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THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN     HIP HOP MUSIC AND    SUBSTANCE ABUSE ASMODERATED AND MEDIATED BY   ADDITIONAL VARIABLES     M...
Music and Substance Abuse“So what we get drunk,So what we smoke weed.We’re just having fun.We don’t care who sees.So what ...
Music and Substance Abuse   Harry Shapiro (1988) in „Drugs & Rock„n„Roll“:     nearly every music genre used to have his...
Hip Hop and Substance Abuse   Hip Hop and Rap Music often seems to    contain drugs (mostly positively associated)   S. ...
Hip Hop and Substance Abuse   Meng-Jinn Chan et al. (2006):     over 1000 college students (15-25 years), music-     lis...
Hip Hop and Substance Abuse   T. Bogt et al. (2012):     relationships                  between music preferences and   ...
Cultivation TheoryGeorge Gerbner, 1976                        gender                       [ ]age                         ...
Social Learning TheoryBandura, 1977                  observation                   retention                  ability to c...
The resources are available           “   95 percent of state and local law               enforcement agencies describe th...
Personal Opinions on Drug UseThey can get ideas from cultivation theoryand learn to reproduce the behavior with social lea...
Personal Opinions on Drug Use, cont.                     •religious and spiritual experiences                  •higher lev...
Social Identity Theory   Developed by Henri Tajfel in the 1970s   Defined as “a social psychological analysis of    the ...
Social Identity Theory   Shared beliefs and values   More inclined to act like those around you to fit    in   Group me...
Subculture   Youth subculture- shared values within a group
Subculture
Music & Subculture   Popular music and opinions of illegal drugs   Music is important to youth   Fills emotional needs...
Acceptance in the Subculture   Drug use desensitized in youth subculture   Deviant, but leisure-oriented
Club Culture   Important to stay up-to-date on trends   Use drugs to enhance club experience   Only the subculture had ...
What is Sensation Seeking?   Personality Trait   “Tendency to seek novel, varied, complex and    intense sensations and ...
Four Components   Trill   Adventure seeking   Disinhibition   Boredom susceptibilty
Positive and Negative Sides ofSensation Seeking   Positive- Extreme Sport   Negative- Unhealthy risky behaviors
Sensation seeking and druguse   High sensation seekers are more likely to be    involved in drug use    Underestimate the...
Sensation Seeking Over Time   Low sensation seekers- remained low level in    use, frequency, quantity   High sensation ...
Sensation Seeking and Peerinfluence   Is Peer influence stronger than sensation    seeking?   High sensation seekers = H...
Sensation Seeking and PeerInfluence   41.6%- non using youth compared to 97.5%    using youth
Sensation Seeking and Music   Heavy Metal Music = High sensation seeking   Positive results in all but one reckless    b...
Overview   Sensation Seeking role   The sensation seeking trait causes them to    participate in drug useH4: People with...
Figure 1
Do you haveany questions?
ReferencesBandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning   Press.Bates, M. (1985). The relationship...
ReferencesDiamond Sarah. , Bermudez Rey, , & Schensul Jean, (2006). Whats the rap    about ecstasy? popular music and drug...
ReferencesHogg, M. (2006). Social identity theory In P. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary Social   Psychological Theories (pp. 111...
ReferencesMuggs, J. (2005, December 8) UK Telegraph. “Should hip hop take the rap for  rioting?” web. Accessed 2012, July ...
ReferencesSalasuo Mikko . , & Seppala Pauliina , (2004). Drug use within the finnish club   culture as marks of distinctio...
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The Effect of Hip Hop Music on Drug Usage and the Additional Factors That Make this Relationship Possible

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The following is a student presentation from the Summer 2012 "Media Psychology and Influence" course taught as part of the SPICE Study Abroad program at Universitat Erfurt. In this course, students were asked to propose a theoretically- and practically-relevant research model about one facet of media psychology and communication. Read more about SPICE: http://www.uni-erfurt.de/kommunikationswissenschaft/studium/bachelor-kommunikationswissenschaft/spice/

ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that listening to hip hop and rap music leads to higher substance abuse. This paper seeks to highlight existing research that might further our understanding of the topic, present and apply communication theory to help us explain this possible connection, and suggest other mediator and moderator variables which alter or strengthen the drug usage of individual persons. In this context we suggest taking a closer look at personal opinions of drug use and acceptability of drug usage in the subculture, in addition to a sensation seeking personality. Therefore we developed a structural equation model, which we will present in this paper after explaining why we suggest that listening to music does not lead directly to higher substance abuse.

