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DRAFT SC15/WG1/PG2/N143 ISO DTR 16975-2 April 2012Respiratory protective devices – Selection, use andmaintenance Part 2: Condensed guide to establishing andimplementing a respiratory protective device programme
1. IntroductionWhen RPD is required to control exposure, then the RPD must be correctly selected,used and maintained.This standard provides a condensed guide for establishing and implementing acomplete respiratory protective device programme for respiratory protective devices(RPD) that meet the requirements of ISO 17420. It is designed for employersespecially in small and medium sized enterprises.This standard provides basic information on risk assessment, selection procedure,training, use and maintenance. Assistance from the RPD supplier /manufacturer orHealth and Safety professional to establish and implement the programme may berequired.It provides guidance on how to do this together with a table to assist in the selectionprocess. It follows a simple step-by-step approach to deciding the minimum level ofprotection required from the RPD and the most suited to the wearers, the task andworkplace conditions.It is the responsibility of the employer, to correctly select adequate and suitable RPDbased on a risk assessment.2. ScopeThis standard provides brief and simple guidance to assist persons responsible forestablishing and implementing a programme for respiratory protective devices thatmeet the performance requirements of ISO 17420.There are special applications where the selection of suitable RPD using this guide isnot appropriate. For more detailed information and information relating to the specialapplications listed below refer to ISO 16975-1. − Escape − Fire Fighting − Rescue − CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear agents) − Marine − Mining − Abnormal Pressure Work EnvironmentThis standard does not apply to RPD programmes for RPD used exclusively underwater, in aircraft, and medical life support respirators and resuscitators.This standard is an international guideline and does not replace national or localregulations.3. Terms and DefinitionsRPD programme: process of selecting, using and maintaining RPD to ensureadequate protection to the wearer.Hazardous substance: Any substance that presents a potential to cause injury or illhealth if it is inhaled, ingested or come into contact with or absorbed through the skin.
A hazardous substance may be a pure substance or generated as by-productsduring work activities, for example, wood dust, stone dust and welding fume.Hazardous substances can be present in the atmosphere in a number of physicalstates: • Gases – such as ammonia and chlorine • Vapours - such as from solvents, • Particles – such as dusts, mists, smoke, fumes, fibres, fog and micro- organisms.Hazardous atmospheres: Any atmosphere that is oxygen-deficient and/or the levelof substances in the atmosphere is at a concentration deemed to be hazardous.Adequate RPD: RPD capable of reducing the inhalation exposure to an acceptablelevel.Suitable RPD: RPD that is adequate and is matched to the requirements of thewearer, the task and the working environment.Protection Level: The degree of respiratory protection allocated to an RPD for thepurposes of selection and use that is expected to be provided to wearers when usedwithin an effective RPD programme as described in ISO 16975.
