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Aranya Low Cost Housing

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Analysis of the low-cost housing scheme planned by Ar. B.V.Doshi near Indore

Aranya Low Cost Housing

  2. 2. CASE STUDY FACTS•Location - 6km from the centre ofIndore city, M.P.• Client- Indore Development Authority•Principal Architect - Balkrishna Doshi•Project Associate - Mr. Himanshu Parikh• Structural Engineer - M/s Stein Doshi &Bhalla, New Delhi•Project Engineers -EnvironmentalEngineering Consultants, Bombay•Total Built-up Area -100,000 m2•Project Cost - Rs. 100 Million•Year of completion - 1989•Award - Aga Khan award forArchitecture in 1996anard for
  3. 3. PRE-DESIGN STAGE ANALYSISObjectives:• To improve and upgrade the existing slum area• To provide serviced sites for new housing developments instead ofbuilding complete houses.• To provide for 6,500 residential plots ranging in size from 35m2 forEWS to 475m2 for high income groupsFinancial Aspects:• The idea was to mix some middle income plots with EWS plots touse the profits to raise capital towards development of local trades.• Funding – 100% public sources. Sales Local sources National Sources International Sources
  4. 4. OBJECTIVESThe general objectives of Aranya were to:• Create a township with a sense of continuity and fundamentalvalues of security in a good living environment.• Achieve a community character by establishing harmony betweenthe built environment and the people.• Create a balanced community of various socio-economic groups toevolve a framework through design.
  5. 5. EVOLUTION OF MASTER PLANPlan proposed by IDA N N Initial stage of proposed plan with distributed open spaces and street hierarchy NLater stage of development to withrectified orientation to minimize heatgain and increase shading Proposed master plan N
  6. 6. DISTRIBUTION OF AMENITIES• Community facilities grouped in • Community amenities distributedlocal sub centers. evenly•Formal organization •Informality created •Accessibility improved • Lower level community facilities organized in green spaces •Even distribution •Maintains link with town centre •Pedestrian access easier.
  7. 7. ACCESS TO AMMENITIES ( in minutes) N
  8. 8. THE NEIGHBOURHOOD CONCEPT Concept • Slum development project • Inspiration from existing slum settlements in Indore Characteristics • Mixed and multiple land use • Formation of small neighborhoods and houses extending to the outdoors. • Small shops operating within congested areas. • Trees planted in public places • Streets accommodating social, economic and domestic activities.
  9. 9. SITE ANALYSIS • Urban Indore city 214 sq. km. • Major development along Delhi – Mumbai highway running through the city in the north south direction • Surroundings: - Delhi-Mumbai highway on the east - Developing industrial areas on the north, south and west. - Internal city roads to the north, south and west. • Approach through the Delhi – Mumbai highway • Site selection criteria: - Linkages to the city - Employment generating industrial areas in the surroundings.
  10. 10. Existing features:• 1.85 hectares allotted forexisting light industries.Geographical features:• Flat site• A natural water channelrunning diagonally across theSW corner.• Top strata of the black cottonsoil 2-2.5 m thick.• Gradually sloping (Gradient :1:110 approx.) towards thenorth-west corner.
  11. 11. Township level:•The aim was to create a central spine. The master plan was informal withinterlinked space of cultural context, maintenance of hierarchy of road,open spaces, a central location of basic community services.•The central spine was a focus of the converging six sectorsSix Sector level:•This enabled segregation of pedestrian and vehicular movement, gooddistribution of built and unbuilt spaces by promoting interactive land use.
  12. 12. N
  13. 13. ZONING IResidential commercial N
  14. 14. ZONING II DISTRIBUTION OF PLOTS ACCORDING TO INCOME GROUPS Lower income and economically weaker sections of the societyEWS 65% uniformly distributedLIG 11% uniformly distributedMIG 14% close to arteryHIG 9% arterial road
  15. 15. HIERARCHY OF ROADS 60 m 30 m 12 m 15 m 9.5 m 4.5 m 1.5 m N
  16. 16. ROADS • Segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic • Offsets break visual monotony • Hierarchy is based on the volume of the traffic and activities•The roads suit human scale•Use of cul-de-sacs to avoidtraffic
  17. 17. CIRCULATION AND LINKAGES For clear segregation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic: •Vehicular access in the form rectilinear and formal roads in the hierarchy of 4.5m wide to 15m wide road draw the vehicles outwardly. •Pedestrian access in the form of informal interlinked open spaces draws people inwardly.Vehicular roads Informal pedestrian pathways and open spaces
