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Scientific Research

A process of systematic investigation of a subject for the purpose of adding to the body of knowledge about that subject.

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Scientific Research

  1. 1. scientific Research Dr. Dalia El-Shafei Associate professor, Community Medicine Department, Zagazig University
  2. 2. What is the scientific Research?
  3. 3. What is the scientific Research? A process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or an issue. Includes any gathering of data, information and facts for the advancement of knowledge. When done among a group of population, its called “an epidemiological research”.
  4. 4. Research A process of systematic investigation of a subject for the purpose of adding to the body of knowledge about that subject. It is a systemic way of thinking & knowing.
  5. 5. Research is a process: Carried out in stages. Investigation is carried out systematically: Investigation is planned. Research is intended to add to the body of knowledge: Purpose of research is to inform
  6. 6. Importance of the scientific research
  7. 7. Why it is needed? Builds knowledge. Impact on health policy & service delivery. Improves daily practice.
  8. 8. Health research has high values to societies. Provide important information Disease trends & risk factors Patterns of care Outcomes of ttt or public health interventions Health care costs & use
  9. 9. Has a significant role in the information revolution.
  10. 10. Provide important information about disease nature, trends & risk factors as well as new life problems & events.
  11. 11. Provide important information about outcomes of ttt or public health interventions for diseases & health problems.
  12. 12. Provide valuable information for reducing medical errors by implementing health information technology.
  13. 13. Lead to significant discoveries that helps in developing new therapies & improving patient care and public health.
  14. 14. Reduce morbidity & mortality at reasonable costs via new diagnosis & ttt procedures.
  15. 15. Provide evidence for policies & decisions on health & development.
  16. 16. Medical doctors Must understand & appreciate the research process. Must be able to critically appraise scientific literatures. This is very important today, since patients get all kinds of information through the Internet; where there are so many articles out there, and most of them are published without checking for quality. Must know what is legitimate & what is not, as the patients will ask about things they read about in the newspapers, or in journals, or on the Internet.
  17. 17. Economists Medical research Improved health & longevity ↑ Population productivity ↑ National economy
  18. 18. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Reviewing the literatures. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research
  19. 19. Step (1): Identification of the research problem
  20. 20. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Reviewing the literatures. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research
  21. 21. Research problem A problem or situation that a researcher wants to solve. An area of concern where there is a gap in the knowledge base needed for professional practices.
  22. 22. Research problems begin with an idea. Once an idea has been formulated, you can then brainstorm about this idea. The next step is to review the literatures. Finally, you can formulate the research question & hypothesis. The following steps may be useful in defining the research problem:
  23. 23. Sources of research problems Practical experience Review of literatures Brainstorming Expert consultation
  24. 24. Significance Researchability Feasibility Criteria of selecting the problem
  25. 25. Criteria 1: Significance The problem studied should advance knowledge. It should be recent & new. It must be understandable to others in the scientific community. It should yield significant contributions to the science or the discipline in a meaningful way.
  26. 26. Criteria 2: Researchability A study problem imply the possibility of empirical testing.
  27. 27. Criteria 3: Feasibility Suitable Time Availability of subjects & their cooperation Cooperation of related sectors & personnel Available facilities & equipment Money (sufficient budget) Experience of the researcher Acceptability & ethical considerations
  28. 28. Step 2: Reviewing the literatures
  29. 29. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Reviewing the literatures. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research
  30. 30. Literature Review Identifies what is currently known about the subject under study Reflects relevant background information necessary to support justification for the study. An updated literature review is extremely important to validate the need for a study.
  31. 31. Limitations in current thought regarding the problem may be identified in this section. The literature review section usually gives the reader background information on a theoretical/conceptual framework, which helps guide the study.
  32. 32. Purpose of a Review of Literature Determines what is known & what is not known about a subject, concept, or problem. Determines gaps, consistencies, and inconsistencies in the literatures about a subject, concept, or problem. Discovers unanswered questions about a subject, concept, or problem. Describes the strengths & weaknesses of designs/methods used in earlier work. Generates useful research questions or problems for the discipline. Determines an appropriate research design/method (instruments, data collection, and data analysis methods) for answering the research question
  33. 33. Step 3: Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives.
  34. 34. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Literature review. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research
  35. 35. A research question An explicit query about a problem or issue that can be challenged, examined, analyzed, and will yield useful new information. If a researcher makes a specific prediction regarding the answers to the research questions, he or she poses a hypothesis that is tested empirically.
  36. 36. Research question Focused on a single problem or issue. Researchable using 1ry and/or 2ry sources. Feasible to answer within the timeframe & practical constraints. Specific enough to answer thoroughly. Relevant to your field of study
  37. 37. Hypothesis A statement about the expected relationship between variables. It is a prediction of expected outcomes of the research. The problem statement identifies the phenomena of interest (under study). Predicts how the phenomena will be related.
  38. 38. Most research hypotheses fall into 2 broad categories: Relationship between or among variables “As values of X change, so do values of Y”. The onset of diabetes is related to obesity. The severity of diabetes is positively related to obesity. People or objects that differ on X will also differ on Y. Children who are normal weight will have a later onset of diabetes than children who are obese. Obese diabetic adults will experience more complications due to diabetes than diabetic adults who have normal weight.
  39. 39. Research problem vs Research question Research problem • Major issue that leads to the need for a study • This should come from the literature and is laid out in your literature review. Research question • Specific question which you are working to answer. • Comes directly from the problem. • Word it in one sentence!! • May only address part of the problem.
  40. 40. Aim & Objectives Aim • Expresses in a single sentence what you hope to achieve at the end of a research project. • Focus on a research long- term outcomes • Relatively broad • Single sentence or short paragraph Objectives • The specific outcomes you expect to achieve through your research and most importantly, the objectives should be attainable • Immediate, short-term outcomes • specific • Should be written as a numbered list
  41. 41. Characteristics of the objectives
  42. 42. Represent circumstances in which professional judgments or actions regarding a 1ry interest, such as the responsibilities of a medical researcher, may be at risk of being unjustifiably influenced by a 2ry interest, such as financial gain or career advancement. 1ry interest 2ry interest
  43. 43. Examples:  A conflict between financial gain and meticulous completion and reporting of a research study  A conflict between responsibilities as an investigator and as a treating physician for the same trial participant. Declaring conflicts of interest is critical for maintaining the integrity of unbiased professional editorial assessment of the publications.
  44. 44. Step 4: Choosing the study design & sampling method
  45. 45. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Reviewing the literatures. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research
  46. 46. The research design The plan of how the research question or hypothesis is to be tested. Specifies the approach that will be taken & controls that will be used to check different explanations to the results of the study.
  47. 47. Researchmethods Quantitative Observational Descriptive Analytical Experimental Qualitative Descriptive
  48. 48. Step 5&6: Data collection & analysis
  49. 49. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Reviewing the literatures. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research
  50. 50. Implementing the research Collecting the data. Preparing the data for analysis. Analyzing the data. Interpreting the results
  51. 51. Step 7: Reporting & evaluating research
  52. 52. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Reviewing the literatures. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research
  53. 53. Utilizing the research & disseminating findings Research report: • Research abstract. • Research published in journals. • Papers – Thesis – Dissertations. Utilization of findings: • Application to clinical practice & education.
  54. 54. Overview of research process Identification of research problem. Reviewing the literatures. Determine specific research questions & hypothesis and specifying research aim & objectives. Choosing the study design & sampling method. Data collection. Analyzing & interpreting the data. Reporting & evaluating research

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