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The Effect of Hip Hop Music on Drug Usage and the Additional Factors That Make this Relationship Possible

  1. 1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIP HOP MUSIC AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE ASMODERATED AND MEDIATED BY ADDITIONAL VARIABLES Media Psychology Sean Aquadro (WVU), Leighanne Dean Summer 2012, University of Erfurt (Oklahoma), Friederike Lehmann (Uni Erfurt), Dr. Nicholas Bowman - Professor Katherine Webster (WVU)
  2. 2. Music and Substance Abuse“So what we get drunk,So what we smoke weed.We’re just having fun.We don’t care who sees.So what we go out.That’s how it’s supposed to be,Living young and wild and free.”(Young, Wild and Free by Snoop Dog and Wiz Khalifa)
  3. 3. Music and Substance Abuse Harry Shapiro (1988) in „Drugs & Rock„n„Roll“:  nearly every music genre used to have his own party drugs  alcohol and tobacco stayed favored until today
  4. 4. Hip Hop and Substance Abuse Hip Hop and Rap Music often seems to contain drugs (mostly positively associated) S. Diamond et al. (2006):  content analysis of 69 rap songs (1996-2003) D. Herd (2008):  changingof prevelence of drug use in rap music from 1979-1997, 341 rap music lyrics  songs with references to drugs increased sixfold
  5. 5. Hip Hop and Substance Abuse Meng-Jinn Chan et al. (2006):  over 1000 college students (15-25 years), music- listening habits and use of alcohol and drugs & aggressive behaviors rap music alcohol use, illicit- drugs use, aggressive behavior
  6. 6. Hip Hop and Substance Abuse T. Bogt et al. (2012):  relationships between music preferences and substance use, 18,103 fifteen-years-olds from 10 European countries  for Hip Hop and R„n„B: both, positively and negatively there must be some other variables, which influence the association to drugs of an individual person!
  7. 7. Cultivation TheoryGeorge Gerbner, 1976 gender [ ]age class vocation lifestyle
  8. 8. Social Learning TheoryBandura, 1977 observation retention ability to copy motivation
  9. 9. The resources are available “ 95 percent of state and local law enforcement agencies describe the availability of marijuana as high or moderate. -National Drug Intelligence Center, 2005Glorification of prison doesnot discourage behavior “ When . . . incarceration is not sufficiently stigmatized, it loses it value as deterrence. -Butler, 2004
  10. 10. Personal Opinions on Drug UseThey can get ideas from cultivation theoryand learn to reproduce the behavior with social learningtheorybut realistically, personal values are a necessary component “ A value is an enduring belief that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable -Rokeach, 1973 “ A value is a conception…of the desirable which influences the selection from available modes, means, and ends of action."-Kluckholn, 1951Behavior is the result of values at attitudes (Fritzsche, 1995)Continued exposure to drug-friendly media results in changed values andattitudes
  11. 11. Personal Opinions on Drug Use, cont. •religious and spiritual experiences •higher levels of personal understanding •heightened creativity •decreased social inhibitions Maslow says we‟re all driven to fulfill self actualization once our other needs are taken care of, a sense of purpose and higher personal achievement. (Maslow, 1943, 1954) Using drugs for these religious and creative purposes can be in pursuit of self actualization, which gives a favorable personal opinion towards drug use. H2: Individuals with favorable personal opinions towards drug use are more likely to use drugs to the point of substance abuse
  12. 12. Social Identity Theory Developed by Henri Tajfel in the 1970s Defined as “a social psychological analysis of the role of self-conception in group membership, group processes, and intergroup relations” (Hogg, 2006).
  13. 13. Social Identity Theory Shared beliefs and values More inclined to act like those around you to fit in Group membership In-groups and out-groups
  14. 14. Subculture Youth subculture- shared values within a group
  15. 15. Subculture
  16. 16. Music & Subculture Popular music and opinions of illegal drugs Music is important to youth Fills emotional needs Connects peers
  17. 17. Acceptance in the Subculture Drug use desensitized in youth subculture Deviant, but leisure-oriented
  18. 18. Club Culture Important to stay up-to-date on trends Use drugs to enhance club experience Only the subculture had a positive view of drugsH3: People in a subculture accepting of drug use are more likely to use drugs
  19. 19. What is Sensation Seeking? Personality Trait “Tendency to seek novel, varied, complex and intense sensations and experiences and the willingness to take risks for sake of experiences”( Zuckerman,1994) “Let Me try ”
  20. 20. Four Components Trill Adventure seeking Disinhibition Boredom susceptibilty
  21. 21. Positive and Negative Sides ofSensation Seeking Positive- Extreme Sport Negative- Unhealthy risky behaviors
  22. 22. Sensation seeking and druguse High sensation seekers are more likely to be involved in drug use Underestimate the risks Less likely to consider drug use a risky behavior
  23. 23. Sensation Seeking Over Time Low sensation seekers- remained low level in use, frequency, quantity High sensation seekers- maintained the same over time, high levels of use, frequency and quantity.
  24. 24. Sensation Seeking and Peerinfluence Is Peer influence stronger than sensation seeking? High sensation seekers = High sensation seeking friends Pro drug conversations
