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To be, or not to be (moral) Nicholas David Bowman, Ph.D. Sven Jöckel, Dr. phil. Leyla Dogruel  ? Joeckel, S., Dogruel, L, ...
“ Gut or Game” <ul><li>Series of studies in German and the US examining how morals guide (interactive) behaviors </li></ul...
How do these make you feel?  11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
Moral Foundations Theory  <ul><li>Model of intuitive morality </li></ul><ul><li>Argues for a “first draft” of morality, ed...
Moral Foundations Theory  11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 Authority Loyalty Purity Harm/Care Fairness
Intuitive vs. Rational Morality  <ul><li>Tabular rasa  approach </li></ul><ul><li>“ quandary ethics” </li></ul><ul><li>Foc...
Morality and Technology  11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 As we become increasingly mediated, we wonder how folks respond to s...
Three Studies  <ul><li>Digital Natives and Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Immigrants and Decision-Making </li><...
Neverwinter Nights, modified 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
Digital Natives  <ul><li>Digital Natives = born into technology  </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusted to social mores of Internet, g...
Impact of Morality on Decisions <ul><li>The linear relationship (H1)  </li></ul><ul><li>The binary relationship (H2) </li>...
Logistic (Linear) Regression 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 *** = p <.001; ** = p <.01, * = p <.05 (*) = p <.1, ((*)) = p <....
Binary Relationship (H2) <ul><li>Expect to see fewest violations in the most important moral module  </li></ul><ul><li>Thr...
What determines module salience? <ul><li>Most salient moral module was determined as one which participants scored highest...
Relative module importance 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 A) Sig. ∆ High vs. Low B) Non-random (highest salience) C) Random ...
Conclusions <ul><li>Main findings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If morality was high, no violation  “gut” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Conclusions and Future Directions <ul><li>What we need to investigate in the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of moral...
Questions? <ul><li>Contact Nick Bowman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Communication Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
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Adolescents, Morality and Interactive Entertainment: The influence of moral salience on actions and entertainment experience in interactive media.

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The current study examines the culpability of adolescents’ innate moral in influencing decisions in and subsequent enjoyment of an interactive media environment. Morality was assessed using Moral Foundations Theory (cf. Haidt & Joseph, 2007), which to this point had not been applied to either adolescents or interactive media. In an experimental design, participants from two countries, the US (N =91) and Germany (N = 94), used a computer simulation where they were confronted with the decision to violate or uphold various aspects of morality. Data suggest that in German adolescents, moral salience leads to a decrease in decisions to commit moral violations, while in US adolescents, decisions to commit moral violations appeared to be random. Enjoyment was not influenced by moral module salience in either group groups.

Publié dans : Technologie, Spirituel
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Adolescents, Morality and Interactive Entertainment: The influence of moral salience on actions and entertainment experience in interactive media.

