2. What is Language?
Language is a speech. Speech is language.
The written record but a secondary
representation of the language. – Charles
Language is a system of signals conforming
to the rules which constitutes its grammar. It
is a set of culturally transmitted behavior
patterns shared by a group of individuals. –
3. What is Language?
Language is a code: a set of elements forms
composed of sounds, letters, their
combinations…into words, sentences,
etc…used for communication between
individuals who share the same rules. – Roger
Language is a system which relates meaning
to substance. It is a mental phenomenon that
is innate. All children in the world over
acquire a mother language. – Noam Chomsky
4. What is Language?
When we use language we are not just saying
something. We are doing something as well,
like promising, asking information, etc. –
Searle and Austin
Language has two elements. One is cognitive,
active which comprises the linguistic features
of the language. The other is emotive or
effective. - Oller
5. What is Language?
Meaning does not reside in the words per se
but in the context of the situation. –
For communication to take place, the sender
and receiver of the message should have
shared presuppositions. - Widdowson
6. Function of Language
Do you recall what Searle and Austin said
about the nature of language?
They said----when we say something we are
also doing something as we say it.
What They Say What They are Doing
A. You did this.
B. Of course not!
A. Who did it then?
B. Why don’t you try asking
A. I’ll do that.
B. I’m sorry I was quick to
7. Shifting Theories of
Language Theory A Theory B
First a bright person comes up with an idea
and expound on it. This is his thesis. Others see
the wisdom of his assertion or thesis and so
they follow him and a school of thought is
But then another brilliant person reacts to
what the first person said and a takes the
opposite stand . That becomes the antithesis.
He too, will have followers of his own.
A third one comes and sees the wisdom of
both school of thought. She tries to put the
two together and so comes up with the
But the swing to the other end continues,
followed by another reaction, resulting to a
continuous swinging from one end to the
other. But with its swing and counter
movement, something new is added.
First, some perceptive mind observes what
happens and comes up with an idea or
paradigm. That results in the emergence of
Other agree with the idea and even try to
refine it. So then paradigm enter the mature
science period and many schools subscribing
to that paradigm develop.
Then someone find a follow or anomaly in the
paradigm at first , there are attempts to
reconcile the anomaly. But soon nothing can
be done to correct and so a new paradigm is
The new paradigm goes through the same
process of maturing until an anomaly is again
discovered and the cycle continues. But with
each cycle and new paradigm, something is
9. Shifting Theories of
Anomaly in the
Shift to the
10. In the beginning….
Latin based grammar
Latin was classical language
Aged of Classical Humanism
1900s language were studied independently as a
Sounds as the smallest unit
Sounds – words – utterance – sentences –
paragraph or discourse
Language is a structure, a system, where the lower
units combined to form the next higher units.
The structural approach of language prevailed up to
11. In the beginning….
Meaningful Units-Words and
12. 1960s Anomaly….
In the 1960s, an anomaly was found in the
theory of language.
The anomaly was that, sometimes you use
the same form but come up with different
The function of utterance counts; this is its
The expected response is the perlocutionary
13. Three Forces
In such an instance were all three forces –
lucotionary, illocutinary, and perlocutionary –
are considered, language is viewed not just as
a system made up of forms but as a means of
15. What really is language?
Language sets human being apart from other animals.
Getting to speak a language is innate among human beings.
This means that every person is programmed to acquire hi/her
native language provided he/she is exposed to it.
The ability to speak language is specific to our species
Even without formal training, a child by the time he/she
reaches five years old, has internalized the grammar of his/her
Every native speaker therefore, becomes competence in
his/her own language.
Those who become competent in two languages are said to be
bilingual while those who attain competence in more than two
languages are called polyglots.
Linguistics is defined by William G. Moulton
as “ the branch of learning which studies the
language of any and all human societies: how
such a language is constructed; how it varies
through space and changes through time;
how it is related to other languages; how it is
used by its speakers.”
17. Moulton points out that
fundamental to all branches of
linguistics are some basic
What is language?
How does it work?
What happens when a speaker says something
and a hearer understands him/her?
18. Two Main Branches of
Theoretical linguistics is concerned with the nature
of language and its components.
Grammarians study the significant units of a
language and their patterns of arrangement. They
try to arrive at the rules of correct usage of the
language they are investigating and they put down
their findings into writing.
