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What is Globalization?Globalization –Used to describe the growing integration of economics worldwide through increases in trade investment flows, and technology transfer.
What Globalization is all about?Globalization describes the interplay across cultures of macro-social forces. These forces include religion, politics, and economics. Globalization can erode and universalize the characteristics of a local group.
Characteristics of Globalization that can be linked to Education:• Educational Terms• Economic Terms – Is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology, and capital.
Political Terms• Under globalization, politics can take place above the state through political integration schemes such as the European Union and through intergovernmental organizations such as the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank and the World Trade Organization. Political activity can also transcend national borders through global movements and NGOs. Civil society organizations act globally by forming alliances with organizations in other countries, using global communications systems, and lobbying international organizations and other actors directly, instead of working through their national governments.
Cultural Terms• Refers to the transmission of ideas, meanings and values across national borders. This process is marked by the spread of commodities and ideologies, which become standardized around the world. Mass consumption serves as a facilitator between different people and cultures around the globe as a result of the exponential growth of the human population.
Aspects of Globalization1. Industrial Globalization, Trans-Nationalization – refers to the rise and expansion of multinational and transnational enterprises2. Financial Globalization – refers to the emergence of world wide financial markets and better access to external financing for corporate,, national and sub-national borrowers
3. Political Globalization– refers to the spread of political sphere of interests to the regions and countries outside the neighborhood of political actors and the potential formation of a global citizen movement4. Information Globalization– refers to the increase in information flows between geographically remote locations5. Cultural Globalization– refers to the growth of cross-cultural contacts6. Globalism– refers to the universal internationalist impulse that the world is connected
Implication of Global Information Society in the Education System• Demands for widening the education access for all.• Continuous lifelong learning• Global versus local cultural development• Creation of new educational networked organization• Changing the educational management from hierarchical institutions to equal distributions of network organizations from commanding to negotiating• Demand for more flexible and general skills
What are the Core Values and Competencies for Global Education? Core Values Core Skills and Competencies• Peace & non-violence • Self-worth & self-affirmation• Social justice • Affirmation & others• Human rights • Cultural & racial differences• Economic well-being & • Critical thinking equity • Effective communication skills• Cultural integrity • Non-violent conflict resolution• Ecological balance & meditation• Democratic participation • Imagination • Effective organizing
Socio-Cultural, Economic andPolitical Issues on Globalization
1. Socio-cultural Issues• Massive migration- are changing the ways we experience national identities and cultural belonging• Managing difference- is becoming one of the greatest challenges to multicultural countries• Global changes in culture- deeply affect educational policies, practices and institutions
2. Economic Issues• Worldwide inequality• Consistency and quality of educational experiences remain patchy• Secondary education in developing countries remains quite weak• New technologies of globalization
3. Political Issues• Constraint on national/state policy• Economic coordination and exchange• Global conflict• Crime• Terrorism• Environmental issues
Conflict and Consensus Perspective on the Role ofEducation in Understanding Globalization
Forces of Globalization• Taxing youth• Families• Education system
Experiences of youth will be linked to:• Economic realities• Social processes• Technological and media innovations• Cultural flows
Roles of education• Education will need both rethinking and restructuring if schooling is to best prepare the children and the youth of the world to engage globalization’s new challenges, opportunities and costs.• Education should shape the cognitive skills, interpersonal sensibilities, and cultural sophistication of children and youth whose lives will be both engaged in local contexts and responsive to larger transnational process.
Globalization and its Impact on Education• Needed reforms within the educational system • The fall out of globalization
1. Content of EducationA. Curriculum Up-gradation- the modern advances in information technology have revolutionized among others, the content of knowledge and the process of educational transactionB. Productivity Orientation- the basic objective of globalization is to enhance productivity and to make the educational system an instrument in preparing students who can complete in the world markets as productive members of the society.
2. The Fall out of GlobalizationA. Internationalization of education – This has become a worldwide phenomenon because of the entry World Trade Organization (WTO) and the inclusion of educational services under the General Agreement on Trade and Services (GATS) which has given a boost to the internationalization of higher education.
B. Finance-related issues– In order to be a part of global configuration, the requirement of funds for social services including education win increase manifold.C. Privatization of secondary and higher education– As a corollary to the suggestions about reducing public investment in secondary and higher education, a plea has been made to hand over these sectors to private bodies.
Impact on Education• It will mean or more competitive and deregulative educational system.• With more pressure on it to assure that the next generation of workers are prepared for some amorphous job market of 21st century.• Educational system will increasingly provide the sites of struggle over the meaning and power of national identity and a national culture.