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The Education Blockchain

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Blockchain isn't a household buzzword, like the cloud, the web, the internet of things or bitcoin. It's not an innovation that you’re able to see and touch as easily as a smartphone or a NEST thermostat. But in a world where anyone (and anything) can establish a digital persona or publish content online the blockchain may be the answer to a question we've been asking since the invention of the internet: how do we establish trust amongst stakeholders on digital platforms?

This keynote presentation provide a quick, nontechnical introduction to the blockchain. We’ll then take a quick tour through the blockchain technology landscape, understand what a computational blockchain is and discuss the notion of smart contracts and digital tokens.

We’ll wrap up with a focus on blockchain uses cases and initiatives in education.

Publié dans : Technologie
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The Education Blockchain

  1. 1. THE EDUCATION BLOCKCHAIN Chuck Russell @CICHUCK 3/13/2018
  2. 2. What We’ll Talk About This Morning
  3. 3. WHAT WE WILL ACTUALLY DISCUSS: Distributed Ledgers and Blockchain Blockchain Technology Architecture The Tech Landscape The Education Blockchain
  4. 4. FRAMING THE PROBLEM BUSINESS NETWORKS are often inefficient because each participant in the network keeps records, a LEDGER, of all transactions between all the parties that the business interacts with. This process is expensive because of DUPLICATION of effort and INTERMEDIARIES adding costs for their services. BLOCKCHAIN solves these problems by providing a SHARED LEDGER technology that allows any participant in the network to see the system of record (THE LEDGER). BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY provides a business with a more efficient transfer of goods and services.
  5. 5. WHAT ABOUT LEDGERS This system's been around since the 13th century. Effectively, we've been incrementally digitizing a system that’s centuries old. The upside is that it's tried and tested. We understand it. The LEDGER is updated every time an asset flows into the organization or goes out of the organization. Each member of the business network who is affected updates their LEDGER. Every member of the BUSINESS NETWORK has their own copy of the LEDGER.
  6. 6. BUT…PRIVATE LEDGERS ARE: INEFFICIENT - each party in the BUSINESS NETWORK runs their own business processes that update their ledger. Duplicated effort. 01 EXPENSIVE - Internal and external audit takes time/effort and money to be done across the BUSINESS NETWORK. Financial institutions have told us that 20% of their time is spent performing internal and external audits. 02 VULNERABLE – LEDGERS are subjected to fraud, malicious modification or to cyber attack. 03
  7. 7. A BLOCKCHAIN is a trusted, distributed LEDGER that has a shared set of business processes across all the ENTITIES in the BUSINESS NETWORK
  8. 8. FURTHERMORE… • The LEDGER is share amongst all MEMBERS of the NETWORK. • There are a number of types of NETWORKS. There are PUBLIC NETWORKS such as cryptocurrency like Bitcoin, or PRIVATE NETWORKS such as a supply chain or a securities exchange. • ASSETS are transferred across the BUSINESS NETWORK. • In the real world there are two types of ASSETS: • TANGIBLE ASSETS like a house or your car. • INTANGIBLE ASSETS like a piece of digital music, or a financial instrument such as a bond, or a piece of intellectual property. These would be examples of intangible assets. So, ledgers are the key to effectively recording the flow of assets in and out of an organization. The ledger´s updated every time a transaction occurs. • Sometimes the transfer of the asset is governed by a contract.
  9. 9. BACK TO BLOCKCHAIN • All members of a BUSINESS NETWORK share a common LEDGER on the BLOCKCHAIN. • The LEDGER is replicated through P2P replication technologies across all the different members of this BUSINESS NETWORK. Each member of the network has a copy of the LEDGER. • The BLOCKCHAIN may provide PRIVACY SERVICES that determines what entities can see which transactions on the BUSINESS NETWORK. For example, if entity A exchanges an asset with entity B, each would be able to see the full details of that transaction. However, entity C, if it was not involved in that transaction, might not be able to see the details.
  10. 10. BLOCKCHAIN TRAITS • CONSENSUS - means that we determine who within the business network gets to validate or approve a transaction. This is encoded into the blockchain protocol. • The Blockchain allows us to record PROVENANCE. The LEDGER provides an audit trail, a complete record of who's owned what ASSET throughout its life cycle over time. • IMMUTABILITY - Privacy services let us link transactions (a BLOCK) in the BLOCKCHAIN with the next BLOCK. This means that its impossible to tamper with the blocks once they're actually written. • IMMUTABILITY boosts TRUST across the BUSINESS NETWORK • FINALITY - there is one single SYSTEM OF RECORD, one SINGLE SYSTEM OF TRUTH across the BUSINESS NETWORK.