  25. 25. Sensation Seeking and PeerInfluence 41.6%- non using youth compared to 97.5% using youth
  26. 26. Sensation Seeking and Music Heavy Metal Music = High sensation seeking Positive results in all but one reckless behaviors Very strong connections
  27. 27. Overview Sensation Seeking role The sensation seeking trait causes them to participate in drug useH4: People with high sensation-seeking personalities will be more likely to use drugs
  28. 28. Figure 1
  29. 29. Do you haveany questions?
  30. 30. ReferencesBandura, A. (1977) Social Learning Theory. New York: General Learning Press.Bates, M. (1985). The relationship between sensation seeking and the preference for rap music of young offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinguency, Retrieved from http://jrc.sagepub.com/content/22/3/197.full.pdf htmlBecker, H. S. (1966). Marihuana - A Sociological Overview. In D. Solomon (Ed.): The Marihuana Papers (pp. 65-102). Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.Blätter, A. (1995). Die Funktionen des Drogengebrauchs und ihre kulturspezifische Nutzung. Curare, 18(2), 279-290.Bogt, T. et al. (2012). Dance is the new metal: Adolescent music preferences and substance use across Europe. Substance Use & Misuse, 47 (2), 130- 142.Butler, P.D. (2004) Much Respect: Toward a Hip-Hop Theory of Punishment. Stanford Law Review, Vol 56 NO. 983. GWU Law School Public Law Research Paper No 314. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=1001468Chen, M. (2006). Music, Substance Use, and Aggression. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 67, 373-381.
  31. 31. ReferencesDiamond Sarah. , Bermudez Rey, , & Schensul Jean, (2006). Whats the rap about ecstasy? popular music and drug trends among american youth. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21(261), 269-298. Retrieved from http://jar.sagepub.com.www.libproxy.wvu.edu/content/21/3/269.full.pdf htmlEichel, G. R., & Troiden, R. R. (1978). The domestication of drug effects: The case of marihuana. J Psychedelic Drugs, 10(2), 133-136.Fritzsche, D.J. (1995) Potential keys to ehtical decision making, Journal of Business Ethics, Vol 14 No 11. 909-922, Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/content/v70645rj22343945/Frosch, D. (2007, September 3) New York Times. “Colorado Police Link Rise in Violence to Music.” web. Accessed 2012, July 6. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/03/us/03hiphop.htmlGerbner, G. & Gross, L. (1976). Living with television: The violenceprofile. Journal of Communication, 26, 76.Herd, D. (2008). Changes in drug use prevalence in rap music songs, 1979- 1997. Addiction Research & Theory, 16(2), 167-180.
  32. 32. ReferencesHogg, M. (2006). Social identity theory In P. Burke (Ed.), Contemporary Social Psychological Theories (pp. 111-136). California: Standford University Press.justice.gov, ( 2005, February) National Drug Intelligence Center, National Drug Threat Assessment 2005 Summary Report http://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs11/13846/marijuana.htmKluckhohn, C, (1951). Values ​and Value-Orientations in the Theory of Action: An Exploration in Definition and Classification. Talcott Parsons and Edward Shils (ed.): Toward a General Theory of Action. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-96. Maslow, A. H. (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.McLeod, S. (2008). Social identity theory. Retrieved from http://www.simplypsychology.org/social-identity-theory.htmlMóró, L., Simon, K., Bárd, I., & Rácz, J. (2011, July-September) Voice of the psychonauts: Coping, life purpose, and spirituality in psychedelic drug users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, Vol 43 (3), pages 189-190
  33. 33. ReferencesMuggs, J. (2005, December 8) UK Telegraph. “Should hip hop take the rap for rioting?” web. Accessed 2012, July 6. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/music/rockandjazzmusic/3648576/Shoul d-hip-hop-take-the-rap-for-rioting.html"NIDA DrugFacts: High School and Youth Trends." National Institutes of Health, web. 07 July 2012. <http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/high-school-youth- trends>.Rideout, V., Foehr, U., & Roberts, D. (n.d.). (2010) “Generation m2 media in the lives of 8-18-year old. “ Retrieved from http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/8010.pdfRoberts, D. F., Henriksen, L., & Christenson, P. G. (1999). Substance Use in Popular Movies and Music.Washington: White House Office of National Drug Control Policy U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.
  34. 34. ReferencesSalasuo Mikko . , & Seppala Pauliina , (2004). Drug use within the finnish club culture as marks of distinction. Contemporary Drug Problems , 31, 213-229. Retrieved from https://www.abo.fi/media/20531/salasuoseppala.pdfShapiro, H. (1988). Drugs & Rock´n Roll (D. Voigt, Trans.). (Dt. Edition 1989 ed.). Wien: Hannibal Verlag.Sims Jr., Henry & Manz. Charles (1982). Social Learning Theory. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management, 3 (4), 55-63.SAMHSA, Contributing authors. (2010, Sept/Oct) "New survey data show drug use rising." SAMHSA Newsletter Volume 18: page 14. Retrieved from http://samhsa.gov/samhsanewsletterRokeach, M. (1973). Nature of human values. New York: Free Pr.Yamada, Kie, (2008). "The Relationship between Sensation Seeking and the Preference for Rap Music of Young Offenders" Open Access Theses. Paper 160.

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