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The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

The Effects of Skipping Breakfast on the Academic Performan...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Abstract
This study investigates the effects of skipping...
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The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance
Table of Contents

Pages
Abstract

…………………………………………………………...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Introduction
According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s ...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Breakfast is an important contributor to the overall die...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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This study will be carried out in order to find out how ...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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younger the generation, the higher the rate of skipping ...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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participated in the study made significantly greater gai...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Methodology
This research paper is about to study the ef...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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The second part (Part B) consists of two simple IQ test...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Figure 2: The image used in the
Memory IQ tests
(Pictur...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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(100% - 60%), pass (59% - 30%) and fail (29% - 0%). All...
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The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

Number of Respondents who
Skip the Breakfast in the Mor...
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The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

Effects the Students Feels Whenever They
Skip the Break...
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The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

The IQ Test Result
25%

Percentages

20%

20%
18%

20%
...
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University which found that the rate of skipping breakf...
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Since half of the respondents admitted that they become...
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3. More respondents who skipped the breakfast failed th...
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References
Hornby, A. S. (2010). Oxford Advanced Learne...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Wyatt, H. R., Grunwald, G. K., Mosca, C. L., Klem, M. L...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Influence on Attention-concentration, Immediate Memory ...
The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance
Appendices
Appendices contain:
Appendix 1: Questionnaire
App...
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The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

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Abstract

This study investigates the effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance among students in Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia (CFS IIUM). This study has provided the answers for the research question like, what is the importance of breakfast, what is the trend of skipping breakfast among students and what are the effects of skipping breakfast, what is the relationship of the effect skipping breakfast on the academic performance among student in CFS IIUM and do the students aware with the importance of breakfast. Primary data were collected by randomly distributing questionnaires to 20 students in CFS IIUM in the morning. A simple IQ test also attached in the questionnaire to test their focus and memory on the morning they answer the questionnaire. The result of this study is, 55% of the respondents skipped the breakfast and 20% from the breakfast skipper failed the test compare to breakfast eater, only 15%. Since the IQ test was about to examined their focus and memory, it can be analysed that breakfast skipper has lack focus and weak memory as many of them fail the test. As a conclusion, students who skip the breakfast tend to have a weak memory and lack focus. This can affect their academic performance as memory and focus is very important to excel in the study. Skipping breakfast gives negative effects to the academic performance.

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The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance

