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Crane Operations by EHS Compliance

  2. Crane Operations  Inspection  Rigging  Wire Rope Construction  Chain Rigging  Synthetic Slings  Types of Hitches  Overhead Crane Operation  Field Service Trucks
  3. HOISTS / CRANES Inspection Checklist • Hoist operators must inspect equipment daily before use. • Check for any loose or missing parts. • Check end stops. End stops prevent the trolley from running off the beam. • Know the location of disconnect switch that will cut the power off only to the hoist or crane. Be sure it is readily accessible and not blocked.
  4. HOISTS / CRANES Inspection Checklist • Make sure all control buttons are labeled to indicate their function. Operate each button to make sure it functions properly, releases immediately, and does not stick. • Make sure wire rope is properly seated in its drum and sheave grooves without any slack or overlapping. • Operate the crane or hoist several feet in each direction that it travels. Listen for any unusual noises. Look for any jerky movements. NN WW SS EE
  5. HOISTS / CRANES Inspection Checklist • Check upper hoist limit switch by slowly raising the block to trip the switch. • Lower the hoist block to activate the lower limit switch if the hoist is so equipped, leaving at least one turn of rope on the take-up drum.
  6. HOISTS / CRANES Inspection Checklist • Check all hooks. Hooks should not be cracked, stretched, bent, or twisted. • Each hook must have a safety latch that automatically closes the throat of the hook. If the latch is bent, spring is broken, or is otherwise damaged the latch must be repaired before use. • Hooks should rotate freely in block assembly without any “grinding” felt or heard.
  7. HOISTS / CRANES Inspection Checklist • Check the block assembly for structural damage or cracks in any components. Sheaves should rotate freely without any grinding felt or heard coming from the bearings. The sheave guard must be unbroken and intact. No part of the sheave guard should be in contact with the wire rope or sheave.
  8. Rigging Inspection Checklist • Wire rope shall be taken out of service when any of the following conditions exist: 1. In running ropes, six randomly distributed broken wires in one lay or three broken wires in one strand in one lay; 2. In standing ropes, more than two broken wires in one lay in sections beyond end connections or more than one broken wire at an end connection. 3. Wear of one-third the original diameter of outside individual wires. Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or any other damage resulting in distortion of the rope structure; 4. Evidence of any heat damage from any cause;
  9. Immediately remove damaged or defective slings from service Rigging Inspection Checklist
  10. Broken Strands Damaged wire rope must be taken out of service Crushed Rope Rigging Inspection Checklist
  11. Wire Rope Construction
  12. • A cutting edge cuts the life of the sling. • Use blocking, padding, or a corner saddle when the cable must go around sharp corners Rigging Inspection Checklist
  13. 1. Take up slack, then start to load slowly. A chain has no elasticity and does not react well to shock loading. 2. Never shorten a chain by tying a knot in it. A chain has it’s maximum strength with the load running in a straight line. 3. Always use softeners on the corners of rectangular loads. 4. Lift from the center of hooks. Avoid lifting from the point of the hook. 5. Distribute the load evenly on all legs. 6. Inspect chains regularly. Look for elongated links. 7. Never exceed the estimated rating capacity of the chain. 8. Don’t drop loads onto the chain. Rigging Use of Chain Rigging
  14. • Synthetic web slings, because of their flexibility and elasticity, are a very popular rigging tool. The material with which these synthetic slings are made allows them to be very flexible, but it also makes them susceptible to heat and sharp edges. Synthetic web slings must be well taken care of, and the user must always be aware of sharp corners, welding sparks, and metal chips. • Slings used in environments where they are subject to continuous exposure to ultra-violet light should be proof tested to two times the rated capacity annually, or more frequently depending on the severity of exposure. Rigging Use of Synthetic Slings
  15. Types of Hitches Most common types of hitches
  16. Never overload a sling!  Remember, the wider the sling legs are spread apart, the less the sling can lift! 1000 lbs Lift Capacity1000 lbs Lift Capacity 707 lbs Lift Capacity707 lbs Lift Capacity 500 lbs Lift Capacity500 lbs Lift Capacity
  17. Wire Rope Capacities
  18. Wire Rope Sling Choker Adjustments
  19. • Associates in the direction of travel should be warned to move and remain clear of a lifted load at all times. • Loads should not be suspended over personnel below. Overhead Crane Operation
  20. • Under no circumstances may anyone ride the hook or load. • Directional movement should be made smoothly and deliberately. Avoid rapid movements in any direction. Overhead Crane Operation
  21. • Do not exceed the rated load capacity of the crane, hoist, chain, cable, slings, or other component. • Slings, load chains and other lifting devices must be fully and securely seated in the hook before moving a load. Remove slack from the sling, chain, or cable before lifting a load. Overhead Crane Operation
  22. • Use the following practices to avoid swinging loads: > Locate the hoist directly above the lifting point of the load before lifting. > Lower loads directly below the hoist. > Keep hoisting ropes vertical. Do not pull or push the load. > Maintain two full wraps of cable on the hoisting drum. Overhead Crane Operation
  23. • When lifting loads at or near capacity, test the hoist brakes by returning the master switch or push button to the “OFF” position after raising the load a few inches off the floor. If the brakes do not hold, lower the load to the floor slowly and do not operate the crane. Report the situation immediately and DO NOT USE until repaired. Overhead Crane Operation
  24. • Ensure that all loads are lifted high enough to clear obstructions before moving the bridge or trolley. Whenever possible, maintain a minimum clearance of one foot above loads and to the sides. Raise the load only to the height necessary to clear lower objects. • Never pull a hoist by the pendant cable. Overhead Crane Operation
  25. • Never leave the controls unattended while a load is suspended. If it becomes necessary to leave the controls, lower the load to the floor. • Familiarize yourself with the location of the disconnect switch. • If loss of electrical power occurs, place controls in the “OFF” position to prevent unexpected startup upon restoration of power. Overhead Crane Operation
  26. • Disconnect power to a hoist that is unsafe or in need of repair. Arrange to have the disconnect switch locked and the control panel tagged with and “Out of Order” or “Do Not Operate” tag. Never operate a hoist that has been tagged with an “Out of Order” or “Do Not Operate” tag, or is your opinion, UNSAFE TO OPERATE… Overhead Crane Operation
  27. Field Service Boom Trucks  The basic rules of crane safety and proper rigging also apply to boom trucks. However, there are some differences:  Before picking up any lift, the outrigger must be extended. If the ground is soft, either relocate the lift point or use outrigger pads to spread out the weight of the load over a greater surface area.  During the lift use the boom angle indicator to ensure the capacity is never exceeded. The capacity is also affected by the distance the boom is extended, the farther the reach, the lower the capacity.
  28. Field Service Vehicles
  29. WARNING Photo on the next slide are graphic in nature.
  30. Removing Jewelry and Wearing Gloves! Cause? Not wearing gloves and not taking off the ring.

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Try to avoid using chains when it is possible to use wire rope. The failure of a single link of a chain results in the complete failure of the chain, whereas a cable is made up of many wires and strands, and they must all fail before the rope breaks. Chains give no warning as to when they are going to fail. A wire rope will show visible signs of impending failure. Chains are better suited for certain jobs as they will withstand rougher handling and they won’t kink. Chains are much more resistant to abrasion and corrosion than wire ropes are. Chains are well suited as slings in the machine shop for lifting heavy castings. Use the following chain safety tips as a guide.
  2. Vertical hitch, basket hitch, choker
  3. D and D ratio (diameter of the rope and diameter of the shackle The shackle size you use should be one size larger than the wire. This helps the wire keep it’s shape. Th4e same size shackle would kink the rope.