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The role of new
Information and Communication Technologies
in information and communication in science
A conceptual framew...
Agenda
• Review of the Study
• Research Questions
• Revised Framework
• Methods
• Summary of Data
• How do SCTs support co...
Given
• “Communication is the essence of science” (Garvey, 1979)
• 20 – 25% of scientists use blogs and/or Twitter
Year
Me...
What Roles do the New ICTs Play?
RQ 1. How do SCTs, blogging and microblogging, support
communication in science?
1a. What...
Problem 1: Separate Literatures
• Separate large bodies of literature studying
communication in science
• Communication, J...
Problem 2: SCTs Evolve Quickly
• New studies often focus on a single technology
• Users adapt technologies as they adopt t...
Needed: A Framework
for Understanding New ICTs
• No overall view of how these SCTs fit into what we
already know about how...
Approach
Develop a comprehensive framework to
describe communication in science
that draws upon the relevant literatures
U...
How might this be used?
• Organizations
• Support decisions to implement (or not)
• Better engage with scientists (staff a...
Framework
10
Elements of the Framework
• Features of the Communication Partners
 Number  Individual features  Match/relationship
• P...
Purposes
• Dissemination
• Discourse or contributing to the conversation
• Societal benefit or application
• Identity
• Re...
Elements of the Framework
• Partners
• Purposes
• Content
• Channel
13
Channel
Elsewhere channel can mean source or format but here
used for
medium between communication partners
Three layers:
...
Channel: Physical Layer
Three categories
• Face-to-face
• Print
• Technologically mediated
Each with some of these feature...
Channel: Means of Expression
Non-Linguistic Linguistic
Auditory Sounds
Instrumental music
Spoken word
Visual Images/pictur...
Channel: Conventions
• Conventions and etiquette
Examples: Twitter’s @user, RT, and #hashtags were
developed by users befo...
Literature Based
Application
18
Journal Articles
1 Partners Number: Many
Match: Same
Education/Sophistication: Same; General Science
2 Purpose Disseminati...
Blogs
1 Partners Number: Many
Education/Sophistication: Same; General Science; Interested Public
Match: Either/Any
2 Purpo...
Microblogs
1 Partners Number: Many
Education/Sophistication: Same; General Science; Interested Public;
General Public
Matc...
Methods
22
Approach
• Pragmatic approach
• Multiple embedded case studies
23
Methods
• Participants:
Geoscientists who attend American Geophysical Union
conferences
• SCTs:
Blogs, Twitter, Twitter at...
Why Geosciences
• Active Twitter and blog communities
• Professional society support for social media
• Funder support for...
Methods
• Directed qualitative content analysis of a sample
tweets and blog content
• Semi-structured interviews with part...
Sample Selection
and Content Retrieval
• Retrieved tweets using a variety of methods
• Random sample of 50 tweets from eac...
Data Summary
• Tweets
• Retrieved 12,920
• Coded 1038
• Blog posts
• Retrieved 3,009
• Coded 426
• Interviews (8)
• Fully ...
Analysis
• Prepared memos with initial thoughts and
connections after each interview and as necessary
throughout analysis ...
Coding
• Coded once through using the framework, freely
adding new codes, annotating non-obvious new
codes and tricky appl...
Case Studies
• Prepared case studies for 7 individual scientists
• Initially in a narrative format
• Re-organized once cat...
Validity
• Prolonged engagement
• Triangulation
• Memoing and questioning to mitigate personal
biases
32
Agenda
• Review of the Study
• Research Questions
• Revised Framework
• Methods
• Summary of Data
• How do SCTs support co...
How the new SCTs
support communication
in science
34
What functions do they serve?
Communication purposes
Blogs
More often used for:
• Persuasion
Twitter
More often used for:
...
What functions do they serve?
Categories of content
Blogs
More often used for:
• Tutorials for peers
• Basic science conce...
What functions do they serve?
General
Blogs
• In depth, well-prepared
essays
• Provide context
• Preserve content
• Under ...