  1. 1. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance The Effects of Skipping Breakfast on the Academic Performance among students in Centre for Foundation Studies International Islamic University Malaysia (CFS IIUM) Alhafizah A. Ramos Centre for Foundation Studies International Islamic University Malaysia 1
  2. 2. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 2 Abstract This study investigates the effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance among students in Centre for Foundation Studies, International Islamic University Malaysia (CFS IIUM). This study has provided the answers for the research question like, what is the importance of breakfast, what is the trend of skipping breakfast among students and what are the effects of skipping breakfast, what is the relationship of the effect skipping breakfast on the academic performance among student in CFS IIUM and do the students aware with the importance of breakfast. Primary data were collected by randomly distributing questionnaires to 20 students in CFS IIUM in the morning. A simple IQ test also attached in the questionnaire to test their focus and memory on the morning they answer the questionnaire. The result of this study is, 55% of the respondents skipped the breakfast and 20% from the breakfast skipper failed the test compare to breakfast eater, only 15%. Since the IQ test was about to examined their focus and memory, it can be analysed that breakfast skipper has lack focus and weak memory as many of them fail the test. As a conclusion, students who skip the breakfast tend to have a weak memory and lack focus. This can affect their academic performance as memory and focus is very important to excel in the study. Skipping breakfast gives negative effects to the academic performance. Keywords: Effects of skipping breakfast, Skipping Breakfast, Academic performance, focus, memory, breakfast.
  3. 3. 3 The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance Table of Contents Pages Abstract ……………………………………………………………………… 2 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………… 4 Literature Review …………………………………………………………………….... 6 Methodology ……………………………………………………………………….. 9 Findings ……………………………………………………………………….. 12 Discussion ……………………………………………………………………….. 16 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………….. 17 References ……………………………………………………………………….. 19 Appendices ……………………………………………………………………….. 22
  4. 4. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 4 Introduction According to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary (2010, p.918), ‘meal’ can be defined as an occasion when people sit down to eat food, especially breakfast, lunch or dinner. There are five most common set meal times in the Western world yet are practiced nationwide. They are breakfast, lunch, tea break, dinner and supper. Apparently, dinner are always become the largest or the main meal of the day (Martin & Chaney, 2006) but according to Davis (2004) one should “Eat breakfast like a king, lunch like a prince and dinner like a pauper” (p.446). Her words tell us that breakfast is very important and we need to eat more during breakfast compare to other meals. Many other nutritionists also emphasize the importance of breakfast such as McAllister (2004), Wright and Larsen (2011), Greene, Merendino and Jibrin (2009) because we need more energy in the morning than at night due to the active tasks that we need to perform in the day (Wright & Larsen, 2011). Wright and Larsen (2011) also stated that, “Studies shows that people who take breakfast perform better at all task, have more energy throughout the day and tend to weigh less” (p.274). Unfortunately Sindeli (2007), in a report on The Future of Mealtimes, revealed that breakfast is ‘the most missed meal in Europe’ (p.130). As stated before, breakfast is very important. So there would be a lot of negative effects when we skip the breakfast. Copious studies have been carried out to identify the negative effects of skipping breakfast on the study performance among students. A study carried out by a student in Murdoch University, Australia, did not find any relationship between skipping breakfast and academic performance (Khan, 2006). Meanwhile, Phillips (2005) found that students who ate breakfast had a higher success rate on General Biology exams than those students who skip it.
  5. 5. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 5 Breakfast is an important contributor to the overall dietary quality of a human (Evans, 2009). This finding is complementary to another research carried out by Nicklas, O’Niel and Berenson (1998) where they concluded that, people who do not eat breakfast have a significantly lower nutritional status than people who take breakfast. All these finding however need more indepth study to confirm whether skipping breakfast can give negative effects on the academic performance of students. This study is set up to identify the effects of skipping breakfast to the academic performance of the students. The objectives of the study are; 1. To find out the importance of breakfast, 2. To investigate the trend of skipping breakfast among students and the effects if they skip the breakfast 3. To relate the effect of skipping breakfast and the academic performance among students in the Centre for Foundation Studies International Islamic University Malaysia (CFS IIUM). 4. To find out whether the students are aware with the importance of breakfast. This study will provide answers to the following questions; 1. What is the importance of breakfast? 2. What is the trend of skipping breakfast among students and what are the effects of skipping breakfast? 3. What is the relationship of the effect skipping breakfast and the academic performance among student in CFS IIUM? 4. Do the students aware with the importance of breakfast?