  1. 1. To be, or not to be (moral) Nicholas David Bowman, Ph.D. Sven Jöckel, Dr. phil. Leyla Dogruel ? Joeckel, S., Dogruel, L, & Bowman, N. D. (2011, November). Adolescents, Morality and Interactive Entertainment: The influence of moral salience on actions and entertainment experience in interactive media. Top five papers in Mass Communication, National Communication Association, New Orleans.
  2. 2. “ Gut or Game” <ul><li>Series of studies in German and the US examining how morals guide (interactive) behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Four data collections age (2) x culture (2) </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern of data suggest that morals do guide in-game decisions (“gut”) but only when cued; otherwise, behaviors are random (“game”) </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on adolescents (12- and 13-year-olds) </li></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
  3. 3. How do these make you feel? 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
  4. 4. Moral Foundations Theory <ul><li>Model of intuitive morality </li></ul><ul><li>Argues for a “first draft” of morality, edited by experience </li></ul><ul><li>Experiences differ between cultures* </li></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 Authority Loyalty Purity Harm/Care Fairness
  5. 5. Moral Foundations Theory 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 Authority Loyalty Purity Harm/Care Fairness
  6. 6. Intuitive vs. Rational Morality <ul><li>Tabular rasa approach </li></ul><ul><li>“ quandary ethics” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on actions and scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive (moral) reasoning </li></ul><ul><li>Morality constantly monitored </li></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 Intuitive Morality <ul><li>Innate moral foundations </li></ul><ul><li>“ evolutionary ethics” </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on culture and character </li></ul><ul><li>Moral dumbfounding </li></ul><ul><li>Morality considered on encounter </li></ul>Rational Morality
  7. 7. Morality and Technology 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 As we become increasingly mediated, we wonder how folks respond to said mediation. How might moral salience guide decisions in mediated environments? Increased salience should decrease likelihood of committing a violation, but what about decreased salience? And how does this influence enjoyment of a mediated environment (i.e. video game)? How does this process influence enjoyment?
  8. 8. Three Studies <ul><li>Digital Natives and Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Immigrants and Decision-Making </li></ul><ul><li>Morality, Nationality, and Media Preference </li></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 <ul><li>Four samples </li></ul><ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children (n = 91, M = 12.84, 46% ♀) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly (n = 62, M = 68.02, 79% ♀) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children (n = 94, M = 13.11, 55% ♀) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elderly (n = 54, M = 66.54, 57% ♀) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Neverwinter Nights, modified 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
  10. 10. Digital Natives <ul><li>Digital Natives = born into technology </li></ul><ul><li>Adjusted to social mores of Internet, gaming </li></ul><ul><li>Morality is “under (social) construction” </li></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 Germany US Salience % Violation Salience % Violation Harm/ care 4.44 (.98) 30% 4.47 (.99) 64% Fairness/ reciprocity 4.37 (.95) 12% 4.36 (.91) 24% Authority/ respect 3.89 (.96) 57% 4.27 (.95) 63% In-group/ loyalty 3.88 (.85) 38% 4.33 (.94) 48% Purity/ sanctity 3.61 (.92) 54% 3.97 (.99) 40%
  11. 11. Impact of Morality on Decisions <ul><li>The linear relationship (H1) </li></ul><ul><li>The binary relationship (H2) </li></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 OR
  12. 12. Logistic (Linear) Regression 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 *** = p <.001; ** = p <.01, * = p <.05 (*) = p <.1, ((*)) = p <. 2 , (ns) = p > .2 Digital Natives Digital Immigrants German Adolescents American Adolescents American Elderly German Elderly Harm/ Care Ns Ns Ns (exp)B = 3.13 ((*)) Fairness/ Reciprocity Ns Ns Ns Ns Authority/ Respect Ns Ns Ns (exp)B = 0.56 ((*)) In-group/ Loyalty Ns Ns Ns Ns Purity/ Sanctity Ns (exp)B = 1.36 ((*)) Ns Ns
  13. 13. Binary Relationship (H2) <ul><li>Expect to see fewest violations in the most important moral module </li></ul><ul><li>Three requirements for support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly less violations for salient modules than for not salient modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-random distributions of violations for salient modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Random distribution of violations in non-salient modules </li></ul></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
  14. 14. What determines module salience? <ul><li>Most salient moral module was determined as one which participants scored highest </li></ul><ul><li>Least salient moral module was determined as one which participants scored lowest </li></ul><ul><li>No set „cut-off“ number; se we looked for significance difference between the two </li></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
  15. 15. Relative module importance 11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011 A) Sig. ∆ High vs. Low B) Non-random (highest salience) C) Random (lowest salience) Digital Natives German Adolescents Yes (.002) Yes (21%) Yes (47%) US Adolescents No (.118) No (54%) Yes (41%) Digital Immigrants German Elderly Yes (<.001) Yes (24%) No (77%) US Elderly Yes (<.001) Yes (12%) Yes* (39%)
  16. 16. Conclusions <ul><li>Main findings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If morality was high, no violation “gut” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If morality was low, violation was random “game” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support for binary relationship, not linear one </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What does it mean for digital media? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Game” reaction is default, until “gut” is primed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral orientations learned in RL seem to drive decisions in the virtual world… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… not all children have sophisticated moral codes that have been developed! </li></ul></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
  17. 17. Conclusions and Future Directions <ul><li>What we need to investigate in the future </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects of moral decisions on enjoyment in interactive media (didn’t really find in here) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the content and experience triggers that make morality a salient concern? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presence might serve as a “moral override” (still investigating…where is Raney?) </li></ul></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011
  18. 18. Questions? <ul><li>Contact Nick Bowman </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Communication Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Virginia University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>108 Armstrong Hall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morgantown, WV 26506 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul>11/27/11 (c) ND Bowman, 2011

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