How do blogs and Twitter
fit into the context of scientific work?
Blogs
• Help guide exploration
process
• Assistance unde...
How do the participants
make meaning of the
interactions?
39
Value to scientists
Blogs
• Practice writing with
feedback
• Social and professional
support
• Recognition and status
• Pe...
View of SCTs: Participants
Blogs
• Routine, but often a
burden
• Familiar community
with regular
commenters
• A responsibi...
View of SCTs:
Peripheral Participants
Blogs
• See detailed posts as
great explanations of
the science and insight
into lif...
View of SCTs: Non-participants
Blogs
• Most organizations are
indifferent, as long as
boundaries are
maintained
Twitter
• ...
New ICTs and
information seeking
and use
44
Information seeking and use:
Blogs
• Writing to explore, understand, and remember new
topics has been well-studied. Doing ...
Information seeking and use:
Twitter
• Alerting and filtering system for new literature
• Seeking on Twitter has been unre...
Limitations
• Geoscientists
• Only Twitter and Blogs
• Small number of scientists interviewed
47
Future Work
• Extend to other disciplines
• Extend to other SCTs
• Longitudinal look at Twitter at conferences
• Sense of ...
Conclusions
49
Blogs and Twitter Benefit Science
• Community building and maintenance
• Improved mentoring
• Increased public engagement
...
The framework
of communication in science
• A massive undertaking
• Future studies should examine and test small portions
...
Contributions
The framework will be useful for:
• Situating new technologies
• Research on uses of SCTs
• Helping individu...
Implications for ICT Design and Use
• Make blog posting quicker
• Add function tags to blog posts – even better if
there a...
Contributions
• Increased appreciation of SCTs for informal
scholarly communication in science instead of just
for popular...
Take Aways
• Both SCTs have valuable for information and
communication as well as for community building,
mentoring, and i...
Contact:
Christina K. Pikas
cpikas@gmail.com
@cpikas
Slides will be posted to SlideShare
http://www.slideshare.net/cpikas
...
Prochain SlideShare
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The role of new information and communication technologies in information and communication in science

Dissertation defense from January 19, 2016

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The role of new information and communication technologies in information and communication in science

  1. 1. The role of new Information and Communication Technologies in information and communication in science A conceptual framework and empirical study Dissertation Defense Christina K. Pikas January 19, 2016
  2. 2. Agenda • Review of the Study • Research Questions • Revised Framework • Methods • Summary of Data • How do SCTs support communication in science? • How do participants make meaning of them? • New ICTs and information seeking and use • Contributions • What Next? 2
  3. 3. Given • “Communication is the essence of science” (Garvey, 1979) • 20 – 25% of scientists use blogs and/or Twitter Year Media Sample Result Reference 2008 Blogs Authors, editors, reviewers of scholarly journals 3% have a blog 13% read blogs regularly (Mark Ware Consulting, 2008) 2010 Blogs British researchers 16% blog occasionally or frequently 23% comment on blogs occasionally or frequently (Proctor et al., 2010) 2011 Twitter American and British researchers listed on departmental pages 2.5% are active on Twitter (Priem et al., 2011) 2014 Blogs Twitter Nature, Palgrave McMillan authors, list from Web of Science 13% STEM researchers visit Twitter regularly 17% Earth and Environmental Science Researchers visit Twitter regularly (Van Noorden, 2014) 2015 Blogs American scientists 24% have blogged about science 19% follow blogs (Pew Research Center, 2015) 3
  4. 4. What Roles do the New ICTs Play? RQ 1. How do SCTs, blogging and microblogging, support communication in science? 1a. What functions do they serve? 1b. How do they fit into the context of scientific work? 1c. What benefits do participants report receiving as a result of using these new ICTs? RQ 2. How do the participants in blogging and microblogging make meaning of the interactions supported by these SCTs? 2a. What value do these ICTs hold for their participants? 2b. How do participants and non-participants view these ICTs? RQ 3. How do these ICTs support data, information, and knowledge creation, seeking, and use in science? 4