  12. 12. BASIC BLOCKCHAIN (LEDGER) TRANSACTION Parties on the blockchain are represented by PKI PAIRS: • PUBLIC KEY (Address or Account Number) • PRIVATE KEY
  13. 13. BLOCKCHAIN PROTOCOL CHARACTERISTICS • Each PARTY maintains its own copy of the information and all nodes must validate any updates collectively. • The information could represent transactions, contracts, assets, identities, or practically anything else that can be described in digital form. • Entries are permanent, transparent, and searchable, which makes it possible for community members to view transaction histories in their entirety. • Each update is a new ‘block’ added to the end of a ‘chain.’ A protocol manages how new edits or entries are initiated, validated, recorded, and distributed. • Cryptology replaces third-party intermediaries as the keeper of trust, with all blockchain participants running complex algorithms to certify the integrity of the whole.
  14. 14. TRANSACTION CONTENTS • HEADER INFO – timestamps, hash info etc., • FIRST PARTY (FROM ADDRESS) • 2nd PARTY (TO ADDRESS) • ATTRIBUTES – User defined data that can be inserted into the TRANSACTION encrypted or in the clear. This can be additional INFORMATION ABOUT THE TRANSACTION • TRANSACTION Size is limited depending upon the protocol. • BLOCK Size is also limited
  15. 15. BLOCKCHAIN NETWORK The Blockchain Network is Decentralized - All PARTICIPANTS (NODES) of the NETWORK have a copy of the BLOCKCHAIN and have equal voting rights. There is no CENTRAL AUTHORITY. NODES have a VESTED INTEREST
  16. 16. REWARDS: CRYPTOCURRENCY & TOKENS • What’s In it for the Nodes? • Why Participate in the Network? • Bitcoin – 12.5 BTC per block ‘mined’.
  18. 18. BLOCKCHAIN CHARACTERISTICS PUBLIC – any entity view the list of all blocks and all transactions within the block. Trust driven by the blockchain protocol. PRIVATE – the network consists of validated, trusted nodes. Trust by delegated authority. Only validated/known entities can view the contents of the blockchain. PERMISSIONED – only authorized ‘apps’ can create transactions and interact with the blockchain. PERMISSION(LESS) – any ‘app’ that abides by the blockchain protocol may interact with the blockchain.
  20. 20. COMPUTATIONAL • Ability to harness the computing power of all BLOCKCHAIN nodes, performing computation within on any/all nodes. • Platform for building ANONYMOUS, DECENTRALIZED, DISTRIBUTED applications. • TURING COMPLETE virtual machine running on the ETHEREUM BLOCKCHAIN • Ability to create SMART CONTRACTS • Issue TOKENS, that can be exchanged for other CYBER CURRENCIES • Open API
  21. 21. SMART CONTRACTS HISTORY • In 1994, Nick Szabo, a legal scholar, and cryptographer, realized that the decentralized ledger could be used for smart contracts, otherwise called self-executing contracts, BLOCKCHAIN CONTRACTS, or SMART CONTRACTS. • CONTRACTS can be converted to computer code, stored and replicated on the system and supervised by the network of computers that run the BLOCKCHAIN. • They REMOVE the middleman - Smart contracts help you exchange money, property or anything of value in a transparent, conflict-free way.
  22. 22. SMART CONTRACT EXAMPLE • Suppose you rent an apartment from me. You can do this through the BLOCKCHAIN by paying me in a DIGITAL CURRENCY. • You get a receipt which is held in our SMART CONTRACT • I give you the digital entry key to the apartment which comes to you by a specified date. If the key doesn’t come on time, the BLOCKCHAIN releases a refund to your ACCOUNT. • If I send the key before the rental date, the function holds it releasing both the fee and key to you and me respectively when the date arrives. • The system works on the If-Then-Else premise and is witnessed by anyone with access to the BLOCKCHAIN, so you can expect a faultless delivery. • If I give you the key, I’m sure to be paid. If you send a certain amount in bitcoins, you receive the key. The CONTRACT is automatically canceled after the time expires, and the code cannot be interfered with by either of us without the other knowing, since all participants are simultaneously alerted to any all changes.
  24. 24. DECENTRALIZED APPs (dApps) • Decentralized applications (dApps) are applications that run on a P2P network of computers rather than a single computer. dApps, have existed since the advent of P2P networks. They are a type of software program designed to exist on the Internet in a way that is not controlled by any single entity. • Decentralized applications don’t necessarily need to run on top of a blockchain network. BitTorrent, BitMessage, Tor, are all traditional dApps that run on a P2P network, but not on a Blockchain (which is a specific kind of P2P network). • As opposed to simple smart contracts, in the classic sense of Bitcoin, that sends money from A to B, dApps have an unlimited number of participants on all sides of the market.
  25. 25. HYPERLEDGER: The Business Blockchain www.hyperledger.org
  26. 26. www.dragonchaing.com