Applied linguistics has to do with language use,
how it is learned and acquired, and how it may be
Those concerned with what enables one to acquire a
language and with methods of teaching a language
are applied linguists.
20. What is Applied Linguistics?
Field of study that identifies, investigates,
and offers solution to language related
It can be applied to all aspects of language
use. It deals with mother, foreign, second
It describes the language, and teaches how it
22. Applied Linguistics Application
Clinical Linguistics – analysis and treatment
of language disorders
Language Acquisition – language 1 and
Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages –
developing foreign language teaching
Educational Linguistics – the use of the
mother tongue in school
23. Applied Linguistics Application
Lexicography – theory and practice in
organizing dictionaries; methods and
techniques for creating dictionaries
Computational Linguistics – the use of
computers in language analysis and use
Machine Translation – computerized
ASR – Automatic Speech Recognition
24. Applied Linguistics Application
Language Assessment – to measure students
learning of languages, to determine what a
student knows and/ or can do and how well
instruction is proceeding.
Forensic Linguistics – the application of
linguistic knowledge, methods and insights
to the context of law, language, crime
investigation, trial, experts, court, evidence,
25. Applied Linguistics
Data Mining – the process of processing large
volumes of data usually stored in a database and
searching for patterns and relationship within
that data. It is automatic extraction and
processing of data.
Language pedagogy – theory of developing
Psycholinguistics – the study of the
psychological factors that enable humans to
acquire, use, comprehend and produce speech,
relationship between language and human
26. Applied Linguistics
Internet Linguistics – it studies new language
styles and forms that have arisen under the
influence of the Internet and Short Message
Sociolinguistics – study of the link between
language and society
Neurolinguistics – describes the aplication of
linguistic theories to the classification and
analysis of acquired disorders of language or
speech in patients with brain damage
27. Applied Linguistics
Language Interpretation – facilitating of oral
or sign language communication between
user of different languages
Corpus linguistics – the study of language as
expressed in samples (corpora) or “real world”
text; it is approach to deriving a set of
abstract rules b y which a natural language is
governed or else relates to another language
28. Applied Linguistics
Text Analysis – written discourse
Language Culture, and Pragmatics – cultural
aspects in language teaching in intercultural
Language Control/ Dialectology – study of
linguistic dialect, variations in language and is
based primarily on geographic distribution;
divergence of two local dialect from a
common ancestor and synchronic variation
Linguistics – The
study of the nature,
morphology and the
study of human
language in context
Anthropology – the
scientific study of
the origin and
behavior of man,
physical, social, and
Sociology – the
scientific study of
behavior and study
of the society
Psychology – the
science of mind and
behavior, and the
application of such
knowledge of various
spheres of human
activity, such as
30. Important Contribution of
Linguistics to the Classroom
TeIa stcilhl beerlie ve that the most important contribution
that linguistics can make to the classroom teacher is
in reshaping his view of language and of language
learning. These are matters of attitude and concept
rather than one of grammatical analysis as
compared with another or of a series of judgments
about the acceptability of any number of specific
forms and expressions. Linguistically sound
materials can be expected to produce satisfactory
results only when they are used by linguistically
knowledgeable and sophisticated teachers. Such
sophistication rests upon an understanding of
- Albert M. Marckwardt
31. Language Teachers should…
Focus on change and development of :
* her views on language
* her ideas about language learning
* her attitudes
* her concepts
It might be pointed out that no matter how good
the findings of linguistics are, if they are not
picked up and put to use by the teacher, then
they are to no avail. They will, in effect, never
reach the students who are the end users.
It might be pointed out that knowledge is in a
continuous state of flux. What might be true
today may be modified some years hence.
As such, it is not so much the findings that count
but rather the openness of the teacher to new
developments and her willingness to give them a
Any materials of linguistics will produce good
results if it is in the hand of knowledgeable
Aware of the principles underlying the
material, perceptive teacher will know what
to do with it and how it if need be so it may
be used to advantage.
The language teacher, therefore, are a very
important cog in the machine of language
teaching and language learning.
In the words of a movie scriptwriter, the song
(in this case theoretical linguistics) is important,
but in the long run it is “ the singer and not the
song” ( here referring to the language teacher)
who puts life to it.