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Action Research

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This slide contains the nature of action research, how it is distinct with basic research, and the steps in conducting action research.

Publié dans : Formation

Action Research

  1. 1. Action Research: A Tool for Continuous Improvement Carlo Magno, PhD. crlmgn@yahoo.com
  2. 2. What is Action Research? • Reason and Bradbury “Handbook of Action Research” (2001, 2006, 2008) • “a participatory process concerned with developing practical knowing in the pursuit of worthwhile human purposes … It seeks to bring together action and reflection, theory and practice, in participation with others, in the pursuit of practical solutions to issues of pressing concern to people.”
  3. 3. Characteristics of Action Research • Grounded in real life experience • Developed in partnership • Addresses significant needs • Develops new ways of seeing/interpreting the world (i.e., theory) • Works with (rather than simply studying) people • Uses methods that are appropriate to the audience and participants at hand • Develops needed structures to allow for follow up or institutionalization of new practices so that the work may have a lasting, positive impact
  4. 4. Comparison Action Research in schools (Applied) Basic Research (Theoretical) Seek solutions to practical and ongoing problems Seeks solutions to theoretical problems (i. e. expand theory/knowledge) To improve the teaching and learning process (work process) To arrive with models in explaining the teaching and learning process Greatly considers the needs and concerns of the stakeholders Driven by the need to fill up the gap in previous studies (literature reviews) Providing and taking “informed action” Recommendations are provided for further study
  5. 5. Action Research Process Taken from ASCD (Sagor, 2000): 1. Selecting a focus 2. Clarifying theories 3. Identifying research questions 4. Collecting data 5. Analyzing data 6. Reporting results 7. Taking informed action
  6. 6. Step 1—Selecting a Focus • Selecting a focus begins with the teacher researcher or the team of action researchers asking: • What element(s) of our practice or what aspect of student learning do we wish to investigate?
  7. 7. Step 1—Selecting a Focus • Some areas for investigation in Action Research – Low student participation in class activities – Irregular attendance/tardiness in class – Students negative attitude towards mathematics and science – Low motivation of pupils to perform in the test – Non accomplishment of homework, assignment, or projects. – Students unruly behavior – Parents indifference in their child’s education – Non-observance of healthy or hygienic practices inside and outside of the school – Students ‘learning in a group work
  8. 8. Step 2—Clarifying Theories • The second step involves identifying the values, beliefs, and theoretical perspectives the researchers hold relating to their focus. • Conduct search of literature reviews for the theory needed. • Example of theories: – Self-determination theory – Social cognitive theory – Zone of Proximal Development
  9. 9. Step 3—Identifying Research Questions • Generate a set of personally meaningful research questions to guide the inquiry. • Be specific with the Independent, dependent, mediating, moderating, and dependent variables (outcomes). – Effect of Project Based-Learning on students engagement. – Effect of feedback strategy on students spelling scores. – Effect of CORI on students motivation on reading. • The relationship among the variables needs to be explained and guided by the theory in step 2.
  10. 10. Step 3—Identifying Research Questions • Bad action research questions: – What will improve critical thinking skills? (too broad, no specific IV) – Is the KPUP assessment effective in schools? (no idea on what data will be collected) – To what extent is the K to 12 program effective? (there are several indicators of K to 12 to be considered , not outcome specified) – Is there a significant difference between principals leadership styles and teachers attitude on teaching? (Confused researcher: illogical to compare two different variables)
  11. 11. Step 3—Identifying Research Questions • Qualitative Action Research Questions: – What are the difficulties of IP students in answering mathematics word problem tasks? – What are the general and subject specific characteristics of an intelligent student as perceived by grade 3 students? – What metacognitive strategies are used by Chinese students in comprehending their reading of English books?
  12. 12. Step 4—Collecting Data • The data used justify that the actions are valid (meaning the information represents what the researchers say it does) • The data are reliable (meaning the researchers are confident about the accuracy of their data). • Must be confident that the lessons drawn from the data align with any unique characteristics of their classroom or school.
  13. 13. Step 4—Collecting Data • Methods of collecting data: – Experiment – Survey – Use of self-reports: tests, scales, and inventories – Observation (checklists) – Interview – Focus group discussions – Metacards – Content analysis – Indigenous methods: Pakikipagkentuhan, pagtatanong-tanong, pakapa-kapa, pakikipanuluyan
  14. 14. Step 5—Analyzing Data • Quantitative • Qualitative • Both quantitative and qualitative
  15. 15. Step 5—Analyzing Data • Quantitative Analysis – Sources of information: Surveys, questionnaires, rating scales, checklists, formative and summative assessments, standardized tests – Testing hypothesis • Relationship of variables • Comparing categories on a dependent variable • Effect of an IV on a DV – Use descriptive and inferential statistics
  16. 16. Step 5—Analyzing Data • Qualitative data analysis – Sources: interview transcripts, observational notes, journal entries, audio and video transcription, records, reports. 1. Reduction of large amounts of narrative data. Search for words or phrases in the observation that begins to repeat themselves. Coding – group data that provides similar types of information.
