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Religion
Religion
O Anchor of identity
O Gives meaning to life
O Provides personal gratification
O Release from frustrations and anxieties
Sociology & Religion
O NOT to criticize
O Goal is to study how
  religion is organized
  O How it affects the
    members of a given
    society
The Elementary Forms of
      Religious Life
O Two questions
  O What is religion?
  O What are the functions of religion for
    society?
O Study of indigenous Australians
Religion is…
O “A unified system of beliefs and practices
  relative to sacred beings, that is to say,
  things set apart and forbidden – beliefs
  and practices which unite into one single
  moral community called a Church, all
  those who adhere to them”
Cultural Component
O System of beliefs
  O Beliefs – states of opinions
  O Practices – rights, modes of action
  O Beliefs and practices exist within a social
    context
     O Consistent with the values and norms of the
      culture
Social Organizational
         Component
O Community or Church
  O Collective of persons who share similar
    beliefs and practices
Sacred Things
O Profane
  O Realm of the every day world
O Sacred
  O Objects or ideas that are treated with
    reverence and awe
    O Existing only in relation to the profane
    O Anything can become sacred
    O Not a property of the object
    O Exists in the mind of the believer
The Elementary Forms of
      Religious Life
O Religion developed
 out of group
 experience
  O Performing rituals
    results in developing
    a sense of awe
    O Reinforces the
      moral norms of
      society
The Elementary Forms of
      Religious Life
O Anomie
  O When a society is no longer in awe of
    moral norms
  O Normlessness
Religion has…
O A set of beliefs
O Things considered sacred
O A community of believers
O A set of rituals, ceremonies or behaviors
O A form of organization
Types of Religion
O Animism
  O Belief that spirits in habit virtually
    everything in nature
  O Spirits can be influence by specific rituals
Types of Religion
O Totemism
  O Worship of plants, animals
    or other natural objects as
    gods and ancestors
  O Durkheim
    O Totems were expressions
      of a society’s conceptions
      about itself
       O True of all societies
Types of Religion
O Shamanism
  O Belief that certain
    individuals have
    special skill or
    knowledge in
    influencing the spirits
    that affect processes
    and events in their
    environment
Types of Religion
O Polytheism
  O Belief in and
    worship of more
    than one god
O Monotheism
  O Belief in and
    worship of one
    god
Troeltsch’s Categories of
          Religion
O Mysticism
  O Belief that spiritual or
    divine truths come to
    us through intuition
    and meditation, not
    through the use of
    reason or the ordinary
    range of human
    experience and
    senses
Troeltsch’s Categories of
          Religion
O Church
  O An institutionalized organization of people
    who share common religious beliefs
Troeltsch’s Categories of
          Religion
O Three kinds of Churches
  O Ecclesia – an official state religion that
    includes all or most members of a society
  O Denominations – not officially linked to the
    state
  O Sects – small groups that have broken away
    from a parent church and that call for a
    return to old ways
    O Follow rigid doctrines & fundamentalist
      teachings
Troeltsch’s Categories of
          Religion
O Cult
  O Directed by a charismatic leader
  O Call for a new, unique and frequently
    unusual lifestyle
Conflict Theory
O Religion is a tool of the elite to keep the
  lower classes in check
O Counsels the masses to accept their
  positions and be humble
O “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed
  creature, the sentiment of a heartless
  world, and the soul of soulless conditions.
  It is the opium of the people.”
Marx on Religion
O Camera obscura
  O “inverted world consciousness”
  O “Man makes religion; religion does not
    make man.”
Marx on Religion
O “The religious world is but the reflex of the real
  world.”
O “The abolition of religion as the illusory
  happiness of men is a demand for their
  real happiness. The call to abandon their
  illusions about their condition is a call to
  abandon a condition that requires
  illusions.”
Durkheim
O We typically think of religion as another
  way of thinking
  O True function of religion is to make us act
    and help us live our lives
  O “The worshiper who has communed with
    his god is not only a man who sees new
    truths that the unbeliever does not know;
    he is a man who is capable of more.”
Durkheim
O All societies have religion
  O We perceive society as something greater
    than ourselves and give it supernatural
    existence
  O More complex society, more complex
    religion
Durkheim
O “Nearly all great social institutions are
  born of religion.”
  O “In order for the chief aspects of collective
     life to have begun as merely diverse
     aspects of religious life, religious life clearly
     must have been the pre-eminent form and
     abbreviated expression of the whole of
     collective life. If religion generated
     everything that is essential in society, this
     is because the idea of society is the soul of
     religion.”
Durkheim
O Religion is an expression of social
  cohesion
  O “The collective ideal that religion
    expresses, then, Is not due to some innate
    power of the individual, but rather to the
    school of collective life that the individual
    has learned to idealize.”
  O “A society can neither create nor recreate
    itself without at the same time creating the
    ideal.”
Functionalism
O Religion is a requirement for group life
O Manifest and latent functions and
  dysfunctions
  O Manifest functions –
    solidarity, control, answers, ceremonies/ritu
    als, emotional support
  O Latent functions – mate selection, psychic
    reward for good deeds
  O Dysfunctions – exclusion, division, status
    quo
Robert Bellah
O Civil religion
Religion has…
O A set of beliefs
O Things considered sacred
O A community of believers
O A set of rituals, ceremonies or behaviors
O A form of organization

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Jude: The Acts of the Apostates: Waterless Clouds (vv.8-13).pptx
 
Worldwide kala ilam, Black magic specialist in Pakistan Or Kala jadu expert i...
Worldwide kala ilam, Black magic specialist in Pakistan Or Kala jadu expert i...Worldwide kala ilam, Black magic specialist in Pakistan Or Kala jadu expert i...
Worldwide kala ilam, Black magic specialist in Pakistan Or Kala jadu expert i...
 

