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Deploying Machine Learning in production without servers - #serverlessCPH

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Deploying Machine Learning in production without servers - #serverlessCPH

  1. 1. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Deploying machine learning in production without servers Damien Cavaillès @TheDamfr
  2. 2. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 About We built a 10K MAU WebApp using Firebase, some Javascript and as less servers as possible. Why ? How ? What are the anti-patterns ? Good surprises ?
  3. 3. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 App’s "Business" Case
  4. 4. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 What is the app about ? 8000+ Content pages Companies, jobs, landing pages : developer’s "god mode" on job market to find a company he will loves to work at
  5. 5. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Dev likes companies he would like to work at App is learning what companies you like and predict companies you will like You can also use a search engine, a map and some editorial content to find companies 1
  6. 6. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 When ready, a developer a can fill a profile Developer's profiles are anonymous and confidentials It's a safe place where a developer can explain her career path, what she has learned and built. But also what are her expectations about is future positions. 2
  7. 7. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Conversations with real people working at thoses companies Conversations are real time and can support multiple agents You get one-click link by SMS, mobile layout is available and the green dot shows who is online 3
  8. 8. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 250 Hires in 2018 ! Mostly in France and with French companies more great things to come
  9. 9. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Context
  10. 10. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 We founded the company as two developers Content, users, marketing, sales, operations More SaaS less work We wanted to spend time with users and ship features on a daily basis. Not spend hours maintaining a large app and systems we have built ourselves. It's okay to have vendor- locking (tight coupling) and more expensives services if it reduces the human time needed at operation.
  11. 11. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 From idea to production in a day ● Developer’s journey… Talk with a customer over livechat in morning Build a PoC during day ● Deploy in production and give feedback to user ● Go Home ! Whether there is 2 or 20 of us
  12. 12. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Search First production app Web Process Worker Processes Jobbing
  13. 13. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 What was key ? Services we relied on early ElasticSearch Allowed us to provide a good search experience thanks to SearchKit. Bonsai provided a free shared instance to startup. At launch we only had one index and 20 documents. Firebase Allowed us to quickly setup authentication and be realtime at day0. Users testified : "this looks like MeteorJS" Redux was key to solve the callback spaghetti Clever Cloud Does more than Hosting It also operate continuous integration by building and deploying every commit on Github's master. #WebpackInTheCloud
  14. 14. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 What was hell ? Requiring monitoring and fixing Redis Redis instance as too many clients. Provided Redis instance is now too small. Migration to a larger one is required Node Worker Processes Redis instance refused connection, process is stalled. Process crashed, PM2 rebooted. Flashlight was crashed, updates has not been pushed to ElasticSearch COMMAND Jobbing over HTTP Client create jobs via an express API. Consistency hell : "Didn't got an HTTP reply, should I resend ?" Authentication hell : "Okay got your request, need to check your credential" XHR
  15. 15. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 How is Firebase Working Large JSON Tree Websocket Listen for a node in the tree Ref : root/ref/is/a/path Downstream updates Path : root/ref/is/a/path Event : updated/created/deleted
  16. 16. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 How is Firebase Working Also Functions SDK provide authentication out of the box Triggers Node Updated Node created Node Deleted User registerd User deleted …
  17. 17. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 The first Cloud Function That was easy to deploy ! From scratch tooks 2h on a saturday
  18. 18. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 "That job is broken" Rewrote it as a Firebase Cloud Function Easier and faster to deploy than fix production server
  19. 19. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Hey Firebase Functions are still Beta Okay ! They are going to fail. Make sure our system is resilient enough.
  20. 20. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 There is no more jobs useful Shutting down redis Shutting down PM2 and worker process on node app Removing API endpoints on express server Few month later...
  21. 21. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 New services ! New Kids On The Block Algolia : Search as a Service "Hey ! I tried Algolia and reproduced our Elastic Search setup in a 4h" Shutting down Elastic Search and Bonsai Sendgrid : Transactional Emails Templates using a Wysiwyg. Locked-in for the best. Nobody likes to code emails anyway. Twilio for SMS "Wouldn't be great to send a transactionnal SMS at this moment ? Let me try Twilio ? … `firebase deploy`... Done, works great " ""
  22. 22. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Search New Service Map
  23. 23. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Machine Learning Usecase ● From Local to Functions
  24. 24. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 What are we looking to predict ? a Developer a Company a Company a Company a Company [ … Prediction : =>
  25. 25. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 This kind of algorithm are known as : Association Rules Mining What are we looking to predict ?
  26. 26. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Association Rules Mining What are we looking to predict ?
