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@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

1
Alan Ruddock CSci MSc BSc (Hons.)
Chartered Scientist
BASES accredited sport & exercise scientist
Doctoral researcher
Acad...
Sport and Exercise Science

The scientific study of factors that
influence our ability to perform
exercise or physical act...
Physiology
of Sport and
Exercise

The scientific
study of how the
body responds
and adapts to
exercise...

@alanruddock - ...
...to enhance performance

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

5
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

6
Scientific Method
Observation

Broadcast

Conclusion

Systematic
Enquiry

Data Collection

Research question

Hypotheses
E...
Observation:
How to win a boxing match

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

8
Knockout
Failing to continue with
the contest after a boxer
goes „down‟ after a
legitimate blow.
British Boxing Board of C...
Cerebellum

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

10
Technical Knockout
If at any time during a Contest the Referee
decides in his complete discretion that
one contestant is o...
Potential neurological trauma
Three primary manifestations
1) Acute neurological injuries (causing knockout)
2) Persistent...
Ethical?

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

13
Knowing these risks would our ethics
committee approve such activity?

I must abide by BASES code of conduct
Professional ...
Points system
For “attack” – direct clean hits with the knuckle part
of the glove of either hand to any part of the front ...
Are boxers malicious thugs who
intend to put their own and
opponents life at risk?

No…
The majority intend to display the...
Safety aspects

Positive aspects

Medical examinations
Doctors present before, during and
after contest
Referee’s experien...
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

18
Performance indicators
Defence

Attack
Jab
Rear hand cross
Lead hook
Rear hook
Lead uppercut
Rear uppercut
Inverted jab
Le...
Number of punches

Punch stats
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Round
Mean ± SD number of punche...
Offensive Punches
(n=336)
Successful
(n=94, 28%)

Unsuccessful
(n=242, 72%)

Jab
(n=51, 54%)

Jab
(n=185, 76%)

Hook
(n=18...
26 kph 40 kph
Jab

Reverse hook

0.6 s

0.2 s

Jab

Jab in combo

High intensity neuromuscular action
Sports Biomech. 2011...
PEAK IMPACT FORCE
= 2000 to 5000 N
= 2.5 to 4.5 of body mass

PEAK IMPULSE

18.3 ± 2.3 N·s-1
Reduction in
momentum of
punc...
F·t=m·v
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

24
Simple approach
Energy production  Force production  Force transmission

= Mechanically effective punches
Winter D. Biom...
Force production
Punches:
•delivered at high velocity
•from action to contact >200 ms +
•require rapid rate of muscular fo...
Force transmission

Effective summation of segmental forces ~ Energy flow

Winter D. Biomechanics
and motor control of
hum...
Energy production
Activity (e.g. punch)
Result from excitation-contraction coupling

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxi...
Sparring

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

29
Footwork + precise jab + intensity = contest control

Capacities set upper
limit to performance...
120
Intensity

100
80
6...
Physiological determinants
HRmax

Capillary density

SVmax

Oxidative enzymes

Hb; %SaO2
COmax

(Ca - Cv O ) max
2

Boxing...
Additional considerations...

Front Physiol. 2012 Apr 11;3:82
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing

32
Cardiac (central) adaptations
Maximal stroke volume is a limiter to boxing intensity
Mechanical overload of the heart caus...
Muscle capillarisation (angiogenesis)
The network of capillaries supplying blood to the exercising muscle is a
limiting fa...
Mitochondrial biogenesis and
oxidative enzyme capacity

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

The number of mitochondri...
What type of training induces
appropriate physiological strain, in a time
effective manner and is specific to
boxing?

Hig...
High energy
demand &
calcium
release

High blood
flow

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

Cardiac strain

37
HIIT Meta analysis

38
Bacon AP, Carter RE, Ogle EA, Joyner MJ (2013) VO2max Trainability and High Intensity Interval Trai...
"There is more than one way to skin the cat"

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Oct;20 Suppl 2:1-10
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):...
Skin it this way?
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro

40
Skin it this way?
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

41
Even longer?

Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Feb;23(1):74-83

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

42
Even longer...?

Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Feb;113(2):385-94
@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

43
Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

44
Train hard. Fight easy.

@alanruddock - Physiology of Pro
Boxing

45
Typical 10 week training plan
FIGHT
0 – 6 weeks

6 – 9 weeks

Development of physical
capacities

Technical training
& spa...
Coaching
opinion &
perspectives

Regular trend
analysis of
collated data

Habitual objective
& subjective
monitoring

Trai...
Acknowledgements
Many thanks to
Dave Hembrough @dwhembro
Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam Universit...
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Physiological support for professional boxing

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The Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University's approach to sport science support to professional boxers including the world famous Ingle gym.

