4) Nevertheless, the Philippine fertility rate remains high by international standards.
  14. 14.  Reproduction does not occur at random but is governed by social and economic conditions.  Metro Manila and other urban areas, for instance, generally have lower fertility rates than the more rural population. Thus the total fertility rate or the average number of children that the urban Filipina would have at the end of her childbearing years decline by about 15 percent over the last five years from 3.5 to 3.0, while the rural rate decline only slightly from 4.8 to 4.7 children; consequently, rural women give birth to almost 2 children more than the urban . ( National Demographic and Health Survey, p. 4)
  15. 15. Factors that affect the family size  Education - Women with no education have six children o the average, or twice as many as college-graduated women who have only three children (Filipino Women, Issues, and Trends, 1995:13)  Age at first marriage - Marrying early increase the chance of having many children - In 1995 it was noted that the average Filipina entered the marital union at age 23.9 years while her male counterpart married at 26.6 years.
  16. 16.  Social Values - The fact that it takes rural-urban migrants at least 15 years of exposure too urban environment for them to exhibit a decline in fertility means that assimilation of reproduction values and behavior patterns is more important than rural-urban residence per se ( Cabegin, 1986:109). - The government has even resorted to the enactment of statutes which provide that a mother can no longer enjoy maternity leave with pay beyond the fourth child delivery and that income tax deductions are no longer allowed after the first four children.

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