Table 1. RPD Programme steps Apply control measures RPD should only be used after all other Conduct risk assessment Clause 4 reasonably practicable control measures have been taken Consider the requirements of the task,Gather information on when, where and who Clause 7 the workplace environment and the will use the RPD Steps 1-2 wearer(s) Consider its concentration and its form Gather information on the hazardous in the air – particulate, gas, vapour Clause 7 substances Step 3 Potential for Oxygen-deficiency Measurement of the concentration Clause 7 Determine the protection level required Step 4 Use the information gathered in the assessment Clause 7 Select adequate and suitable RPD Include fit testing where appropriate Steps 5-9 Involve the RPD wearers and employee representatives Provide training in the use, checking Provide training Clause 9 and maintenance of the RPD Including a filter change routine, batteryImplement use of the RPD in the workplace charging, cleaning, compressed air Clause 10 checking as appropriate Including regular supervision and Manage the use of RPD Clause 10 regular reminders to wearers Maintain the RPD Maintain reusable RPD. Replace parts as recommended by the manufacturer Clause 10 Correct any faults promptly Review the suitable intervals to ensure that any change in conditions, Review Clause 10 hazardous substance, wearers etc. are adequately addressed Fit testing Ensure tight-fitting RPD are fit tested Clause 12 Keep records of the risk assessment Records Clause 13 and the RPD selection process
4. How to use this guideTo select adequate and suitable RPD you need to have completed a risk assessmentwhich must have considered the hazardous substance(s) being used or generated,the task(s) being undertaken and the person performing the task(s) (the wearer). Inaddition you will need information on the hazardous substance(s), which can befound in their Safety Data Sheets (SDS) or Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS).You may also need to refer to substance specific regulations (e.g. asbestos) that maydirect you to a specify class or type of RPD.Once you have completed your risk assessment and gathered the informationrequired, work through the selection table.Depending upon your knowledge of RPD, your workplace circumstances and theinformation you are able to gather from your risk assessment, the output of the tablemay be either the classification of RPD suitable for your needs or sufficientinformation to enable your RPD supplier to recommend suitable RPD.The table should be retained as a record of RPD selection.Where the table recommends seeking professional advice RPD manufacturers /suppliers and safety consultants are a good source of information.5. What is RPD?RPD is a type of personal protective equipment (PPE) designed to protect the weareragainst inhalation of hazardous atmospheres.RPD operate in one of two modes: − Filtering devices: RPD in which air passes through a filter(s) before being inhaled − Supplied breathable gas devices: RPD that supplies the wearer with breathable gas from a source independent of the ambient atmosphere either individually carried or from a remote source. − Class Sxxxx devices are commonly known as self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) where the xxxx represents the available breathing gas in litres. − Class SY devices are commonly known as airline RPD, usually not having a finite capacity.
Within each of these two operating modes there are different devices based on theprotection level class and the work rate class. Filtering devices also have differencesbased on the type and class of filter usedRPD are available with a range of respiratory interfaces. They are categorised byareas of coverage of the wearer’s body and by fitting characteristics.The areas of coverage include: o mouth only, e.g., a mouthpiece o nose and mouth, e.g., half mask, filtering facepiece o entire face, e.g., full facepiece, visor o entire head, e.g., hood, helmet o parts of or complete body, e.g., blouse, suit.Respiratory interfaces can be tight fitting, those that have a complete seal with theskin, or loose fitting, those that do not have a complete seal to the wearer’s skin.Tight fitting interfaces require a good seal and therefore cannot be used if any deepscars, hair or objects interfere with the seal. Tight fitting interfaces also require anindividual fit test on the wearer to ensure fit in accordance with national regulations orguidance.6. When should RPD be used?After all practicable control measures have been taken or while they are beingimplemented, and the risk assessment indicates the presence or potential presenceof a hazardous atmosphere, then RPD should be used.7. The selection procedureFollow the steps below and complete the selection table. Information on thehazardous substances, the working environment including the potential for oxygen-deficiency, the task and the wearer(s) is required.Step 