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Soil Health Research and Development in PNG

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Soil Health Research and Development in PNG by Dr Ramakrishna Akkinapally

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Soil Health Research and Development in PNG

  1. 1. Soil Health Research and Development in PNG Dr Ramakrishna Akkinapally Deputy Director General National Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) Papua New Guinea (PNG) Promoting Excellence in Agricultural Research for Development
  2. 2. • Population: 8.5 million • Growth rate 2.7% • Total land area: 465,000 km2 • Apart from New Guinea island, the country has four large islands (Manus, New Ireland, New Britain, and Bougainville) and some 600 small islands lying between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean • Climate : Tropical monsoon • Rainfall: 2500-4000 mm Geography and Socioeconomic Situation
  3. 3. Agriculture in PNG Development • 23% GDP (of K13.5 billion) is from agriculture • 17% of GDP is from non- export agriculture • Less than 10% of non-export commodities are marketed
  4. 4. Precursors to Soil Health Issues • Rapid population growth leading to reduced rotation length leading to fertility decline • Unsustainable logging: Erosion, fertility decline, reduced carbon stocks, loss of biodiversity • Mining: Immediate site impacts and risks of off-site contamination • High rain fall and steep slopes leading to soil erosion • Small-scale agriculture moving to steeper less suitable lands • Accelerated soil erosion with plantations on marginal sloping lands • Salinization and sodification • Saltwater intrusion • Loss of soil biodiversity • Waterlogging • Nutrient imbalance • Nutrient mining
  5. 5. Unsustainable cultivation practices • Shortening fallow • Nutrients mining • Poor Nutrients conservation • Nutrients imbalance • Traditional cultivation practices
  6. 6.                                                                                      # Kandep # WABAG # Kompiam # Tambul # MOUNT HAGEN # KUNDIAWA # Gumine # Chuave # Lufa # Henganofi # Kainantu # GOROKA N EW S  Towns Altitude  1371 - 1473  1474 - 1674  1675 - 1962  1963 - 2216  2217 - 2614 6° 6° 5° 5° 143° 144° 145° 146° Declining Soil Fertility
  7. 7.                                                                                      # Kandep # WABAG # Kompiam # Tambul # MOUNT HAGEN # KUNDIAWA # Gumine # Chuave # Lufa # Henganofi # Kainantu # GOROKA N EW S  Towns Altitude  1371 - 1473  1474 - 1674  1675 - 1962  1963 - 2216  2217 - 2614 6° 6° 5° 5° 143° 144° 145° 146° Declining Soil Fertility Acute K deficiency Enga W. Highlands E. Highlands
  8. 8.                                                                                      # Kandep # WABAG # Kompiam # Tambul # MOUNT HAGEN # KUNDIAWA # Gumine # Chuave # Lufa # Henganofi # Kainantu # GOROKA N EW S  Towns Altitude  1371 - 1473  1474 - 1674  1675 - 1962  1963 - 2216  2217 - 2614 6° 6° 5° 5° 143° 144° 145° 146° Declining Soil Fertility Acute K deficiency Acute S deficiency Enga W. Highlands Simbu E. Highlands
  9. 9.                                                                                      # Kandep # WABAG # Kompiam # Tambul # MOUNT HAGEN # KUNDIAWA # Gumine # Chuave # Lufa # Henganofi # Kainantu # GOROKA N EW S  Towns Altitude  1371 - 1473  1474 - 1674  1675 - 1962  1963 - 2216  2217 - 2614 6° 6° 5° 5° 143° 144° 145° 146° Declining Soil Fertility Acute K deficiency Acute S deficiency Background P deficiency Background P deficiency Background P deficiency Enga W. Highlands Simbu E. Highlands
  10. 10. Declining Soil Fertility Some reasons for K and S deficiencies
  11. 11. Declining Soil Fertility Some reasons for K and S deficiencies Removal of K and S-rich vines from cropping area
  12. 12. SO2 Declining Soil Fertility Removal of K and S-rich vines from cropping area Burning of vegetation releasing SO2 to atmosphere Some reasons for K and S deficiencies
  13. 13. K+ SO4 2- Declining Soil Fertility Removal of K and S-rich vines from cropping area Leaching and outwash of K and S from ash Some reasons for K and S deficiencies
  14. 14. Declining Soil Fertility Reason for background P deficiency
  15. 15. Declining Soil Fertility Reason for background P deficiency Fe-OH2 + Al-OH2 + Al-OH2 + Soil particle H2PO4 - H2PO4 - H2PO4 - Phosphorus fixation in acidic soil environment
  16. 16. Declining Soil Fertility & Health Challenges  Capacity  Infrastructure (modern analytical and field gadgets)  Funding  Poor extension of new technologies  Lack of Farmer awareness  Policy support (on mining, logging, plantation on marginal soils etc)
  17. 17. Recent search Initiatives • How do soil amendments—like cover crops, biochar, manure, and improved crop fallows— affect soil chemistry, soil biology, and crop productivity? • How do organic, conventional, and mixed crop management systems affect soil health? • How does the long-term use of a soil management practice affect soil microbial diversity? • How does soil microbial diversity, in turn, affect greenhouse gas production and soil structure? • How does the long-term use of a soil management practice affect the amount of atmospheric carbon sequestered in the soil?
  18. 18. • Legume Cover crops • Improved fallows • Application of compost or other organic wastes • Bio-fertilizer • Balanced Fertilization Priority Areas Integrated Nutrient Management
  19. 19. Improved SALT system for sustainable crop production 1. Vetiver hedgerow
  20. 20. Work together with partners to combat food insecurity and malnutrition Thank You

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