  27. 27. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 How to implement ? Train LSTM with Watson 0,50€ / 1000 predictions Training : $0.50/h Train LSTM with Tensorflow Easy to deploy on Google Cloud AI But, at the time, only in python Implement FP Growth in Node Run it as a Cloud Function It took me two weeks to get access to documentation. Training : $0.49/h Batch Prediction : $0.09262/h Online Predictions : $0.3/h Compute time : $0,1/h
  28. 28. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Building the tree Machine Learning + In-production learning Pre-flight Checklist 1. 1. Preprocess (SPSS, Node, Python) 2. Train a model 3. Produce a batch of predictions 4. Control and report training 2. On the fly : Predict
  29. 29. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 FP Growth in detail Building this locally 1. Preprocess => Node Script => Transactions as JSON 2. Train a model => Node Script => FPtree as JSON 3. Produce a batch of predictions => Node Script => JSON 4. Control and report training => Node Script => Console output On the fly : Predict => Traverse FPTree with a Node Script => Console Output
  30. 30. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 FP Growth in detail
  31. 31. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 FP Growth in detail
  32. 32. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Function-based FPGrowth Training Training Function Fetch all likes Preprocess Make tree Store Tree Batch Predictions Store Predictions Control Store Distribution Remote Cron Trigger Distribution update Trigger Reporting email Boostrap DataStore Bootstrap
  33. 33. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Function-based On the fly prediction On the fly function Fetch Tree Traverse Tree Store Predictions Like written trigger Update Client
  34. 34. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Function-based On the fly prediction Démo (not live)
  35. 35. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Performance ? Execution time : 30 sec by call Memory : 800Mo on average 0,02$ a day – 144 000 prediction a day
  36. 36. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Back to the Big Picture
  37. 37. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Some Scale numbers Firebase functions 400K invocation by month 98 Functions in production Longest 25min on HTTP Trigger Firebase Realtime Database 60 Gb Bandwidth / Month Max simultaneous connection : 450 Algolia 18,547 Records 9,805 Queries over 24h - 90% Under 3 ms 570+ Indexes Cost 60$ / Month Still free tier Cost 35$ / Month
  38. 38. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Some Scale numbers Sendgrid 1 Dedicated IP 30K email a month Twilio 400 SMS a week (peak) 400 SMS a month (average) Clever Cloud 1 XS instance + auto scalability + 4 apps & 9 addons for marketing mainly Cost 50$ / Month Cost App : 12€ / Month | Overall 37€ Cost 80$ / Month
  39. 39. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Think bigger picture There is many other "Organisational" services
  40. 40. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Staging ? Every service should have a staging version you can test a staging function against
  41. 41. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Learnings : Do and Don’t ● Patterns and Anti-patterns we have seen in production
  42. 42. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Do : Use HTTP Triggers with an external Cron Service We are using SetCronJob.com Warning : Optimization ! This data fetch used to consume 6Gb of bandwidth every day Once optimized it wasn’t significant anymore (need an .indexOn in database rules) Firebase SDK will show a warning in logs Firebase CLI offers an handy profiler 1
  43. 43. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 The Cold Start is going to give you a very bad experience ! Better run a Express server somewhere on a PaaS. 2 Don’t : Use HTTP Triggers as a WebServer
  44. 44. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Hard to reproduce and debug Easy to have side effects Check events and data before executing the core of the function 3 Don’t : Triggers Cloud Functions recursively
  45. 45. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 If you can reproduce each jobs it’s okay. Make sure the writing of the job is not triggering an other functions Pub/Sub is also a good option 4 Do : Use Firebase RDB as a Queue
  46. 46. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 It’s easier to manage side effects if it’s all contained in one function 5 Don’t : Two functions aren’t better than one
  47. 47. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Do : Realtime feedback in a function It’s easy to push an update to firebase 6 Acknowledge : ”received” Fetch data from external Parse data Persist “pushing” Done
  48. 48. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Do : Have an Express process listen to Firebase DB Very efficient for response time (No need to query a SGBD) Need to be carefull about process memory Pretty convenient for Server Side Rendering Warning : React ServerSide rendering mean you are going to Babel/Webpack your server 7
  49. 49. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Don’t : Create Race Condition For concurrency purpose : Functions can be executed multiple time in the same runtime or in the same container (you shouldn't rely on it). Because of cold start and resource sharing, concurrent functions can show race condition If you have to : Look for Transactions on RDB 8
  50. 50. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Do : Use RDB for Uncoupling & Function as Couplers Get out of the Client/Server logic : Stripe Checkout use case 9 listen CustomerId write customerId:tbd No CustomerId Write Trigger Function (hold Stripe SK) Fetch write customerId Render Get Payment Source write Source Confirmation Write Request Subscription Function (hold Stripe SK) Write Trigger Create Sub write currentPlan Render
  51. 51. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Do : Functions are great for ETL Multiposting Usecase : Extract / Load / Transform 10 Extract (Parse) Transform Extract and Transform Load Load Trigger Email Email Email Load
  52. 52. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Do and Don’t : Summary 1. Do : Use HTTP Triggers with an external Cron Service 2. Don’t : Use HTTP Triggers as Express servers 3. Don’t : Triggers Cloud Functions in a recursive way 4. Do : Use Firebase RDB as a Queue 5. Don’t : Two functions aren’t better than one 6. Do : Realtime feedback in a function 7. Do : Have an Express process listen to Firebase DB 8. Don’t : Create Race Condition 9. Do : Use RDB for Uncoupling & Function as Couplers 10. Do : Use Functions as ETL
  53. 53. Serverless CPH 15-04-18 Glad to help you further ! Damien Cavaillès @TheDamfr damien@welovedevs.com