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Artificial emotional intelligence - Giles Colborne

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My slides from Interaction 12. Now with added notes!

Publié dans : Design, Technologie, Spirituel

Artificial emotional intelligence - Giles Colborne

  1. Artificial emotional intelligenceGiles Colborne http://www.flickr.com/photos/thomashawk/54164255/ 1
  2. I hope I’m not I’m abad person.But sometimes I thinkbad thoughts. I want to punch that website in the face 2
  3. This guy acts outthose bad thoughts.He’s a bit scary. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HtTUsOKjWyQ 3
  4. Something aboutcomputers brings outthe worst in us. Weshout at our laptopsand throw our remotecontrols on theground. 4
  5. In response, someinteraction designersact like Nurse Ratchedin One Flew Over theCuckoo’s Nest. They seeemotion as the enemy.But I think thatmisunderstands theimportance ofemotions. 5
  6. AI pioneer MarvinMinsky sees emotions as‘ways to think’. Emotionstune the machinery ofthe brain.Even a ‘negative’ emotionlike anger is useful. Itgives us the energy toaddress a threat andsends out social signalsthat warn others we’dbetter get our way. 6
  7. People without emotionsare less effectivethinkers. AntonioDamasio describes onepatient, Elliot, withabove average IQ butfrontal lobe damage thatmeans his emotions areimpaired making him akind of Mr Spock. When faced with a ‘rational’ task like scheduling an appointment, he endlessly weighs and compares choices. He doesn’t feel boredom, frustration or embarrassment. He takes for ever. Emotions are vital to decision making. 7
  8. Why do we like to watchhorror movies? Becausethey help us extend ouremotional range andunderstand ouremotions.Emotions are importantto people. They’re linkedto our strongestmemories and the mostmeaningful events in ourlives. What if we accept thereSo we’re right to reject will be ups and downs inthe Nurse Ratched view the relationship betweenthat we should eliminate humans and computers?emotion. What if we try to give our designs the emotional intelligence to ride those waves? 8
  9. Marvin Minsky wants tocreate artificialemotional intelligence bybuilding an artificialbrain. Awesome!But that’s a few decadesaway. Meanwhile, I havea website to design.So are there ways I cancheat? 9
  10. Back to this guy. Theword that describes himis ‘postal’.So maybe we can learnhow to deal with thissituation by talking tosome experts. 10
  11. These folks trainnegotiators to deal withcrisis situations. Maybe FBIthey can help us. 11
  12. Behavioural Change Stairway Model They use this model to get through hostage negotiations. It recognises that if you want to get to ‘behaviour behaviour change’ you need to start with ‘listening’ and ‘empathy’. change influence rapport empathy active listening 12
  13. Clearly his computer isn’tlistening to him.When interfaces don’tlisten we get angry. 13
  14. It looks like you’regiving a presentation Get help with giving the presentation Just give the presentation without help. Don’t show this tip Clippy has all the elements that we’re supposed to include in emotional design. He’s again informal yet direct. He’s cute looking. I’ve always thought there was a lot of good thinking behind him. But people hated him. Why? Because he’s so bad at listening. 14
  15. My hero Clifford Nassredesigned Clippy verysimply to listen andempathise.When Clippy offeredadvice, he would ask ‘wasthat useful?’. If peoplesaid ‘no’ Clippy would say‘that really ticks me off.Let’s tell the folks atMicrosoft I need to bereprogrammed.’ andClippy would encouragethem to write in and venttheir dissatisfaction.And it worked: users Clifford Nass 15
  16. When you watch thisvideo, you notice thatthere are lots of signsthat things are goingwrong. Our guy begins bygiving the screen a hardstare. Then he seems toswear. He slaps thekeyboard. And then hereally starts to lose it.A more sophisticatedcomputer might havepicked up on thosewarning signs and saveditself a beating. 16
  17. In Affective Computing,Rosalind Pickard suggeststhat computers could useinput from many sensors(facial recognition, audioinput and so on) andpattern matching todetect users’ emotions.She recognises this iscomplex (even peopleoccasionally misreademotions). We’re a fewyears away from this.But Clifford Nass showsus that listening can be assimple as saying ‘how amI doing?’. 17
  18. The FBI knows there’s a right way to empathise. Don’t say ‘I know how you feel’. It’s too easy for other person to say ‘Oh no you don’t’.Wrong: Instead, show you care and create opportunities for dialogue. You don’t need sophisticated technology for this. In fact,‘I know how you feel’ it’s been around since the 1960s.Right:‘I’ve never been in your situationbefore, but I imagine you must befeeling very depressed and lonely’ 18
  19. Eliza is a computer ‘therapist’ that asks users how they feel and uses pattern matching to respond and draw them out.ELIZA It’s crude, but good enough to pass a basic Turing test - some people think Eliza’s answers come from a real person. 19