  5. 5. Problem 1: Separate Literatures • Separate large bodies of literature studying communication in science • Communication, Journalism, Linguistics, and Rhetoric • Information Science • Science and Technology Studies, Social Studies of Science • These bodies are independent (rarely citing each other) • New studies of SCTs cite little of this literature 5
  6. 6. Problem 2: SCTs Evolve Quickly • New studies often focus on a single technology • Users adapt technologies as they adopt them • The uses and features of SCTs can evolve quickly as they are adopted • Studies of SCTs can get dated quickly 6
  7. 7. Needed: A Framework for Understanding New ICTs • No overall view of how these SCTs fit into what we already know about how scientists communicate • No grounded approach to understanding any new SCT that comes along 7
  8. 8. Approach Develop a comprehensive framework to describe communication in science that draws upon the relevant literatures Use the framework in a study of two widely used SCTs by scientists in one discipline to evaluate and improve the framework and answer the research questions. 8
  9. 9. How might this be used? • Organizations • Support decisions to implement (or not) • Better engage with scientists (staff and others) • Scientists • Tool selection and development • Request employer support • Communication researchers – framework to base new work • Tool designers – identify gaps and suggest additions • Librarians – useful for teaching and understanding communication tools used by scientists 9
  10. 10. Framework 10
  11. 11. Elements of the Framework • Features of the Communication Partners  Number  Individual features  Match/relationship • Purposes of the Communication Activity • Features of the Message  Topic  Type  Register  Language  Review/Quality control Type: Data, Methods, Analysis, Results Theoretical, Opinion/Eval. • Features of the Channel 11
  12. 12. Purposes • Dissemination • Discourse or contributing to the conversation • Societal benefit or application • Identity • Rewards • Preservation • Certification • Learning, teaching, or providing instruction • Persuasion (grant applications, journal articles) • Evaluation or opinion (peer review, grant review) • Coordination • Social (group membership, identity) • Entertainment 12
  13. 13. Elements of the Framework • Partners • Purposes • Content • Channel 13
  14. 14. Channel Elsewhere channel can mean source or format but here used for medium between communication partners Three layers: • Physical layer and basic transmission protocols • Means of expression and advanced functions of software • Conventions and etiquette 14
  15. 15. Channel: Physical Layer Three categories • Face-to-face • Print • Technologically mediated Each with some of these features • Copresence • Visibility • Audibility • Cotemporality • Simultaneity • Sequentiality • Reviewability • Revisability • Coherence • Hyperlinking 15
  16. 16. Channel: Means of Expression Non-Linguistic Linguistic Auditory Sounds Instrumental music Spoken word Visual Images/pictures Models Text Tactile Models Braille Other Senses (smell, taste, proprioception) Typically only applicable in (virtual) reality settings. Audiovisual, Multimedia, Hypermedia Combining multiple means of expression. 16
  17. 17. Channel: Conventions • Conventions and etiquette Examples: Twitter’s @user, RT, and #hashtags were developed by users before they were programmed into the interface 17
  18. 18. Literature Based Application 18
  19. 19. Journal Articles 1 Partners Number: Many Match: Same Education/Sophistication: Same; General Science 2 Purpose Dissemination (All); Certification; Preservation; Discourse; Identity; Rewards; Learning/Teaching; Persuasion 3 Message Topic: Science content; Research Methods; Pedagogy Type: Data; Methods; Analysis; Results; Theoretical /philosophical Register: Formal Structure: Stable established internal structure Persistence: Archival Review or Quality Control: Yes – rigor varies 4 Channel Physical: Print or Mediated Sequentiality; Reviewability; Coherence; Hyperlinking Expression: linguistic and non-linguistic; visual; Conventions: Attribution/citation; Omission of false starts and missteps; Passive voice… 19
