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CTQ Matrix Identify possible “Hidden” Factories Anand Subramaniam
<ul><li>“ Ideas are like rabbits. You get a couple and learn how to handle them, and pretty soon you have a dozen. ” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- John Steinbeck </li></ul></ul>
CT Matrix = Leverage Point Factor Process A Process B Process C Operation 1 Tool A Product System A Sub-System 1 Element A Characteristic 2 Characteristic 1 Characteristic 3 Characteristic 1 Characteristic 2 Characteristic 3 CTP CTQ System B System C Sub-System 2 Sub-System 3 Element B Element C Operation 3 Operation 2 Tool B Tool C Y = f (X) Product (Y) Tree Process (X) Tree
Relationship - CTS, CTQ, CTP Critical to Satisfaction (CTS) Business Success Critical to Quality (CTQ) Customer Satisfaction Critical to Process (CTP) Product Quality CTQ Process Input CTY (Product Tree) CTX Tree (Process Tree) The CT Matrix Structure
Process Mapping – Benefits Benefits Lists all of the process steps Assists with root cause analysis Lists all of the input variables that allow each step to be carried out (KPIV) Identifies possible “Hidden” Factories It is a living document that may change as the process improvement is developed Allows the team to better scope the project as well as documents how the process is currently being performed Lists all of the output variables (KPOV)
Process Mapping - Essentials Should indicate Major activities / tasks Key Processes & Sub-processes Inputs & Outputs Process Boundaries Customers & Suppliers Document how the process actually operates, not how it is supposed to operate Process Parameters Process Owners Reviewed frequently
Process Mapping – Key Elements Elements KPIV / KPOV Type of Input (C, N, S) Quality Indicator Specifications RTY, PPM, COPQ Types of Gages Value Added (VA) or Non-Value Added (NVA) Control Parameters Cost Per Unit
Process Mapping - Steps Identify the process to be mapped (narrow focus) List process steps of the process is currently being performed Label each process as Value Added (VA), Non-Value Added (NVA) List all KPIV’s (X’s) per process step. (Use the Cause-and-Effect diagram to aid you in identifying the KPIV’s for each process step) Identify type of Input, categorise KPIV’s (X’s) as either Controllable (C), Standard Operating Procedure (S), or Noise (N) Document KPIV’s (X) specifications List the KPOV’s (Y) for each step Document the KPOV’s specifications
Process Parameters Why ? Root cause of a defect is variation of the X’s Reduce defects Defects are also outputs of a process step X’s must be under control to prevent defects Identify X’s which are the sources of the process variation Y’s are the measured results of the process and include the failure modes of the process
Process Parameters - Questions <ul><li>Controllable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How are they monitored? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How often are they verified? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How consistent are they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are optimum target values known? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How much variation is there around the target values? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What are they? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they impossible or impractical to control? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How robust is the system to the noise? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standard Operating Procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do they exist? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they current? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they understood? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are they being followed? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there an audit schedule? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is operator certification performed? </li></ul></ul>
Process Parameters C – Controllable Factors Process factors that can be changed to see the effect on product characteristics. N - Noise Factors Uncontrollable May be controllable, but are not controlled by decision S - Standard Operating Procedures A procedure used to define and run those factors. Tooling, Fixtures Cr - Critical Factors Determined through FMEA, DoE, etc
Process Mapping Macro Level Process Level Micro Level Process - Level #1 Step #1 Process - Level #2 Step #1 Step #2 Process - Level #3 Step #3 Step #1 Step #2 Step #3 Step #3 Step #2
Process & Product Inputs Outputs Process Steps / Tasks Product Parameters, y’s y = f(x) X’s 6 M Man (People) Machine (Equipment) Method (Procedures) Material Measurement Mother Nature (Environment) Parameters C – Controllable N – Noise P – Procedure CR - Critical
<ul><li>“ If you are going through hell, keep going.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Sir Winston Churchill </li></ul></ul>
CREI – Problem Statement Concern What is wrong? (statement of non-conformity) Requirement What is it? (not clearly known or defined) Found in procedures, policies, drawings, specifications, etc. Evidence What data demonstrates that something is wrong? (objective evidence observed that supports statement of nonconformity) Must be verifiable Impact How significant is the problem from a performance and / or cost standpoint?
Problem Types – Simple to Complex Simple / Cause Known / Just Do It Reflects product or process controls established when planning the process Management decision to “live with” such conditions based on acceptable level of risk Can only be eliminated by applying disciplined problem solving to understand true root cause in order to improve process Should be routinely evaluated for cost and impact Complex / Cause Unknown / Dig Deeper May also be anticipated issues for which actual level of risk is now determined to be unacceptable Require concentrated investigation to understand source of problem and process factors leading to problem condition to allow appropriate solutions Unanticipated conditions which occur
Problem Types – Action Type Origin Method Action Just do it Known Trouble- shoot : rework Seen before; can live with impact when problem recurs Dig Deeper Unknown Root cause analysis Data-driven investigation to determine actual factors causing problem condition
<ul><li>“ To repeat what others have said, requires education; to challenge it, requires brains .” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Mary Pettibone Poole </li></ul></ul>