1: Organisation informationFill in the details of the organisation and location of where the task is to beundertaken, and the details and position of the person completing the selectionprocedure.Step 2: Description of the taskDescribe the task and the environment in which the task will be conducted. Not allRPD are suitable for wearing for long periods of time or suitable for cold or hotenvironments.Step 3: Define the hazardsThe contaminant(s) should be identified and its airborne concentration(s) measuredor estimated. The potential for oxygen deficiency in the working area should beconsidered.The information on the occupational exposure limits (OEL) and the immediatelydangerous to life or health (IDLH) concentrations (if applicable) can be found byreference to SDS, MSDS or established exposure limitsFor each of the contaminants enter:
o the concentration in Box A o the IDLH level in Box B o the OEL in Box C o the calculated hazard ratio in Box D; and o the highest hazard ratio in Box EIf the contaminant is not known and/or the concentration not known or it is uncertainwhether there is the potential for oxygen-deficiency then seek professional advice orfollow national, local or industry guidance.Step 4: Determination of the protection levelDetermine the protection level class required by comparing the highest hazard ratiocalculated in step 3 with the protection levels. Always select the protection level classwhich is higher than the highest hazard ratio calculated.Step 5: Work rate assessmentIn order to select RPD that is suitable for the work rate at which the wearer will beworking during the task, compare the task demands with the descriptions in the tablefor W1, W2, W3 and W4. • If the task only requires light to moderate manual work then select W1, e.g. light manual work to sustained hand and arm work • if the task requires heavy to very heavy work then select W2, e.g. intense arm and trunk work to intensive shovelling or digging • if the task requires very, very heavy to extremely heavy manual work then select W3, e.g. walking quickly or running with protective equipment and/or heavy tools and goods to crawling under and climbing over obstacles • if the task requires maximal work then select W4 , e.g. Climbing stairs and ladders at high speed.Step 6: Filter identificationIf filtering RPD is selected then the correct type and class of filter must be used.Selecting the correct filter type and class requires knowledge of the task, the hazardand the work rate. Using this information seek professional advice to identify thecorrect filter.Step 7: Supplied breathable gas RPD capacityClass Sxxxx supplied breathable gas RPD usually include a cylinder(s) ofcompressed breathable gas. These cylinders are available in a number of volumesand working pressures leading to a number of usable durations. Calculate theminimum volume in litres required to ensure that the capacity of the RPD is adequatefor the task duration and work rate.If the calculated capacity for the task duration is greater than any available SxxxxRPD capacity then class ‘SY’ RPD should be selected.Step 8: Task related factorsThe RPD selected must be suitable for the task that the wearer will be undertakingwhile wearing the RPD. Certain task requirements may restrict the range of suitableRPD. This step asks a number of questions relating to the task and gives advice asto the most suitable types of RPD.Step 9: Wearer related factorsThe RPD selected must be suitable for the wearer. Some wearer related factors suchas hair, the need to wearer corrective lenses and medical conditions might restrict
the range of suitable RPD. This step asks a number of questions relating to thewearer and gives advice as to the most suitable types of RPD. − Fit of RPD: As people come in different shapes and sizes facial differences will mean one type of respiratory interface is unlikely to fit all wearers. It is essential that where an RPD includes a tight fitting respiratory interface then the wearer should be fit tested to ensure that the selected RPD is capable of fitting them. − Hair: Any beard, stubble, thick sideburns, hair or moustache where a respiratory interface is intended to seal will most likely cause leakage. Where there is facial hair select a loose-fitting respiratory interface.Step 10: Final selectionUsing the information gathered in the earlier steps and the advice given relating totask and wearer related factors write down the minimum class of RPD suitable.Using the minimum classification and the other information gathered, identify suitableRPD in discussion with RPD manufacturer, RPD supplier or relevant authorities.Select a specific RPD from the suitable RPD identified.The selection may have to be changed depending on the result of a fit test.In some situations both filtering and supplied breathable gas RPD may be suitable.Table 2 provides additional guidance that in deciding between filtering or suppliedbreathable gas RPD.