  6. 6. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 6 This study will be carried out in order to find out how skipping breakfast can affect the academic performance of the students and to create awareness to them about how important breakfast is and they should not abandon it. Literature Review As breakfast always pointed as the most important meal of the day by many authors, nutritionist and researchers like Davis (2004), McAllister (2004), Greene, Merendino and Jibrin (2009), hence there must be a vast number of benefits we can gain by practicing breakfast. According to Duyff (2011), after eight to ten hours without food, our body needs to replenish its blood sugar supplies. Most importantly, the brain needs a fresh supply of blood sugar to use as its main energy source, because it doesn't have any storage capacity like the muscle do. That means it needs to refuel each morning so it has the energy for sustained mental work. Our muscles also need a fresh supply of blood sugar to help fuel our physical activity. Schmieder (n.d.) also claimed that “Starting your day with a good breakfast boosts your energy, increases your attention span, and heightens your sense of well-being. You’ll be in better control of your emotions.” (One Step at a Time: What to Do, para. 1). Having breakfast can also help us in losing weight (Schlundt, Hill, Sbrocco, Pope-Cordle & Sharp, 1992; Wyatt, Grunwald, Mosca, Klem, Wing & Hill, 2002) and lower the risk of heart failure (Djoussé & Gaziano, 2007). Numerous researches have been carried out to identify the trend of skipping breakfast among children and adolescent. Phillips (2005) had carried out a research on breakfast trend among students in his college in Texas and he found that 34% from his samples do not take breakfast. An Australian finding also provides a report on the study of an Australian survey of 699 thirteen-year-olds concerning the extent of skipping breakfast indicated that approximately 12% of the sample skipped breakfast (Shaw, 1998). A researcher concluded in his study that the
  7. 7. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 7 younger the generation, the higher the rate of skipping breakfast (Zasshi, 2001). Therefore, we can see here that the trend of skipping breakfast is high among teenagers whom are the students. Skipping the breakfast might cause us to abandon all the benefits and importance. This habit can promote the cardiovascular risk factors such as lack of exercise, smoking, high blood pressure, and high serum total cholesterol (Zasshi, 2001). Hence, it may increase the risk of having cardiovascular disease. Gaining weight is also one of the problem that can arouse when we skip the breakfast (Berkey, Rockett,Gillman,Field & Colditz, 2003). There are studies stating that breakfast can enhance the daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake which can be associated with significant improvements in student academic performance (Meyers, Sampson, Weitzman, Rogers, Kayne, 1989; Kleinmana, Hallb, Greenc, Korzec-Ramirezd, Pattonb, Paganoe & Murphy, 2002). Therefore, here we can relate how skipping breakfast would affect the student academic performance. Nicklas et al (1998) said people who do not eat breakfast have a significantly lower nutritional status than people who take breakfast. A book published by OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) ‘Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science’ stated that, “The importance of nutrition for health and human well being is clear. It has direct implication for physical health and particularly for how well the brain functions. We can boost learning capacity through what we eat. For example, studies show that skipping breakfast interferes with cognition and learning” (p.61) The book also include several studies that support the statement like a study undertaken in the United State examined the effects of school breakfast and academic performance among 1023 low income students from third grade through fifth grades. Result showed that children who
  8. 8. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 8 participated in the study made significantly greater gain in overall standardised test scores and showed improvements in math, reading and vocabulary scores (Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science, 2007). In Minnesota elementary schools, a three year Universal School Breakfast pilot study showed a general increase in composite math and reading scores, improved student behaviour, increased attendance and test scores (Minnesota Department of Children, Families and Learning, 1998, as cited in Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science, 2007). All these studies proved that breakfast really can give positive effects to the academic performance. Hence, what would it be if we skip the breakfast regularly? How it can affect the academic performance? Howe (2003) said that, “hunger can affect their attention spans, making it hard to learn. Short-term hunger often arises because a child has missed breakfast" (p.44). He included in his book several previous studies regarding to the effects of skipping breakfast, “Studies in Peru and the United States showed that when nine to 11 years old children had not eaten overnight or in the morning, they were slower in memory recall and made more errors on test (Pollitt and others 1998)” (p.44) Smith (2002) also stated that, skipping breakfast leads to deterioration in academic performance. In process known as metabolic starvation, focused attention, recall and coping with complex mental tasks becomes increasingly more difficult (Smith, 2002, p.107). Although there are various studies undertaken in finding the relationship of taking breakfast and academic performance, further research are needed to see how breakfast really affect the academic performance for the students in CFS IIUM. There is need of compact evaluations of the impact of skipping breakfast to the students.
