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Automation Testing by
Selenium Web Driver
As efficient as your
We provide the people, the ability
and the tools so you can be best at
what you do.
Why automate testing?
Test automation has specific advantages for improving the
long-term efficiency of a software team’s testing processes.
Test automation supports:
0 Frequent regression testing
0 Rapid feedback to developers
0 Virtually unlimited iterations of test case execution
0 Support for Agile and extreme development methodologies
0 Disciplined documentation of test cases
0 Customized defect reporting
0 Finding defects missed by manual testing
0 2004 - at ThoughtWorks in Chicago, Jason Huggins built the Core mode as
application (Python, Plone).
0 2006 - at Google, Simon Stewart started work on a project he called WebDriver.
Google had long been a heavy user of Selenium, but testers had to work around
the limitations of the product. The WebDriver project began with the aim to
solve the Selenium’ pain-points.
0 2008 - merging of Selenium and WebDriver. Selenium had massive community
and commercial support, but WebDriver was clearly the tool of the future. The
joining of the two tools provided a common set of features for all users and
brought some of the brightest minds in test automation under one roof.
0 Shinya Kasatani in Japan became interested in Selenium, he
0 Wrapped the core code into an IDE module into the Firefox browser
0 Added the ability to record tests as well as play them back in the same plugin.
0 This tool, turned out an eye opener in more ways that was originally thought as it is
not bound to the same origin policy.
0 See http://docs.seleniumhq.org/about/history.jsp for more interesting details
0 Selenium scripts that will be run from Selenium-IDE
are stored in an HTML text file format.
0 HTML table with three columns.
0 The first column identifies the Selenium command
0 the second is a target, and
0 the final column contains a value.
0 The second and third columns may not require values
depending on the chosen Selenium command, but they
should be present.
0 Each table row represents a new Selenium command.
Commonly Used Selenium
Open - opens a page using a URL.
click/clickAndWait - performs a click operation, and optionally waits for a new
page to load.
verifyTitle/assertTitle - verifies an expected page title.
verifyTextPresent - verifies expected text is somewhere on the page.
verifyElementPresent - verifies an expected UI element, as defined by its HTML
tag, is present on the page.
verifyText - verifies expected text and its corresponding HTML tag are present on
verifyTable - verifies a table’s expected contents.
waitForPageToLoad - pauses execution until an expected new page loads.
Called automatically when clickAndWait is used.
waitForElementPresent - pauses execution until an expected UI element, as
defined by its HTML tag, is present on the page.
0 For many Selenium commands, a target is required. This
target identifies an element in the content of the web
application, and consists of the location strategy followed
by the location in the format locatorType=location
0 Locating by Identifier : the most common method of
locating elements and is the catch-all default when no
recognized locator type is used
0 the first element with the id attribute value matching the
location will be used. If no element has a matching id
attribute, then the first element with a name attribute
matching the location will be used
0 Locating by Id: more limited than the identifier locator
type, but also more explicit.
0 Use this when you know an element’s id attribute.
0 Locating by Name: will locate the first element with a
matching name attribute. If multiple elements have the
same value for a name attribute, then you can use filters
to further refine your location strategy.
0 The default filter type is value (matching the value
0 Locating by Xpath : XPath extends beyond (as well as
supporting) the simple methods of locating by id or name
attributes, and opens up all sorts of new possibilities such as
locating the third checkbox on the page.
0 Since only xpath locators start with “//”, it is not necessary to
include the xpath= label when specifying an XPath locator.
0 Absolute XPaths contain the location of all elements from the root
(html) and as a result are likely to fail with only the slightest
adjustment to the application. By finding a nearby element with
an id or name attribute (ideally a parent element) you can locate
your target element based on the relationship. This is much less
likely to change and can make your tests more robust.
0 Locating Hyperlinks by Link Text: simple method of
locating a hyperlink in your web page by using the text of
the link. If two links with the same text are present, then
the first match will be used.
0 Locating by CSS: CSS uses Selectors for binding style
properties to elements in the document. These Selectors
can be used by Selenium as another locating strategy.
0 Most experienced Selenium users recommend CSS as their
locating strategy of choice as it’s considerably faster than
XPath and can find the most complicated objects in an
intrinsic HTML document.
Matching Text Patterns
0 Like locators, patterns are a type of parameter frequently
required by Selenese commands.
0 Examples of commands which require patterns are
0 verifyText, and
0 link locators can utilize a pattern.
0 Patterns allow you to describe, via the use of special characters,
what text is expected rather than having to specify that text
Xpath by Xpath Checker
Xpath is a very Helpful to validate Xpath on pages. In order to write xpath
expressions we should look at the tree structure of html source code and based
On the path for require element we should drive the xpath expression.
/html/body/a - It will Identify all the elements are using a tag.
/html/body/input - It will Identify all the elements are using input tag.
/html/body/input – It will Identify the first input tag under body.
/html/body/a/img – xpath for a image present on a link.
/html/body/table/tbody/tr/td – It will Identify the element which
is present in 2nd tr contain 1st td inside tbody.
/html/body/div//a – It will identify all “a” tag present in the all div present
on html body.