Table 2 Supplied breathable gas RPD Filtering RPD Class Sxxxx Class SY− Filtering RPD can − Can be used in − Can be used in only be used where oxygen-deficient and oxygen-deficient there is sufficient IDLH atmospheres atmospheres oxygen in the − Requires an external − Mobility may be atmosphere supply of high restricted due to− Suitable filters may pressure breathable supply hoses not be available for gas − Requires an the identified − There will be a time external supply of contaminant(s) duration restriction medium pressure− Filters have limited due to the capacity breathable gas capacity and have to of the breathable gas − Requires be changed cylinder(s) breathable quality periodically − Requires breathable gas and regular− A filter change quality gas and measurements schedule must be regular established to suit measurements the task and work environment
8. Using RPD8.1 GeneralRPD must be inspected, used, maintained and stored as described in the userinstructions supplied by the RPD manufacturer and in accordance with local ornational regulations.In addition, ensure: The RPD is clean, not damaged and is in good working order before putting it on, even when new The RPD is worn all the time, and until the wearer is away from the contaminated area If filters are used a replacement policy should be determined Wearers of tight fitting respiratory interfaces are clean-shaven That wearer-seal checks are performed each time tight fitting respiratory interfaces are used That the RPD wearers leave the contaminated area immediately if they smell, taste or sense irritation or the RPD becomes damaged. That the RPD wearers leave the contaminated area immediately if a warning alarm on the RPD operates That filtering RPD are never used in oxygen-deficient or IDLH atmospheres8.2 Using Filtering RPDA filtering device will not provide protection unless: It is equipped with the correct filter(s) for the hazardous substances8.2.1 Replacing filtersYou should ensure: Filters are replaced before they become ineffective and affect the protection. Filters may have to be changed mid-shift. Filters are replaced with the same type and class A replacement schedule is established to meet your work situation by getting help from the filter supplier Particle filter(s) are replaced when breathing becomes more difficult Filters are replaced if damaged Gas filters are replaced as directed by the end-of-service-life-indicator (if present)8.3 Using supplied breathable gas RPDYou should ensure: The breathable gas supplied is of a quality required by national or local regulations. That the supply of breathable gas is sufficient for the intended duration of your task and for all wearers. The source of breathable gas may be limited
e.g. from a compressed air cylinder9. RPD wearer TrainingEvery RPD wearer should be trained in correct use, storage and where necessarymaintenance.The training should include: The manufacturer’s instructions for use The reasons for wearing RPD Which RPD should be used How to check the right RPD is provided When to wear the RPD How to correctly use the RPD When to change the filters What types of user maintenance should be carried out and how How to clean the RPD after use How to store the RPD10. Management of the RPD programmeIt is essential that the selection, use and maintenance of RPD is correctly managedto ensure that the RPD will continue to provide the protection required. RPD wearers should be supervised to ensure they are using the RPD in accordance to manufacturer’s instruction and training provided Reusable RPD should be maintained in accordance with the user instructions supplied by the RPD manufacturer The RPD programme should be reassessed at suitable intervals to ensure that any change in conditions, hazardous substance, wearers etc. are adequately addressed11. Face fit testingMany things can interfere with the fit of a tight fitting RPD and can seriously affect itsperformance. These include, but are not limited to: • Any beard, stubble, thick sideburns, long hair or moustache coming into contact with the face seal area of a respiratory interface • Deep cuts or scars, heavy wrinkles, moles, warts etc. • Other types of PPE such as spectacles and gogglesTherefore, all wearers of tight-fitting respiratory interfaces should be fit tested asrequired by national or local regulations.12. Records
The following records are to be kept for a time period appropriate to the toxicity andlatency of diseases associated with the contaminants concerned and at least for theminimum period required by any national or local regulations or standards. Risk assessment RPD selection process Fit testing Wearer training RPD Maintenance and defects Quality checks on the breathable gas supply