  9. 9. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 9 Methodology This research paper is about to study the effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance among students in CFS IIUM. The objectives of this research are to describe the importance of breakfast, to investigate the trend of skipping breakfast among students and the effects if they skip the breakfast, to relate the effect of skipping breakfast and the academic performance among students CFS IIUM and to find out whether the students are aware with the importance of breakfast. In order to achieve these goals, several steps have been performed in the research. Sampling is the process of selecting units (e.g. people, organization) from a population of interest so that by studying the sample may fairly generalize the results back to the population from which they were chosen. For this research, the sample population is the students of CFS IIUM. 20 respondents are selected randomly to complete the questionnaire and the age around 18 to 21 years old. All respondents are willing to complete survey questions. Simple random sampling method was used to select the respondents. Survey questions are created consisting of 5 questions and 2 simple IQ test questions. Hence, the questionnaires are divided into two parts. The first part (Part A) consist of 5 questions, including demographic question, do they skip breakfast at the particular morning, their awareness about the importance of breakfast, what is the reasons if they skip the breakfast and what do they feel afterward in the class when they had skipped breakfast. The first question is asking about gender. The next 2 questions are the ‘yes or no’ and the rest are multiple choice questions. Respondents have to tick the most suitable answers for all the questions. They can also answer the last three questions with their own opinion on the space provided.
  10. 10. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 10 The second part (Part B) consists of two simple IQ test that have to be be done within 2 minutes only. The first IQ test is about spotting the difference in two pictures within a minute. This test is carried out to test their focus. Figure 1: The image used in the Focus IQ tests (The Wedding at Cana 'Spot the Difference', (n.d.)
  11. 11. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 11 Figure 2: The image used in the Memory IQ tests (Picture Memory Test, n.d.) The second IQ test is to study the given symbols thoroughly in one minute, and they have to list down all the symbols they remembered. To avoid them from cheating or looking back at the photo to get the correct answer, soon after they study the picture, they have to fold the photo and paste it with a double tape provided on the paper. This test is carried out to test they memory. The questionnaires were distributed among students of CFS IIUM in my class in the morning. This is to make sure that they did not take their lunch yet so the students whom skipped breakfast can be identified and their IQ can be tested just before they take any food. They have to answer the questionnaire immediately when they get it because the IQ test have a required time to answer which is two minutes only. The questionnaires are then collected after all the students have finished answering. I gave the questionnaires to 10 male students and 10 female students. Only 20 respondents are used in this study. The mark for IQ test from each respondent was total up and calculated. The full mark appointed for the IQ test is 15 for focus test, 12 for memory test, and the total is 27. Their marks will be converted to percentage and ranked with excellent
  12. 12. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 12 (100% - 60%), pass (59% - 30%) and fail (29% - 0%). All the results will be transformed into bar chart and pie chart. I would like to test their focus and memory because these elements are very important to perform in the class. Lack of focus and weak memory can affect their performance in the class and indirectly can affect their academic performance in the college. Therefore, I would like to examine whether skipping breakfast can affect their focus and memory in answering the IQ test. Findings Findings are discoveries based on facts, data or responses from the respondents who participate in the research or experiment. In this study, I used survey questions to obtain responds from the students to identify the effects of skipping breakfast to the academic performance. I also undergo a simple IQ test to examine their focus and memory of the students who take breakfast and skip breakfast. After the data was collected and analyzed, it was transformed into a pie chart for Part A question 5 and bar chart for Part B (IQ test result) to make it easier in making comparison. I chose 20 respondents randomly from the students of CFS IIUM where there were 10 male students and 10 female students.
  13. 13. 13 The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance Number of Respondents who Skip the Breakfast in the Morning NO. OF RESPONDENTS 12 10 3 8 6 NOT BREAKFAST 6 BREAKFAST 4 2 7 4 0 MALE FEMALE GENDER Figure 3: Number of Respondents who skip the breakfast From 20 respondents, it is found that 11 from them skipped the breakfast on the day they answered the questionnaire. Only 9 of them took breakfast. 6 out of 10 male students skipped the breakfast while only 3 out of 10 female students skipped the breakfast. Therefore we can see from the bar chart, male students tend to skip breakfast more than female students. Although the number of students whom skipped breakfast is high, result from the question 3 of the questionnaire found that all of the respondents admit that breakfast is important and all of them gave the same reason that taking breakfast can provide energy in the morning. At question 4, the 11 respondents who skipped the breakfast said that the reason why they skip the breakfast is because they were lack of time to take the breakfast.
