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Interface Between Civil Services and
Armed Forces: Civil Military Liaison
Ajay Yadav
Dy Commandant
ajayyadav2233@gmail.com
Preface
• Why study Civil-Armed Forces Relations
• What is Civil-Armed Forces Relations About?
• What Constitutes the Arme...
Preface
• Mechanism of Interface
• Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed Forces Relations
• How to Improve the Civil-Armed ...
Why Study Civil-Armed Forces
Relations?
 Understand the Armed Forces` role in society and
help the armed forces live up t...
What is Civil-Armed Forces Relations
About?
 The way Armed Forces personnel relate themselves
to civil administration.
 ...
What Constitutes the Armed Forces of
the Union?
 Armed Forces of the Union of India were raised
for the Defense and Secur...
What Constitutes the Armed Forces of
the Union?
Armed Forces under the operational and
administrative control of Ministry ...
What Constitutes the Armed Forces of
the Union?
Armed Forces under the operational and
administrative control of Ministry ...
What Constitutes the Armed Forces of
the Union?
Armed Forces under the operational and
administrative control of Ministry ...
What Constitutes the Armed Forces of
the Union?
Armed Forces under the operational and
administrative control of Ministry ...
Armed Forces and their Roles?
Army, Navy and Air Force
 Ensuring national security and unity
 Defending nation from exte...
Armed Forces and their Roles?
Border Guarding Forces
• Peace time:
 Promote a sense of security among the
people living i...
Armed Forces and their Roles?
Border Guarding Forces
• War Time:
 Frist line of defense
 Fight war along with Army
 Oth...
Armed Forces and their Roles?
Border Guarding Forces
• War Time:
 Providing extension to the flanks of main
defence line ...
Armed Forces and their Roles?
Border Guarding Forces
• War Time:
 Acting as guides in an area of responsibility
where rou...
Armed Forces and their Roles?
Internal Security Forces
 Lead Counter Insurgency operations
 Industrial and Airport secur...
Structure of Armed Forces
Structure of Armed Forces
Indian Army/AR
Structure of Armed Forces
BSF & other CAPFs
Structure of Armed Forces
Structure of a CAPF Bn
Bn HQ
Commandant
Second in Command
Deputy Commandants
Service Coys comman...
Rank Structure of Armed Forces
and its Equivalent Rank in
Civil Administration
CAPFs/Army RANKS POLICE RANKS/CIVIL EQUIVAL...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at Field Level
Sub-Divisional Civil Administration
vis-à-vis
Coy Commander level of the A...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at Field Level
• Aid in maintaining Law and Order
• Curbing of illegal crossing of IB
• R...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at Field Level
• Border Area Development Programme
• Civic Action Plan
• Malaria Control ...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at District-BN Level
District Civil Administration
vis-à-vis
Bn Commander level of the Ar...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at District-BN Level
• Intelligence input sharing
• Planning of joint operations
• Implem...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at District-BN Level
• Data collection in the border areas for various
social schemes
• I...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at State-Frontier Level
State Civil Administration
vis-à-vis
Frontier/Corps level of the ...
Mechanism of Interface
Interface at State-Frontier Level
• Implementation of central government
policies by state
• Other ...
Mechanism of Interface
Ideal Response to a Law and Order Situation
Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed
Forces Relations
• Inadequate intelligence sharing arrangement
• Egoism
• Lack of com...
Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed
Forces Relations
• Political reasons
• Geographical origins, ethnicity, political
aff...
Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed
Forces Relations
• Differences between military and civilian
institutions
• Functiona...
How to Improve the Civil-Armed
Forces Relations
By Armed Forces
• Principle of Necessity
• Principle of Minimum Force
• Pr...
How to Improve the Civil-Armed
Forces Relations
By Armed Forces
• Religious Impartiality and Respect to Religious
Institut...
How to Improve the Civil-Armed
Forces Relations
By Civil Servants
• Armed Forces should be deployed as the
instrument of l...
Legal Frameworks in Civil-Armed
Forces Relations
 Indian Constitution
 IPC, CRPC, NDPS Acts etc
 Armed Forces Acts like...
Civil-Armed Forces Relation Theories
 Institutional Theory – civilians and military
operate in separate “spheres,” and ha...