Annex 1 Respiratory Protective Device (RPD) Selection RecordThis form summarises and records the risk assessment and selection of respiratory protective devices. If you are unsure about any ofthe questions in this table seek professional advice Step 1 Organisation informationOrganisation: Location:Details of the person completing the form Name of wearer(s)Name:Job title: Step 2 Description of the taskIs the task any of the following?Escape, firefighting, CBRN, marine, mining, abnormal pressure working – Use the selection procedure in ISO 16975-1If the task is not any of the above, describe the task and the working environment (e.g. motor vehicle paint spraying inside a spray booth,kerb stone cutting outdoors, welding in a shop)(a) How long does the task take? (b) What are the working conditions? (Include the range)(e.g. spraying a motor vehicle - 20 minutes, sanding a wood panel -10 minutes, cutting stone - 5 minutes) Temperature: …….. oC …………….hrs ……….Mins Humidity: ……………….%RHHow many times a shift? ………..times a shift Step 3 Define the hazardsIs the work Follow national regulations if they exist. Yesarea deficient If there are no national regulations use the selection procedure in ISO 16975-1in Oxygen orthe potential tobecome No Continue to next questionoxygendeficient? Yes Continue to next questionIs the i) Seek professional advice to identify the contaminant, or refer to national regulations or industrycontaminant guidance related to the taskknown? No ii) If the contaminant cannot be identified then select supplied breathable gas RPD with the highest Protection Level (PL) class Go to step 5 Yes Continue - complete the table below i) Refer to national regulations or industry guidance to establish the required PL - Go to step 5, orIs the ii) Refer to national regulations or industry guidance to establish the specific RPD type andconcentration classification - Go to step 6, orknown by iii) Refer to ISO 16975-1 or seek professional advice to measure or estimate the concentrationmeasurement Noor estimation? -Continue - complete the table below, or iv) Use the control banding method (see form X) to establish the required PL - Go to step 5, or v) Select supplied breathable gas RPD with the highest Protection Level class - Go to step 5Complete the boxes below for particulate contaminants (dust, fibre, fume, smoke, mist, fog, micro-organisms)Contaminant (A) Concentration (B) IDLH Level (if (C) OEL (D) Calculate theName / CAS number (if applicable) Measured or estimated applicable) Occupational Exposure Hazard ratio concentration in air (mg/ Immediately Limit value should be the m3 or fibres/ml) dangerous to life or same unit as in a). If no = Concentration (A) health OEL what is the safe OEL (C) (mg/m3 or fibres/ml) exposure value?(i)
(ii)(iii)(iv)If more than four contaminants arepresent continue on a separate sheet.Complete the boxes below for gas/vapour contaminantsContaminant (A) Concentration (B) IDLH Level (if (C) OEL (D) Calculate theName / CAS number (if applicable) Measured or estimated applicable) Occupational Exposure Hazard ratio concentration in air (ppm Immediately Limit value should be the or mg/m3) dangerous to life or same unit as in a). If no = Concentration (A) health OEL what is the safe OEL (C) (ppm or mg/m3) exposure value?(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)If more than four contaminants arepresent continue on a separate sheet.Result of step 3Which one of the contaminant(s) from the above tables (and separate sheet) requires the highest Hazard E) Highest hazardRatio in (D)? Record it in (E). ratio:If the hazard ratio is <1 then RPD is not required UNLESS national or local regulations apply to the contaminantAre any of the Select supplied breathable gas RPD with an appropriate PL as determined in step 4contaminant Yes (When class SY RPD is selected it shall be combined with an ES or S class RPD)concentrations in(A) higher than theIDLH value (B)? No Continue to step 4(if applicable)Step 4 Determination of the Protection Level Class (PL)Circle the number that is greater than or equal to thenumber given in (E) 4 10 30 250 2000 10000RPD PL Class determined from the Hazard RatioChose the PL class associated with the number circled PL1 PL2 PL3 PL4 PL5 PL6 Minimum Protection Level class required PL Step 5 Work rate assessment From light manual work to sustained hand and W1 You will need an RPD with at least work rate class W1 arm workThere are four work rateclasses - W1, W2, W3 and From Intense arm and trunk work to intensive W2 You will need an RPD with at least work rate class W2W4. shovelling or digging From walking quickly or running with protectiveChoose the work rate W3 equipment and/or heavy tools and goods to You will need an RPD with at least work rate class W3class that best matches crawling under and climbing over obstaclesthe task to be undertaken. W4 Climbing stairs and ladders at high speed. You will need an RPD with at least work rate class W4 Minimum Work rate class required W Step 6 Filter IdentificationUsing the information in Step 2 (a & b), step 4 and step 5, seek professional advice to identify the type and class of filter(s) suitable forthe hazard including their relevant service life(s) applicable to your task.Alternatively if you wish to use a supplied breathable gas RPD, go to step 7.