  20. 20. Blogs 1 Partners Number: Many Education/Sophistication: Same; General Science; Interested Public Match: Either/Any 2 Purpose Dissemination: Discourse; Societal benefit or application; Identity; Amplification; Learning/Teaching; Persuasion; Evaluation/Opinion; Social (All); Entertainment 3 Message Topic: Science content; Science Education; Science Communication; Funding; Life in Science; Job Searching; News, Commentary, etc. Type: Methods; Analysis; Results; Memoir/Confessional/Biographical; Theoretical/Philosophical Register: Any Structure: HTML/CSS tags but no internal document structure Persistence: Typically persistent Review or Quality Control: Rarely for personal blogs 4 Channel Physical: Mediated; Sequentiality; Reviewability; Revisability; Coherence; Hyperlinking Expression: Multimedia Convention: Linking to attribute sources 20
  21. 21. Microblogs 1 Partners Number: Many Education/Sophistication: Same; General Science; Interested Public; General Public Match: Either (in Education/Sophistication or Ideologically) 2 Purpose Dissemination (Discourse; Societal benefit/Application; Identity); Learning/Teaching; Persuasion; Evaluation/Opinion; Coordination; Social (All); Entertainment 3 Message Topic: Science content; Science Education; Science Communication; Life in Science; Job Hunting, News, etc. Type: Methods; Analysis; Results; Memoir/Confessional/Biographical; Theoretical/Philosophical; Questions and Answers Register: Typically informal, but not always Structure: Fields but no internal structure Persistence: Not guaranteed unless captured and saved elsewhere Review or Quality Control: No 4 Channel Physical: Mediated; Cotemporality; Simultaneity; Sequentiality; Reviewability; Hyperlinking Expression: Multimedia Conventions: MT; RT; @; subtweet; .@; via or h/t 21
  22. 22. Methods 22
  23. 23. Approach • Pragmatic approach • Multiple embedded case studies 23
  24. 24. Methods • Participants: Geoscientists who attend American Geophysical Union conferences • SCTs: Blogs, Twitter, Twitter at Conferences 24
  25. 25. Why Geosciences • Active Twitter and blog communities • Professional society support for social media • Funder support for social media 25
  26. 26. Methods • Directed qualitative content analysis of a sample tweets and blog content • Semi-structured interviews with participants • Participant observation 26
  27. 27. Sample Selection and Content Retrieval • Retrieved tweets using a variety of methods • Random sample of 50 tweets from each meeting plus additional to capture conversations • Interview participants selected from meeting tweeters and participant suggestions • Seeking variation in demographics and research areas • Seeking participants who also blog 27
  28. 28. Data Summary • Tweets • Retrieved 12,920 • Coded 1038 • Blog posts • Retrieved 3,009 • Coded 426 • Interviews (8) • Fully transcribed • 291 minutes 28
  29. 29. Analysis • Prepared memos with initial thoughts and connections after each interview and as necessary throughout analysis process • Transcribed interview recordings with occasional bracketed notes • Loaded blog posts, tweets, and transcripts into MaxQDA for management 29
  30. 30. Coding • Coded once through using the framework, freely adding new codes, annotating non-obvious new codes and tricky applications of existing framework elements • Doubled back to check application of framework or to recode using newly emergent codes • Retrieved coded sections and analyzed to determine if all examples of the same phenomenon (axial coding) 30
  31. 31. Case Studies • Prepared case studies for 7 individual scientists • Initially in a narrative format • Re-organized once categories became evident across multiple studies • Re-re-organized into tables once categories were stable • Prepared cross-case analysis • Addressed research questions 31
  32. 32. Validity • Prolonged engagement • Triangulation • Memoing and questioning to mitigate personal biases 32
  33. 33. Agenda • Review of the Study • Research Questions • Revised Framework • Methods • Summary of Data • How do SCTs support communication in science? • How do participants make meaning of them? • New ICTs and information seeking and use • Contributions • What Next? 33
  34. 34. How the new SCTs support communication in science 34
  35. 35. What functions do they serve? Communication purposes Blogs More often used for: • Persuasion Twitter More often used for: • Amplification • Humor 35 Twitter at Conferences More often used for: • Social identity
  36. 36. What functions do they serve? Categories of content Blogs More often used for: • Tutorials for peers • Basic science concepts • Book reviews Twitter More often used for: • Pointing to readings • Requesting assistance • Announcing new papers • Politics/religion 36 Twitter at Conferences More often used for: • Live coverage of sessions (live blogging is not done)