  27. 27. THE BLOCKCHAIN REVISITED PUBLIC or PRIVATE – the protocol authorizes who can read a list of all transactions and all blocks. PROGRAMMABLE - Applications, via APIs or SMART CONTRACTS can read from & write transactions to the BLOCKCHAIN. PERMISSIONED or PERMISSIONLESS – the protocol decides who and how APPs (Dapps) can be built on top of the BLOCKCHAIN. IMMUTABLE – Once written a BLOCK and its TRANSACTIONS cannot be altered or deleted. ANONYMOUS – All parties are referred to by a an alphanumeric ADDRESS (PUBLIC KEY). Identities of all parties is private. DECENTRALIZED – All PARTICIPANTS of the NETWORK have a copy of the BLOCKCHAIN and have equal voting rights. There is no CENTRAL AUTHORITY DISTRIBUTED – NODES on the NETWORK are located throughout the ‘world’ which provides fault tolerance.
  28. 28. Education Blockchain Characteristics Sovereign Identity & Security 1 Disintermediation & Disaggregation of Learning 2 Storing Permanent Records 3 Issuing Certificates to Learners 4 Learners Own Their Personal Data 5
  29. 29. Self Sovereign Identity on the Blockchain Self-sovereign identity - where an individual is able to control his/her identity attributes (that is, the pieces of personal data), no matter where they reside.
  30. 30. KYS KNOW YOUR STUDENT Public blockchains facilitate self- sovereignty by giving individuals the ability to be the final arbiter of who can access and use their data and personal information. Within an educational context, the term is on its way to becoming synonymous with the empowerment of individual learners to own, manage and share details of their credentials, without the need to call upon the education institution as a trusted intermediary.”
  31. 31. EDGECOIN USE CASES Set up smart contracts with a public DApp. Simple interface that can replace complicated agreement processes via smart contracts and digital signatures. Issuance of educational documents on the Blockchain. Validation and re- validation of new and existing documents with integrated optical recognition software. Users pay with EdgeCoins (EST) on e-learning platforms for courses and other content they have passed or consumed. EdgeCoin integrated payment DApp. Users obtain valid, encrypted and unique certificates via Edgecoin smart contracts in just one process. Students can see and manage their academic development or the whole career in their Edgecoin based smart contract (online and/or stored on a secure device) that was provided by their university at the beginning of their studies. Institutions can get rid of their heavy documented certification process by having it all digitalized, organized, governed and issued by fully integrated Edgecoin technology.
  32. 32. More Education Blockchain Use Cases Credit Transfer Lifelong Learning Passport Tracking Intellectual Property & Copyright Financial Transactions •Receipt of Payments •Student Grants •Loan Awards •Waiver and/or Loan Mods
  33. 33. Copyright and IP Protection on the Education Blockchain • Educators publish content openly, while keeping track of re-use, without putting limitations on the source material. It allowsFACULTY to be rewarded based on the level of actual use and reuse of their teaching materials, similar to how they are rewarded based on citations to research papers. • PROVENANCE traceable by time, author and subject matter. • FACULTY could advertise the publication of their resources and link to those resources and cite resources they used in creating the material. A reward system (tokens) could be linked to the level of reuse/citation. • Example: a smart-contract could distribute payment to content authors based on how often their material is cited or used. Authors would no longer have to go through intermediaries such as research journals, which often limit use by charging high fees for access.
  34. 34. Lifelong Learning Passports • There are a few existing resources that provide users with a way to record their learning during and beyond schooling. • Except for Open Badges, none of the existing solutions provide ways to verify the experience and credentials described and included within these . • With blockchain tech, learners could store their own evidence of formal or informal learning, share it with a desired audience, and ensure instant verification. • Auto Updateable CV that that can be shared with employers. Employers, can reduce verification workload since they won’t have to validate CVs and can simply search instantly to see whether a candidates possesses a desired skil.
  35. 35. WHAT’S YOUR USE CASE? • Self-sovereignty: users can identify themselves while maintaining control over the storage and management of their personal data. • Trust: users can have more confidence in an infrastructure that securely offers transactions such as payments or the issue of certificates. • Transparency: users can conduct transactions knowing that each party has the capacity to enter into that transaction. • Immutability: users can rest assured that records will be written and stored permanently, without the possibility of modification or loss. • Disintermediation: the removal of the need for a central controlling authority to manage transactions or keep records. (Decentralization). • Collaboration: the ability of parties to transact directly with each other without the need for mediating third parties.