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Physiological support for professional boxing

  1. 1. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 1
  2. 2. Alan Ruddock CSci MSc BSc (Hons.) Chartered Scientist BASES accredited sport & exercise scientist Doctoral researcher Academy of Sport and Physical Activity Sheffield Hallam University | Faculty of Health and Wellbeing A016 Collegiate Hall, Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield S10 2BP email: a.ruddock@shu.ac.uk | Telephone: +44 (0) 114 225 4439 @alanruddock #bxar @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 2
  3. 3. Sport and Exercise Science The scientific study of factors that influence our ability to perform exercise or physical activity @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 3
  4. 4. Physiology of Sport and Exercise The scientific study of how the body responds and adapts to exercise... @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 4
  5. 5. ...to enhance performance @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 5
  6. 6. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 6
  7. 7. Scientific Method Observation Broadcast Conclusion Systematic Enquiry Data Collection Research question Hypotheses Experimental method @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 7
  8. 8. Observation: How to win a boxing match @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 8
  9. 9. Knockout Failing to continue with the contest after a boxer goes „down‟ after a legitimate blow. British Boxing Board of Control rules 3.32 & 3.33 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 9
  10. 10. Cerebellum @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 10
  11. 11. Technical Knockout If at any time during a Contest the Referee decides in his complete discretion that one contestant is outclassed or is unable to continue as a result of injury, or is not in a position to continue boxing or, at the conclusion of any round, is ten points or more behind his opponent, he shall stop the Contest and declare the opponent the winner. British Boxing Board of Control rule 3.34 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 11
  12. 12. Potential neurological trauma Three primary manifestations 1) Acute neurological injuries (causing knockout) 2) Persistent groggy states and post-concussion syndrome 3) Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, “punch drunk syndrome” or “dementia pugilistica” The American Medical Association, Australian Medical Association, and World Medical Association have provided position statements opposing boxing and recommending that boxing be banned @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro 12
  13. 13. Ethical? @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 13
  14. 14. Knowing these risks would our ethics committee approve such activity? I must abide by BASES code of conduct Professional and personal code of conduct 7 a) Members paramount concern is the well-being of their clients 7 g) Members must ensure, where appropriate, the highest standards of safety and working practices and research both in respect of work undertaken by members themselves or by others under their supervision. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 14
  15. 15. Points system For “attack” – direct clean hits with the knuckle part of the glove of either hand to any part of the front or side of the head or body above the belt. For “defence” – guarding, slipping, ducking or getting away from an attack. Where contestants are otherwise equal the majority of points will be given to the one who does most leading off or displays the better style British Board of Boxing Control rule 3.31 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 15
  16. 16. Are boxers malicious thugs who intend to put their own and opponents life at risk? No… The majority intend to display their physical, technical and tactical skills within the rules of the sport. “I’m not in this sport to get hit.” - Kid Galahad @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 16
  17. 17. Safety aspects Positive aspects Medical examinations Doctors present before, during and after contest Referee’s experience Trainers duty of care Health benefits Cultural traditions Economic opportunities Informed decisions Trainers Boxing commissions Promoters Medics Scientists Boxers @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 17
  18. 18. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 18
  19. 19. Performance indicators Defence Attack Jab Rear hand cross Lead hook Rear hook Lead uppercut Rear uppercut Inverted jab Lead hand feint Rear hand feint Head/body feint Foot feint Block both arms Block rear arm Block lead arm Clinch Duck Foot defence Lean back Push Slip left Slip right Roll clockwise Roll anti-clockwise Footwork + precise jab + intensity = contest control J Sports Sci. 2013;31(5):516-28 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 19
  20. 20. Number of punches Punch stats 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Round Mean ± SD number of punches per round 34 ± 3 Mean ± SD time between punches 5 ± 0.5 s Often attacks are sustained clusters. Particularly before TKO @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 20
  21. 21. Offensive Punches (n=336) Successful (n=94, 28%) Unsuccessful (n=242, 72%) Jab (n=51, 54%) Jab (n=185, 76%) Hook (n=18, 19%) Hook (n=30, 12%) Uppercut (n=11, 12%) Uppercut (n=7, 3%) Combination (n=12, 13%) Combination (n=15, 6%) Cross (n=2, 2%) Cross (n=5, 2%) @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 70% punches = jab 21
  22. 22. 26 kph 40 kph Jab Reverse hook 0.6 s 0.2 s Jab Jab in combo High intensity neuromuscular action Sports Biomech. 2011 Mar;10(1):1-11 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 22
  23. 23. PEAK IMPACT FORCE = 2000 to 5000 N = 2.5 to 4.5 of body mass PEAK IMPULSE 18.3 ± 2.3 N·s-1 Reduction in momentum of punching arm explained 95% of variance of the J Sports Sci. 2014 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print] @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing impulse of impact force 23