  14. 14. 14 The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance Effects the Students Feels Whenever They Skip the Breakfast 5% 20% Lack of Focus 50% Lack of Interest Sleepy 25% Other Figure 4: Effects that the students feel whenever they skip the breakfast The last question in the Part A was asking about what they feel in the class whenever they skip the breakfast. Their responds were transformed into a pie chart above. Based on the chart, majority of the respondents feels that they lack of focus in the class whenever they skip the breakfast. 25% of them lack of interest to participate in the class and 20% feel sleepy in the class whenever they skip the breakfast. Only 5% is got the other feeling which is hungry.
  15. 15. 15 The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance The IQ Test Result 25% Percentages 20% 20% 18% 20% 18% 15% 15% Excellent 10% 10% Pass Fail 5% 0% SKIP BREAKFAST TAKE BREAKFAST Group Figure 5: The IQ Test Result The next finding is the result of the IQ test. The figure above shows the ranking of the result between two groups which are skip breakfast and take breakfast. On the ‘skip breakfast’ group, the respondents recorded the same percentage in both Excellent and Pass rank which is 18%. 20% of the respondents were failed in the IQ test whereas in the ‘take breakfast’ group, only 10% failed the test. Although there were only 15% got excellent in the test for ‘take breakfast’ group but 20% pass the test compare to the ‘skip breakfast’ group, only 18% pass and the percentage of failed respondents in ‘skip breakfast group’ is significantly high. Discussion The trend of skipping breakfast among the students of CFS IIUM is high where 55% of the respondents skipped the breakfast. 6 out of 10 male students skip the breakfast compare to female students, only 3 out of 10 skipped the breakfast. This findings support the previous research conducted by Zasshi (2001) at the Department of Public Health, Wakayama Medical
  16. 16. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 16 University which found that the rate of skipping breakfast in men was twice as high as in women. Based on the IQ test result, we can see that high percentage of failing the test come from respondents who skipped the breakfast. Since the test was to examined their focus and memory skill, we can concluded that, the skip breakfast respondents tend to have weaker memory and lack focus than the respondents who took the breakfast. This finding is complementary with the results on question 5 from the questionnaire (Q5: What do you feel afterward whenever you skip the breakfast?). Half of the respondent admitted that they become lack of focus in the class whenever they skip the breakfast. This confirmed the study by Gajre, Fernandez, Balakrishna and Vazir (2008) that skipping breakfast can give negative effects on the student’s attentionconcentration, memory and school achievement. Previous study also corresponded to this result where people who had not eaten overnight or in the morning, become slower in memory recall and made more errors on test (Howe, 2006). Although many of the skip breakfast respondents failed the test, but from the statistic on the IQ test result, their percentage on excellent rank was higher than the take breakfast group. This result is unexpected and unsatisfactory. Excellent rank should be dominated by the take breakfast group but only 15% respondents achieved excellent in the test compare to skip breakfast group, 18%. When the questionnaires are collected, a few questionnaires were not answered completely on the IQ test part although the respondents took the breakfast. This may because of they were busy and do not have much time to answer the IQ test during that time. This would avoid them to get excellent score in the test and affect the accuracy of the result.
  17. 17. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 17 Since half of the respondents admitted that they become lack of focus in the class whenever they skip the breakfast, thus the result of the IQ test was expected as more respondents who skip the breakfast failed the test due to lack of focus. Respondents also admit that they become lack in interest in the class whenever they skip the breakfast. Lack of focus, interest and weaker memory can affect the performance of a student because those elements are very important to absorb knowledge efficiently in the class. Therefore, it is clearly shown here, students who skip breakfast can affect their academic performance. Conclusion This study investigates the effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance among students in CFS IIUM. Primary data were collected by randomly distributing questionnaires to 20 students in CFS IIUM in the morning. A simple IQ test also attached in the questionnaire to test their focus and memory on the morning they answer the questionnaire. As mention earlier in the introduction, the purpose of this study was to find out the importance of breakfast, to investigate trend of skipping breakfast and the effect of skipping breakfast, to relate the effect of skipping breakfast to the academic performance among student in CFS IIUM and to find out whether the student aware with the importance of breakfast. The following conclusions can be drawn based on the findings of the study: 1. All the respondents claimed that breakfast is important as the source of energy in the morning. 2. 55% of the respondents skip the breakfast and more male students skip the breakfast than female students. Half of the respondents said that they become lack of focus in the class whenever they skip the breakfast. This is the effect of skipping breakfast identified in this study.