Religion

  • 2. Religion O Anchor of identity O Gives meaning to life O Provides personal gratification O Release from frustrations and anxieties
  • 3. Sociology & Religion O NOT to criticize O Goal is to study how religion is organized O How it affects the members of a given society
  • 4.
  • 5. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life O Two questions O What is religion? O What are the functions of religion for society? O Study of indigenous Australians
  • 6. Religion is… O “A unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred beings, that is to say, things set apart and forbidden – beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them”
  • 7. Cultural Component O System of beliefs O Beliefs – states of opinions O Practices – rights, modes of action O Beliefs and practices exist within a social context O Consistent with the values and norms of the culture
  • 8. Social Organizational Component O Community or Church O Collective of persons who share similar beliefs and practices
  • 9. Sacred Things O Profane O Realm of the every day world O Sacred O Objects or ideas that are treated with reverence and awe O Existing only in relation to the profane O Anything can become sacred O Not a property of the object O Exists in the mind of the believer
  • 10. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life O Religion developed out of group experience O Performing rituals results in developing a sense of awe O Reinforces the moral norms of society
  • 11. The Elementary Forms of Religious Life O Anomie O When a society is no longer in awe of moral norms O Normlessness
  • 12. Religion has… O A set of beliefs O Things considered sacred O A community of believers O A set of rituals, ceremonies or behaviors O A form of organization
  • 13. Types of Religion O Animism O Belief that spirits in habit virtually everything in nature O Spirits can be influence by specific rituals
  • 14. Types of Religion O Totemism O Worship of plants, animals or other natural objects as gods and ancestors O Durkheim O Totems were expressions of a society’s conceptions about itself O True of all societies
  • 15. Types of Religion O Shamanism O Belief that certain individuals have special skill or knowledge in influencing the spirits that affect processes and events in their environment
  • 16. Types of Religion O Polytheism O Belief in and worship of more than one god O Monotheism O Belief in and worship of one god
  • 17.
  • 18. Troeltsch’s Categories of Religion O Mysticism O Belief that spiritual or divine truths come to us through intuition and meditation, not through the use of reason or the ordinary range of human experience and senses
  • 19. Troeltsch’s Categories of Religion O Church O An institutionalized organization of people who share common religious beliefs
  • 20. Troeltsch’s Categories of Religion O Three kinds of Churches O Ecclesia – an official state religion that includes all or most members of a society O Denominations – not officially linked to the state O Sects – small groups that have broken away from a parent church and that call for a return to old ways O Follow rigid doctrines & fundamentalist teachings
  • 21. Troeltsch’s Categories of Religion O Cult O Directed by a charismatic leader O Call for a new, unique and frequently unusual lifestyle
  • 22.
  • 23. Conflict Theory O Religion is a tool of the elite to keep the lower classes in check O Counsels the masses to accept their positions and be humble O “Religion is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the sentiment of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless conditions. It is the opium of the people.”
  • 24. Marx on Religion O Camera obscura O “inverted world consciousness” O “Man makes religion; religion does not make man.”
  • 25. Marx on Religion O “The religious world is but the reflex of the real world.” O “The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of men is a demand for their real happiness. The call to abandon their illusions about their condition is a call to abandon a condition that requires illusions.”
  • 26.
  • 27. Durkheim O We typically think of religion as another way of thinking O True function of religion is to make us act and help us live our lives O “The worshiper who has communed with his god is not only a man who sees new truths that the unbeliever does not know; he is a man who is capable of more.”
  • 28. Durkheim O All societies have religion O We perceive society as something greater than ourselves and give it supernatural existence O More complex society, more complex religion
  • 29. Durkheim O “Nearly all great social institutions are born of religion.” O “In order for the chief aspects of collective life to have begun as merely diverse aspects of religious life, religious life clearly must have been the pre-eminent form and abbreviated expression of the whole of collective life. If religion generated everything that is essential in society, this is because the idea of society is the soul of religion.”
  • 30. Durkheim O Religion is an expression of social cohesion O “The collective ideal that religion expresses, then, Is not due to some innate power of the individual, but rather to the school of collective life that the individual has learned to idealize.” O “A society can neither create nor recreate itself without at the same time creating the ideal.”
  • 31. Functionalism O Religion is a requirement for group life O Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions O Manifest functions – solidarity, control, answers, ceremonies/ritu als, emotional support O Latent functions – mate selection, psychic reward for good deeds O Dysfunctions – exclusion, division, status quo
  • 33. Religion has… O A set of beliefs O Things considered sacred O A community of believers O A set of rituals, ceremonies or behaviors O A form of organization