  24. 24. F·t=m·v @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 24
  25. 25. Simple approach Energy production  Force production  Force transmission = Mechanically effective punches Winter D. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 25
  26. 26. Force production Punches: •delivered at high velocity •from action to contact >200 ms + •require rapid rate of muscular force development •must be impulsive • Increase strength = Increase rate of force development Eur J Appl Physiol. 2006 Jan;96(1):46-52. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 26
  27. 27. Force transmission Effective summation of segmental forces ~ Energy flow Winter D. Biomechanics and motor control of human movement @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 27
  28. 28. Energy production Activity (e.g. punch) Result from excitation-contraction coupling @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 28
  29. 29. Sparring @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 29
  30. 30. Footwork + precise jab + intensity = contest control Capacities set upper limit to performance... 120 Intensity 100 80 60 Cumulative fatigue 40 20 0 A @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing B 30
  31. 31. Physiological determinants HRmax Capillary density SVmax Oxidative enzymes Hb; %SaO2 COmax (Ca - Cv O ) max 2 Boxing intensity @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 31
  32. 32. Additional considerations... Front Physiol. 2012 Apr 11;3:82 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 32
  33. 33. Cardiac (central) adaptations Maximal stroke volume is a limiter to boxing intensity Mechanical overload of the heart caused by reaching and maintaining an elevated cardiac filling is the main stimulus for myocardial adaptations associated with the enhancement of maximal stroke volume (and cardiac output). Intensity of exercise = Cardiac output (heart rate x stroke volume) Sports Med. 2007;37(10):857-80 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 33
  34. 34. Muscle capillarisation (angiogenesis) The network of capillaries supplying blood to the exercising muscle is a limiting factor to boxing intensity Possible stimuli causing skeletal muscle angiogenesis • • • • • Exercise induced increases in blood flow Shear stress Muscle 'stretching' - structural disruptions Lowered oxygen tension (PaO2) Metabolic alterations (caused by oxygen demand) Intensity of exercise = Blood flow, shear stress, structural disruption, changes in PaO2 and oxygen demand Biochem Soc Trans. 2011 Dec;39(6):1628-32 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 34
  35. 35. Mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative enzyme capacity @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing The number of mitochondria and associated oxidative enzymes is a limiter to boxing intensity Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and its binding partners are responsible for many training adaptations and in particular mitochondrial biogenesis. Intensity of exercise = Mechanical stretch & tension Increase in reactive oxygen species Increase in muscle calcium concentration Altered energy status (ADP, AMP) = PGC-1α , number and size of mitochondria and aerobic capacity Sports Science Exchange (2013) Vol. 26, No. 115, 1-5 35
  36. 36. What type of training induces appropriate physiological strain, in a time effective manner and is specific to boxing? High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 36
  37. 37. High energy demand & calcium release High blood flow @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing Cardiac strain 37
  38. 38. HIIT Meta analysis 38 Bacon AP, Carter RE, Ogle EA, Joyner MJ (2013) VO2max Trainability and High Intensity Interval Training in Humans: A MetaAnalysis. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73182. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073182 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0073182 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing
  39. 39. "There is more than one way to skin the cat" Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Oct;20 Suppl 2:1-10 Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 39
  40. 40. Skin it this way? Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro 40
  41. 41. Skin it this way? Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 41
  42. 42. Even longer? Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2013 Feb;23(1):74-83 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 42
  43. 43. Even longer...? Eur J Appl Physiol. 2013 Feb;113(2):385-94 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 43
  44. 44. Sports Med. 2013 May;43(5):313-38 @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 44
  45. 45. Train hard. Fight easy. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 45
  46. 46. Typical 10 week training plan FIGHT 0 – 6 weeks 6 – 9 weeks Development of physical capacities Technical training & sparring 9 - 10 weeks 9.9 weeks Taper & cut Make weight, rehydrate & refuel 9.99 weeks Optimised warm-up strategy @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 46
  47. 47. Coaching opinion & perspectives Regular trend analysis of collated data Habitual objective & subjective monitoring Training direction & decision- making Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2012 Sep;7(3):242-50. @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 47
  48. 48. Acknowledgements Many thanks to Dave Hembrough @dwhembro Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University Dominic Ingle, Ian Grant - Ingle gym @dominicingle @grant_i @inglegym www.inglegym.com Dave Stache @totalbd - Nourish restaurant Edward Winter - Professor of the physiology of exercise @winteredward @alanruddock - Physiology of Pro Boxing 48

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