Questions/Comments
Interface between civil services and armed forces
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Interface between civil services and armed forces

  1. 1. Interface Between Civil Services and Armed Forces: Civil Military Liaison Ajay Yadav Dy Commandant ajayyadav2233@gmail.com
  2. 2. Preface • Why study Civil-Armed Forces Relations • What is Civil-Armed Forces Relations About? • What Constitutes the Armed Forces of the Union? • Armed Forces and their Roles? • Structure of Armed Forces • Rank Structure of Armed Forces and its Equivalent Rank in Civil Administration
  3. 3. Preface • Mechanism of Interface • Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed Forces Relations • How to Improve the Civil-Armed Forces Relations • Legal Frameworks in Civil-Armed Forces Relations • Civil-Armed Forces Relations Theories
  4. 4. Why Study Civil-Armed Forces Relations?  Understand the Armed Forces` role in society and help the armed forces live up to that role  Reinforce military values and military professionalism  Help Civil Administration live up to their social responsibilities
  5. 5. What is Civil-Armed Forces Relations About?  The way Armed Forces personnel relate themselves to civil administration.  The role of the Armed Forces in aid to Civil Administration.  The manner in which civil administration utilizes aid of Armed Forces in peace time.  How the Armed Forces plans to utilizes aid of Civil Administration during war and its preparedness.
  6. 6. What Constitutes the Armed Forces of the Union?  Armed Forces of the Union of India were raised for the Defense and Security of the Nation  Schedule 7 (Article 246) List I Union List Entry No. 2 says that “Naval, military and air forces; any other armed forces of the Union” can be raised for the security of the Nation  Union Armed Forces are broadly under the operational and administrative control of the Ministry of Defense and Ministry of Home Affairs
  7. 7. What Constitutes the Armed Forces of the Union? Armed Forces under the operational and administrative control of Ministry of Defence  Indian Army  Indian Air Force  Indian Navy  Indian Coast Guard
  8. 8. What Constitutes the Armed Forces of the Union? Armed Forces under the operational and administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs Border Guarding Forces  Border Security Force  Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force  Shashtra Seema Bal
  9. 9. What Constitutes the Armed Forces of the Union? Armed Forces under the operational and administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs Internal Security Forces  Central Reserve Police Force  Central Industrial Security Force  Assam Rifles  Railway Protection Force
  10. 10. What Constitutes the Armed Forces of the Union? Armed Forces under the operational and administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs are called as Central Armed Police Forces Assam Rifles is a counter insurgency force entrusted with the responsibility of guarding Myanmar border
  11. 11. Armed Forces and their Roles? Army, Navy and Air Force  Ensuring national security and unity  Defending nation from external threats  Humanitarian rescue operations during natural and manmade calamities  Rescue and relief operations for safety and evacuation of Indian diaspora  To participate in United Nations peacekeeping operations
  12. 12. Armed Forces and their Roles? Border Guarding Forces • Peace time:  Promote a sense of security among the people living in the border areas.  Prevent trans border crimes, unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India.  Prevent smuggling and any other illegal activity.
  13. 13. Armed Forces and their Roles? Border Guarding Forces • War Time:  Frist line of defense  Fight war along with Army  Other specific role assigned by government  Protection of vital installations particular air- fields against enemy commandoes/para troopers or raids.