  18. 18. HIERARCHY OF OPEN SPACES• Interlinked informal spaces• Continuous system of open spaces isprovided• Staggered roads create spaces forcommunity congregation• A single large open space is avoided Access to open spaces in minutes
  19. 19. LAND USE DISTRIBUTION Roads 26% ResidentialOpen Spaces Space 9% 58% Community &Commercial facilities 7%
  20. 20. CLIMATE RESPONSIVE FEATURES• Most of the plots small in size and clustered in low rise blocks• Longer side façade oriented in the north-south axis to reduce the solar radiation on the building.• Each house has minimum exposure to wall surface and a common wall.The north south orientation of The building height to street widthclusters ratio is such that streets are shaded except when the sun is overhead
  21. 21. CLIMATE RESPONSIVE FEATURES• The two openings on the north and south permit light and crossventilation.• Courtyards within the houses, cul-de-sacs, public squares and smallactivity areas shaded adequately by adjacent buildings.• Use of locally available building materials.• Topography used for orientation of major infrastructure network andspatial organization.
  22. 22. Plan showing varied houses with backyards (private open spaces)
  23. 23. SITE AND SERVICE SCHEME OF DESIGN •In this scheme services like water tap, toilets and street lights and a plinth are provided around which houses can have different configurations. •Longer side of a block of row house was oriented north south to reduce solar radiation •Provision of vertical expansions •Housing was seen more as a process than a product
  24. 24. SERVICESSITE AND SERVICE APPROACH• Cost-effective• Progressive development of facilities.• Houses built by the people themselves tosuit their needs.• Each family provided with a plot having awater tank, sewerage connection, pavedaccess with street lighting, storm waterdrainage• Service cores - key to this site and service scheme. - nuclei around which houses were built.• Houses were clustered in groups of 10.• Septic tank provided for every 2 clusters.• Water drawn from 3 local reservoirs.•To economize, 20 toilets are connected to1 manhole.• One service line serves four rows ofhouses
  25. 25. SEWERAGE SYSTEM• Major alternatives:- Sewer-less sanitation.-Conventional sewerage system.• The soil being impermeableblack soil of 2m depth,conventional sewerage systemwas adopted.• Designed after thoroughanalysis of topography –naturally slopes towards NW• Higher income groups, usingmore water were located at highground level to generate largeflow..• Lower income groups, usingless water located at lowerground level• This resulted in 10-15%savings.
  26. 26. TREATMENT SYSTEM• For conveyance system, a wet well and lift station was constructed nearthe final manhole.• Oxidation pond - located on the NW corner of the site. - removes biological oxygen - simple in operation - effluent suitable for disposalSTORM WATER DRAINAGE SYSTEM• Very efficient and facilitates healthy and clean living.• Combination of underground and surface drainage system.• Underground used for wider roads• Surface drainage used for internal roadsELECTRICITY• High income and middle-income groups were provided with overheadcables.• Economically Weaker Sections were provided with underground cables
  27. 27. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS•Foundation: Under rimmed piles in concrete, cast in situ locally was usedas the soil was black cotton soil.•Structural members: Reinforced concrete plinth beams, load bearingbrick walls, reinforced concrete slabs.
  28. 28. • Exterior finishes: Bright colour in the façade, railing, grills and cornicesseen in the old houses of Indore used in some houses in the township.• Residents were free to use any material like brick or stone that werelocally available
  29. 29. LANDSCAPE• Landscape and green areas include flowering and shade giving trees with thick ground cover, including lantana, an ever-green tree , that requires little maintenance.• Trees include casuarinas, bottle brush and eucalyptus
  30. 30. CONCLUSION • It understands the traditional Indian habits • Planning and design is in accordance with the prevailing socio-economic and technological conditions • Cost –effective construction materials and techniques have been adopted • Planning is “whole to part” – i.e. From township level to dwelling unit level. • Accessibility has been an essential factor for designing.• Consistency in every aspect• Staggered roads, preventthorough traffic, reducespeed of vehicles• Climate responsive and siteresponsive design