Recommendation received from: Filter Yes type & classHas a suitable filter beenidentified? Go to step 8 No You will have to use supplied breathable gas RPD Go to Step 7
Step 7 Supplied Breathable Gas RPD capacityCalculate the volume of the breathable gas needed for the duration of the task, including entry and exit, by using the information instep 3 and step 5, using the calculations below.Changing the work rate will change the useable duration of the breathable gas volumeCalculation Minimum capacityDuration of task (min) x 30 L/min for W1 (e.g. 20 min x 30 L/min = 600 L)Duration of task (min) x 40 L/min for W2Duration of task (min) x 50 L/min for W3Duration of task (min) x 65 L/min for W4 Litres (L)Classification options for class S RPD: The minimum classification in litres is the calculated capacity, rounded up in increments of 50 litres, if lessthan 1000 litres, and in increments of 100 litres if above 1000 litres. Minimum S classification SStep 8 Task related FactorsAnswer the following questions for each wearer (circle Yes / No) Requires special considerations for entry inline with nationalIs the task carried out in a confined space? (e.g. vat, pit, Yes regulations. Seek professional advice.chambers, tanks, trenches, pipes, sewers, flues or wells) No Continue Do not select type SY RPDDoes the task require mobility such that the use of air Yessupply hoses is impractical? No Continue Select RPD that are fitted with a speech diaphragm or additionalIs precise communication needed to give safety critical Yes communication meansinstructions when RPD is worn? No Continue Yes Consider assisted filtering RPD or supplied breathable gas RPDIs the duration of RPD continuous wear >2 hour before it istaken off? No Continue Seek RPD manufacturer/supplier advice as specialised RPD may beDoes the task create sparks, molten metals or UV Yes requiredradiation? No Continue Seek RPD manufacturer/supplier advice as specialised RPD may be YesIs the work area atmosphere explosive or flammable? required No Continue Seek RPD manufacturer/supplier advice as specialised RPD may be YesIs the work area atmosphere corrosive? required No Continue Yes Consider selecting RPD which covers the entire face or headIs the contaminant an eye irritant? No Continue
Step 9 Wearer related FactorsAnswer the following questions for each wearer (circle Yes / No) Select RPD that do not rely on a tight fit to the wearer’sAre any of these present in the sealing area of the respiratory interface - Yes facebeards, moustache, side burns, deep facial marking or facial jewellery? No Continue Select RPD that do not interfere with the corrective lenses YesAre corrective lenses worn? or RPD that have facilities for wearing corrective lenses No Continue Ensure that the selected RPD and other PPE required for the task do not interfere with each other. YesAre other types of personal protective equipment (PPE) worn (e.g. head, Consider RPD that provide integrated head and/or faceeye and hearing protection, protective clothing etc), and eye and hearing protection. No ContinueMedical conditions: Important: Some pre-existing medical conditions (examples include breathing disorders such as asthma, or skin allergies orheart problems) may restrict or prevent some workers wearing any RPD or certain types of RPD. Ensure that workers are medically able to wearthe selected and required RPD. Seek medical advice.Where national or local regulations exist these should be followed.Step 10 Final SelectionMinimum Class of Filtering RPDFill in the boxes below with the information gathered Protection level Work rate class Filter type and class Suitable RPD required required required Identify examples of suitable RPD (See step 4) (See step 5) (See step 6)PL WMinimum Class of Supplied breathable gas RPDFill in the boxes below with the information gathered Protection level Work rate class Breathable Gas required required capacity Suitable RPD (See step 4) (See step 5) (Sxxxx or SY) Identify examples of suitable RPD (See step 7)PL W SSelected RPD:Employer statementI understand that It is ultimately the responsibility of the employer, to select adequate and suitable RPD based on a risk assessment, to ensurethat fit testing has been carried out where applicable and that each wearer has been medically cleared.Name of the person providing the information in this form:Signature: Date:Company Name:This table can be used as record of RPD selection