  14. 14. Armed Forces and their Roles? Border Guarding Forces • War Time:  Providing extension to the flanks of main defence line by the holding of strong points in conjunction with other units  Limited Aggressive action against para military or irregular forces of the enemy within the overall plan of the Armed Forces  Performing special tasks connected with intelligence including raids
  15. 15. Armed Forces and their Roles? Border Guarding Forces • War Time:  Acting as guides in an area of responsibility where routes are known  Maintenance of law and order in enemy territory administrated under the control of Army  Anti - infiltration duties in specified area  Provision of escorts  Assistance in control of refugees
  16. 16. Armed Forces and their Roles? Internal Security Forces  Lead Counter Insurgency operations  Industrial and Airport security  Disaster Management  VA/VP and VVIP security  Parliament security group  Election and Internal Security Duty including riot control
  17. 17. Structure of Armed Forces
  18. 18. Structure of Armed Forces Indian Army/AR
  19. 19. Structure of Armed Forces BSF & other CAPFs
  20. 20. Structure of Armed Forces Structure of a CAPF Bn Bn HQ Commandant Second in Command Deputy Commandants Service Coys commanded by Assistant Commandant CoyCoy Coy Coy Coy Coy Coy
  21. 21. Rank Structure of Armed Forces and its Equivalent Rank in Civil Administration CAPFs/Army RANKS POLICE RANKS/CIVIL EQUIVALENTS Director General / GOC of Command Director General of a State Police Force, Spl. Secretary Special Director General/ Lt. General Special Director General, Spl. Secretary Additional Director General/ Lt. General CP, ADG, Additional Secretary Inspector General/ Maj. General IG, Joint CP, Jt. Secretary Deputy Inspector General/ Brigadier Additional CP, DIG Commandant/ Colonel SSP/DCP,DM Second-In-Command/ Lt. Colonel SP/DCP,ADM Deputy Commandant/ Major Addl SP, Addl DCP Assistant Commandant/ Captain/Leiutenant Dy SP, ACP,SDM
  22. 22. Mechanism of Interface Interface at Field Level Sub-Divisional Civil Administration vis-à-vis Coy Commander level of the Armed Forces
  23. 23. Mechanism of Interface Interface at Field Level • Aid in maintaining Law and Order • Curbing of illegal crossing of IB • Resolving issues of inadvertent crossing • Crime control in border areas • Issues during election duties
  24. 24. Mechanism of Interface Interface at Field Level • Border Area Development Programme • Civic Action Plan • Malaria Control and other Health related issues • Disaster Management • Security during visit of high dignitaries of the Central/State Government
  25. 25. Mechanism of Interface Interface at District-BN Level District Civil Administration vis-à-vis Bn Commander level of the Armed Forces
  26. 26. Mechanism of Interface Interface at District-BN Level • Intelligence input sharing • Planning of joint operations • Implementation of Central and State schemes • Infrastructure development in border areas • Training of youth for employment, education and sports
  27. 27. Mechanism of Interface Interface at District-BN Level • Data collection in the border areas for various social schemes • Interaction with counter parts • Provision of training facilities to State Police and Tripura State Rifles • Environmental protection programmes
  28. 28. Mechanism of Interface Interface at State-Frontier Level State Civil Administration vis-à-vis Frontier/Corps level of the Armed Forces
  29. 29. Mechanism of Interface Interface at State-Frontier Level • Implementation of central government policies by state • Other strategic decisions • Framing mutually agreed guidelines for achieving goals and better coordination
  30. 30. Mechanism of Interface Ideal Response to a Law and Order Situation
  31. 31. Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed Forces Relations • Inadequate intelligence sharing arrangement • Egoism • Lack of common/joint training • Misconception of the civil administration, police and the armed forces about their respective role and task • Indifference of civil authority after handing over to responsibility to armed forces during law and order problems
  32. 32. Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed Forces Relations • Political reasons • Geographical origins, ethnicity, political affiliation, socioeconomic or family background • Differences in the policy objectives pursued by military and civilian elites • Expressed policy preferences • Historical and entrenched preferences
  33. 33. Reasons for Twist in the Civil-Armed Forces Relations • Differences between military and civilian institutions • Functional differences, institutional identities, myths, and prejudices
  34. 34. How to Improve the Civil-Armed Forces Relations By Armed Forces • Principle of Necessity • Principle of Minimum Force • Principle of Impartiality • Principle of Good Faith • Value Human Rights • Respect Cultural Values, Customs and Ethnicity
  35. 35. How to Improve the Civil-Armed Forces Relations By Armed Forces • Religious Impartiality and Respect to Religious Institutions • Regular interaction with Civil Institutions • Mechanism for real time sharing of vital information • Joint training modules and vertical interactions • Social gatherings
  36. 36. How to Improve the Civil-Armed Forces Relations By Civil Servants • Armed Forces should be deployed as the instrument of last resort • Respect for Armed Forces values and traditions • Priority in providing essential basic amenities during deployment of Armed Forces • Regular interaction at multi level • Responsive nodal authority
  37. 37. Legal Frameworks in Civil-Armed Forces Relations  Indian Constitution  IPC, CRPC, NDPS Acts etc  Armed Forces Acts like BSF Act etc  Armed Forces Special Power Act  Human Rights
  38. 38. Civil-Armed Forces Relation Theories  Institutional Theory – civilians and military operate in separate “spheres,” and have different values  Convergence/concordance – military and civilians are part of same society, work best together when they agree on values  Post-modern – military is no longer an “institution,” members of military have many social identities at once
  39. 39. Questions/Comments

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