  20. FBI negotiators know they need to project the rightBe positive, upbeat personality.Reassure hostage-taker that Now imagine if you hooked up Eliza’s pattern matching to an online database andthings will work out well gave it an upbeat personality with a bit of edge to it.Be credible That sounds familiar...Show you understand theirreasons but don’t be too eagerto please 20
  21. Siri is an evolution of Eliza’spattern matching approachbut with better jokes.That creates a personalityand a basis for empathy. 21
  22. Clifford Nass ran anexperiment where he gaveparticipants blue wrist bandsand asked them to completetasks a computer.For half the participants heput ablue border on thecomputer screen and said‘you and the computer aretheblue team’. For the other half,he gave the computer a greenborderand said ‘you’re theblue guy working on thegreen computer’.When the colours matched,people tried harder andthought the computer wassmarter.Building rapport doesn’trequire complex technology.Just good psychology. 22
  23. Excellent. We’re half way up the FBI’s behavioural change model and we’ve not had to build an artificial brain.Listen, empathise, build rapport 23
  24. The FBI has a lot to tell usabout how to handleemotions that arise fromsituation.But sometimes conflictarises from personalitydifferences. 24
  25. For managing relationships,this book wasrecommended to me.I love it because it centreson a simple model. (Whichwe can use when we’redesigning interactions.) 25
  26. You have to understand Task focuspeople’s disposition(passive - aggressive) andmotivation (task -relationship). Passive Aggressive Relationship focus 26
  27. In the centre is the ‘normal zone’. At the Task focusedges of the graph are extreme typeswho can be difficult to get along with. Whiner Tank Passive Aggressive Yes person Think they know it all Relationship focus 27
  28. What I find normal and acceptable will Task focusbe different from what you find normaland acceptable.Everyone is someone’s difficult person. Whiner TankWe need to tune our behaviour andresponses to get the best out of thoseconflicts. Passive Aggressive Yes person Think they know it all Relationship focus 28
  29. And the secret to that is understanding Task focusthe intention that drives thosepersonality types. Get it right Get it done Passive Aggressive Get along Get appreciated Relationship focus 29
  30. Maja Mataric has built socially assistive robots that coach stroke victims through their physiotherapy. She tried tuning the coaching to each patient’s personality. The robots would tell extroverts ‘Come on, try harder’. But introverts would be told ‘I know it’s hard, but it’s for your own good’. And... it worked! Patients preferred the robots that were tuned to their personality and tried harder for them.Maja Mataric 30
  31. If you need to be appreciated, you’ll likethe fact that TripAdvisor tells you whenpeople have read your reviews.If you’re a ‘get it done’ kind of person,you might feel this was unnecessary andspammy. 31
  32. And if you’re the kind of personwho needs to get along, you’dappreciate this error message thatsays ‘It’s my fault’. (Personally, Ifind it rather craven.) 32
  33. You don’t need to give your users apersonality test before they start. Youcould learn their personality in thesame way that Pandora learns yourtaste in music. 33
  34. And you might even be able to pickup information about users’personality from specialist services. 34
  35. Task focus So instead of designing fixed patterns of behaviour, maybe we should design flexible patterns that adjust to users’ disposition. Get it right Get it donePassive Aggressive Get along Get appreciated Relationship focus 35
  36. Behavioural Change Stairway Model And we’ve seen how a model like this can help us think about behaviour listening, empathising and building rapport, rather than change rushing towards outcomes. influence rapport empathy active listening 36
  37. A lot of the discussion of emotionaldesign today centres around ideas of‘brand’. And on old-fashioned, static,monolithic brands.But I hope I’ve shown you that we can domuch more.We can create a flow of emotions andmore dynamic, adaptable personalitiesfor our designs.We’re designing responsive web layouts,why not responsive interaction rules? http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Coca_Cola_ad_ca._1943_IMG_3744.JPG 37
  38. If we put some emotional intelligence into theinteractions we design, we can disarm conflict,create richer, more memorable experiences,and improve performance for our users.The future may bring us better ways of readingemotions.But the tools we need to get started arealready in our hands.Let’s use them. http://www.instructables.com/files/orig/F4U/KUUR/FGVL6H7X/F4UKUURFGVL6H7X.jpg 38
  39. What are emotions and how Still the go-to text on using emotions Applying the triune brain model How law enforcement agenciescould we create them in a in computing. to the problem of creating negotiate in highly charged,machine? emotionally resonant designs. criminal situations.A guide to recognising A refutation of the idea that Original research into how people Applying theories of story toemotionally charged relationships emotions have no place in higher make ‘gut’ decisions. interaction designand to getting the best from thought.them. 39