  37. 37. What functions do they serve? General Blogs • In depth, well-prepared essays • Provide context • Preserve content • Under the blogger’s control Twitter • Faster interaction • Broader interaction • Non-scientists • Scientists who use similar tools in another field • Open and viewable 37
  38. 38. How do blogs and Twitter fit into the context of scientific work? Blogs • Help guide exploration process • Assistance understanding concept • Amplification for publications • Advice and mentoring Twitter • Resource copies of articles • Filter for awareness of new articles • Maintaining ties • Coordinate meetings • Help with analysis, software, other questions 38
  39. 39. How do the participants make meaning of the interactions? 39
  40. 40. Value to scientists Blogs • Practice writing with feedback • Social and professional support • Recognition and status • Personal knowledge management Twitter • Demonstrate public communication skills • Awareness of new literature • Quick feedback and questions answered 40
  41. 41. View of SCTs: Participants Blogs • Routine, but often a burden • Familiar community with regular commenters • A responsibility Twitter • Strong link to friends available for a quick comment or chat • Source of fast breaking news and updates 41
  42. 42. View of SCTs: Peripheral Participants Blogs • See detailed posts as great explanations of the science and insight into life as a scientist Twitter • A way to keep up without excessive e- mails or RSS • A way to follow conferences 42
  43. 43. View of SCTs: Non-participants Blogs • Most organizations are indifferent, as long as boundaries are maintained Twitter • May think the entire practice is odd! 43
  44. 44. New ICTs and information seeking and use 44
  45. 45. Information seeking and use: Blogs • Writing to explore, understand, and remember new topics has been well-studied. Doing this in a public forum adds beneficial community effects • Keeping a blog helps the author retrieve the information later for themselves or to refer others • Informal communication of field site or lab information may help other scientists fill in from incomplete published reports 45
  46. 46. Information seeking and use: Twitter • Alerting and filtering system for new literature • Seeking on Twitter has been unreliable at best • Collecting and curating tweets in Storify or on a blog is a work around 46
  47. 47. Limitations • Geoscientists • Only Twitter and Blogs • Small number of scientists interviewed 47
  48. 48. Future Work • Extend to other disciplines • Extend to other SCTs • Longitudinal look at Twitter at conferences • Sense of community in blogs and Twitter • Integrating personal, team, and public communications 48
  49. 49. Conclusions 49
  50. 50. Blogs and Twitter Benefit Science • Community building and maintenance • Improved mentoring • Increased public engagement • Improved dissemination of traditional communications 50
  51. 51. The framework of communication in science • A massive undertaking • Future studies should examine and test small portions • Useful in placing and understanding the communication happening in these two SCTs 51
  52. 52. Contributions The framework will be useful for: • Situating new technologies • Research on uses of SCTs • Helping individuals and organizations understand SCTs, so that they may support their use • Helping to teach scientists how to communicate • Teaching science librarians how to retrieve scientific information 52
  53. 53. Implications for ICT Design and Use • Make blog posting quicker • Add function tags to blog posts – even better if there are some common tags • Conference organizers should provide better access to tweets • Tweet collection, retrieval, and curation should be improved • Librarians should use Twitter for improved access to conference content 53
  54. 54. Contributions • Increased appreciation of SCTs for informal scholarly communication in science instead of just for popular communication • Increased appreciation for the value of these tools for personal knowledge management. 54
  55. 55. Take Aways • Both SCTs have valuable for information and communication as well as for community building, mentoring, and in support of learning and teaching. • The framework provided a useful guide in organizing the research and studying the SCTs 55
  56. 56. Contact: Christina K. Pikas cpikas@gmail.com @cpikas Slides will be posted to SlideShare http://www.slideshare.net/cpikas 56

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