  17. 17. Step 5—Analyzing Data • 2. Describe the main features of the categories – Make connections between the data – Connect the data to the research questions • 3. Interpret the data – Interpret the events for relationships, similarities, and contradictions.
  18. 18. Step 6—Reporting Results • The reporting of action research most often occurs in informal settings. • Faculty meetings, brown bag lunch seminars, and teacher conferences are among the most common venues for sharing action research with peers. • Writing up the work for publication or reports.
  19. 19. Step 6—Reporting Results • Parts of the report – Introduction: What event or need lead the researcher to investigate the study? – Review of related literature: What are the previous studies that investigated the same phenomena? What theory explain the relationship among the variables? – Research Questions – Method: Design, Participants, Instruments, procedure, analysis – Results – Discussion – References – Appendices
  20. 20. Step 7—Taking Informed Action • Create an action plan – description of the implementation of a new education practice. – Alternative approaches to addressing the problem – Plan to share the findings to colleagues • Common outcomes: – A greater understanding of the situation or the learner is developed – A new problem is discovered – A plan, program or instructional method is found to be effective or ineffective – A plan, program or instructional method is found to need modification
  21. 21. Step 7—Taking Informed Action Findings per question Recomme nded action Who is responsibl e? -Teachers -students -Principal -parents -Others Who needs to be consulted ? Who will monitor the actions? Time line Resources needed
  22. 22. Step 7—Taking Informed Action • Levels of action Plan – Individual action planning: lesson plans – Team action planning: Implementation within a level of subject area – School level or district wide: Results translated to practices, policies, procedures
  23. 23. Three Purposes for Action Research • Building the reflective practitioner • Making progress on schoolwide priorities • Building professional cultures
  24. 24. Building the Reflective Practitioner • When individual teachers make a personal commitment to systematically collect data on their work, they foster continuous growth and development. • When the empirical investigation affect the teaching and learning: Reflections on the findings from each day's work inform the next day's instruction, teachers can't help but develop greater mastery of the art and science of teaching. • The individual teachers conducting action research are making continuous progress in developing their strengths as reflective practitioners.
  25. 25. Making Progress on Schoolwide Priorities • When a faculty shares a commitment to achieving excellence with a specific focus—for example, the development of higher-order thinking, positive social behavior, or higher standardized test scores—then collaboratively studying their practice will not only contribute to the achievement of the shared goal but would have a powerful impact on team building and program development. • Focusing the combined time, energy, and creativity of a group of committed professionals on a single pedagogical issue will inevitably lead to program improvements, as well as to the school becoming a “center of excellence.” • As a result, when a faculty chooses to focus on one issue and all the teachers elect to enthusiastically participate in action research on that issue, significant progress on the schoolwide priorities cannot help but occur.
  26. 26. Building Professional Cultures • School faculties who wish to transform themselves into “communities of learners” often empower teams of colleagues who share a passion about one aspect of teaching and learning to conduct investigations into that area of interest and then share what they've learned with the rest of the school community. • Multiple action research inquiries occur simultaneously, and no one is held captive to another's priority, yet everyone knows that all the work ultimately will be shared and will consequently contribute to organizational learning.
  27. 27. Why Conduct Action Research • Professionalize teaching • Enhance the motivation and efficacy of a weary faculty • Meet the needs of an increasingly diverse student body • Achieve success with “standards-based” reforms
  28. 28. Workshop Indicate the following: 1. What area, topic or concern in your school needs to be addressed? 2. What theory explains the event you will investigate? 3. State the research questions 4. Method of Collecting data 5. Analyzing data 6. What results are expected 7. Informed action to be made
  29. 29. Example of Output 1. What area, topic or concern in your school needs to be addressed? Students seem interested in using their ipads and they download educational apps. They read e-books rather than their textbooks. 2. What theory explains the event you will investigate? The technology integration model explains that learning is effective when students use instructional materials as medium of learning (Teo, 2010). 3. State the research questions Will students who read the social studies material in the e- book have higher scores in the test than students who read the books?
  30. 30. Example Output 4. Method of Collecting data - A test on the content of the lesson read will be given 5. Analyzing data The t-test for two independent samples will be used to compare the two groups on their test performance. 6. What results are expected The results will be presented to the principal. 7. Informed action to be made School level: Social studies materials will be made into e- book and it will be used is the effects are significant.

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