  18. 18. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 18 3. More respondents who skipped the breakfast failed the IQ test compare to respondents who took breakfast. It’s indicated that they really lack of focus and has a weaker memory. Focus and memory is important to perform in the class. Hence, if we lack of focus and weak memory, it can affect our academic performance. Effects of skipping breakfast can be related to academic performance. 4. Lastly, all the respondents who skipped the breakfast said that lack of time was the reason why they skip it. The results of this study showed that, skipping breakfast can affect the students’ focus and memory. Since the focus and memory is very important to excel in the study, thus we can conclude that, skipping the breakfast can affect the academic performance of a student. However, these findings are only true for CFS IIUM students and cannot be generalized to other university students. The samples are too small and attaching a simple IQ test in the questionnaire is not a very good idea because some of the respondents do not want to answer the IQ test and this can affect the accuracy of the result. The IQ test questions also limited to examine the focus and memory only. A special experiment should be done by selecting bigger number of volunteers who are willing to become either non-skipper or breakfast skipper group for at least a week for observation rather than using random sampling. The IQ test has to be prepared in a special examination and the questions should be varied. This is to make sure an accurate result to be obtained and to identify more effects than focus and memory only. The same study should be done to other university to see if there are any similarities in the results.
  19. 19. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 19 References Hornby, A. S. (2010). Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English (8th ed.). London: Oxford University Press. Martin, J. S., Chaney, L. H. (2012). Global Business Etiquette: to International Communication and Customs. California: ABC-CLIO, LLC. Davis, A. (2004). Let’s Eat Right To Keep Fit. In S. Zerden (Ed.), The Best of Health (p.446). USA: Warren H. Greene, Inc. Wright, J., Larsen, L. J. (2011). Eating Clean For Dummies. Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc. Khan, A. (2006). The Relationship between Breakfast, Academic Performance and Vigilance in School Aged Children. Master Thesis. Murdoch University. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from Murdoch University Theses. Phillips, G. W. (2005). Does Eating Breakfast Affect the Performance of College Students on Biology Exams? Bioscene: Journal of College Biology Teaching, 30(4), 15-19. Evans, S. L. (2009). Nutrition: A Lifespan Approach. United Kingdom: John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Nicklas, T. A., O’Niel, C. E., Berenson, G. S. (1998). Nutrient contribution of breakfast, secular trends, and the role of ready-to-eat cereals: a review of data from the Bogalusa Heart Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67, 757-763. Duyff, R. L. (2011), American Dietetic Association Complete Food and Nutrition Guide. Retrieved April 22, 2012 from http://books.google.com.my/American+Dietetics+ Association+Complete+Food+And+Nutrition+Guide Schmieder, N. (n.d.). Health Issues: The Importance of Breakfast. Beyond The Bend. Retrieved March 16, 2012, from http://www.beyondthebend.com/health/breakfast.htm
  20. 20. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 20 Wyatt, H. R., Grunwald, G. K., Mosca, C. L., Klem, M. L., Wing, R. R., Hill, J. O. (2002). Long-Term Weight Loss and Breakfast in Subjects in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity Research, 10, 78-82. Djousse, L., Gaziano, M. J. (2007). Breakfast Cereals and Risk of Heart Failure in the Physicians’ Health Study I. Retrieved March 16, 2012, from http://archinte.ama assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/167/19/2080 Shaw, M. E. (1998). Adolescent Breakfast Skipping: An Australian Study. Retrieved March 21, 2012, from http://www.espace.library.uq,.edu.au/view/UQ:7963 Zasshi, N. K. E. (2001). Relationship Between Skipping Breakfast and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in the National Survey Data. Retrieved March 21, 2012, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11725527 Berkey, C. S., Rockett, H. R. H., Gillman, M. W., Field, A. E., Colditz, G. A. (2003). Longitudinal Study of Skipping Breakfast and Weight Change in Adolescent. Retrieved March 30, 2012, from http://www.nature.com/ijo/journal/v27/n10/abs/0802402a.html Meyers, A. F., Sampson, A. E., Weitzman, M., Roger, B. L., Kayne, H. (1989). School Breakfast Program and School Performance. Retrieved April 2, 2012, from http://www.archpedi. ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/143/10/1234 Understanding the Brain: The Birth of a Learning Science. (2007). USA: OECD Publishing Howe, P. (2006). World Hunger Series 2006: Hunger and Learning. California: Stanford University Press. Smith, A. (2002). The Brain’s Behind It: New Knowledge About the Brain and Learning. United Kingdom: Network Educational Press Ltd. Vazir, S., Balakrishna, N., Fernandez, S., Gajre, N. S. (2008). Breakfast Eating Habit and its
  21. 21. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance 21 Influence on Attention-concentration, Immediate Memory and School Achievement. Indian Pediatrics, 45, 824-828. The Wedding at Cana ‘Spot the Difference’ [image] (n.d.) Retrieved March 28, 2012, from http://www.cartoonchurch.com/content/cc/the-wedding-at-cana-spot-the-difference/ Short-Term Memory-Test-Picture Memory Test [image] (n.d.) Retrieved March 28, 2012, from http://www.intelligencetest.com/stmemory/games/picture/picture2.htm Purdue University Online Writing Lab (Owl). (2012). American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines. Retrieved March 10, 2012, from http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/ resource/560/01/ Sindeli, D. U. (2007). Health-Warrior. United Kingdom: Lulu Enterprise UK Ltd.
  22. 22. The effects of skipping breakfast on the academic performance Appendices Appendices contain: Appendix 1: Questionnaire Appendix 2: Slides Presentation Appendix 3: Drafts Appendix 4: References 22

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