Generally we use xpath by position along with xpath by attribute.
//a[text()=‘Cuelogic’] – This xpath will identify the element by text “Cuelogic”
//a[contains[text(), ‘Cuelogic’]] – This xpath will also identify the element by text
“Cuelogic” but if their any spaces at beginning or at end
it will consider it.
//td[a] - “[ ]” denotes select all while “/” denote as parent to element path ignore all
other elements in tree same Structure.
Identify the Dependent and Independent Elements-
Derived xpath expression for the dependent element from the common parent
Write a xpath for independent element –
A few tips
0 Saving a test suite does not save the test case.
0 Make sure that you save the test case every time you
make a change and not just the test suite.
0 echo - The Selenese Print Command
0 Use Find button to see which UI element on the
currently displayed webpage (in the browser) is used
in the currently selected Selenium command. This is
useful when building a locator for a command’s first
Selenium IDE –
0 Firefox only
0 Can not Specify any condition Statement.
0 Can not Specify any Looping Statement.
0 Can not take external text data from External
Resources such as XLS,XML or Database.
0 Handing Exceptions is not in scope.
0 Note:- To overcome the limitation of Selenium IDE we
go for Selenium WebDriver.
Selenium Web Driver
0 WebDriver is a tool for automating web application
testing, and in particular to verify that they work as
0 It aims to provide a friendly API that’s easy to explore
and understand, easier to use than the Selenium-RC
(1.0) API, which will help to make your tests easier to
read and maintain.
0 It’s not tied to any particular test framework, so it can
be used equally well in a unit testing or from a plain
old “main” method.
Selenium Web Driver –
Selenium-WebDriver supports the following browsers along
with the operating systems these browsers are compatible
0 Google Chrome
0 Internet Explorer
0 Opera 11.5+
0 Android – 2.3+ for phones and tablets (devices & emulators)
0 iOS 3+ for phones (devices & emulators) and 3.2+ for tablets
(devices & emulators)
Some reasons to use the Selenium-Server with
0 You are using Selenium-Grid to distribute your tests
over multiple machines or virtual machines (VMs).
0 You want to connect to a remote machine that has a
particular browser version that is not on your current
0 You are not using the Java bindings (i.e. Python, C#, or
Ruby) and would like to use HtmlUnit Driver
Methods:- “findElement” is a method of webdriver interface which is
Use to identify required element in the application. This method takes an
Object as an argument of type “By”.
Locators:- Webdriver supports 8 types of locators to identify the
Elements and all the locators will return the object of the type
Types of Locators:-
3. By.xpath(String xpathExpression)
4. By.cssSelector(String Selector)
5. By.linkText(String linkText)
6. By.partialLinkText(String linkText)
7. By.className(String className)
8. By.tagName(String Name)
Retrieving the value from
While doing validation we compare excepted result and actual
result then we will report the status. Actual result will be taken from
application during runtime. In order to do this we use following important
1. getTitle() :- This method help us to retrieve the title of the webpage.
2. GetcurrentUrl():- This method will retrieve the current url from the
address bar of the browser.
3. getAttribute(“value”) :- This is used to retrieve property value from the
element present in the application. It is basically used to retrieve text from
Textbox, password field, Address Field, Path of uploading file and button
4. isEnable() :- This method is used to check whether the specify elements
enable or not. True indicates enable and false indicates disable.
5. isSelected() :- It is used to checked whether the specific checkbox or radio
button is selected or not.
6. getText():- It is used to retrieve the text of the following element.
1. Navigate back to Previous Page:-
2. Navigate to the next Page:-
3. Refresh Mehods :-
A: WebDriver driver; // Assigned elsewhere
Q: The InternetExplorerDriver does not work well on Vista.
How do I get it to work as expected?
A:DesiredCapabilities capabilities = DesiredCapabilities.internetExplorer();
WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver(capabilities);
A: // Get a handle to the open alert, prompt or confirmation
Alert alert = driver.switchTo().alert(); // Get the text of the alert or prompt
// And acknowledge the alert (equivalent to clicking "OK")
//And to decline alert
Q: I need to use a proxy. How do I configure that?
A: Proxy configuration is done via the org.openqa.selenium.Proxy class like so:
Proxy proxy = new Proxy();
// We use firefox as an example here.
DesiredCapabilities capabilities = DesiredCapabilities.firefox();
// You could use any webdriver implementation here
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(capabilities);
Q: WebDriver fails to start Firefox on Linux due to java.net.SocketException
A: If, when running WebDriver on Linux, Firefox fails to start and the error looks like:
java.net.SocketException: Invalid argument
at java.net.PlainSocketImpl.socketBind(Native Method)
It may be caused due to IPv6 settings on the machine. Execute:
sudo sysctl net.ipv6.bindv6only=0
Selenium RC comes in two
A server which automatically
launches and kills browsers,
and acts as a HTTP proxy for
web requests from them.
Client libraries for your
favorite computer language.
0 Selenium and Section 508 by David Sills
0 Selenium Tutorial for Beginner/Tips for Experts
0 Get Test-Infected With Selenium