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A Framework for Improved Access to Museum Databases in the Semantic Web

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This paper presents a framework for processing Museum databases according to a set of interlinked ontologies, including CIDOC-CRM, and loading them in a reason-able view of the web of data, providing additional links to datasets from the LOD cloud. The infrastructure allows accessing the data via SPARQL queries and to verbalize the query results in natural language, the GF formalism, which allows access to 18 natural languages.

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A Framework for Improved Access to Museum Databases in the Semantic Web

  1. 1. A Framework for ImprovedAccess to Museum Databases in the Semantic Web Dana Dannélls, Mariana Damova, PhD, Ramona Enache, Milen Chechev
  2. 2. IntroductionLinked Open Data combining facts and knowledge from different datasets is the ultimate goal of the Semantic WebNeed for convincing real life use cases demonstrating the benefits of these technologiesMacManus, the Founder and Editor-in-Chief of ReadWriteWeb defined an exemplary test for the Semantic Web cities around the world which have Modigliani art works Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #2
  3. 3. FactForge of Ontotext solves the Modigliani queryThe cultural heritage domain can become a useful usecase for the application of semantictechnologies. Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #3
  4. 4. Outline• Linked Open Data – the Vision• Reason-able View – Linked Open Data Management• Museum Reason-able View – Data• Museum Reason-able View – Environment• Ontology based verbalization of triple results• Related Work• Conclusion Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #4
  5. 5. Linked Open Data – the Vision Tim Berners-Lee graphs published on the web and explorable across servers in a manner similar to the way the HTML web is navigated Design principles of Linked Open Data – Use URIs to identify things. – Use HTTP URIs so that these things can be referred to and looked up ("dereferenced") by people and user agents. – Provide useful information about the thing when its URI is dereferenced, using standard formats such as RDF/XML. – Include links to other, related URIs in the exposed data to improve discovery of other related information on the Web. Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #5
  6. 6. Linked Open Data Cloud 258 datasets as of september 2011 Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #6
  7. 7. Reason-able View – Linked Open Data ManagementUsing linked data for data management is considered to have great potential forthe transformation of the web of data into a giant global graph (Heath, & Bizer,2011). Still, there are several challenges that have to be overcome to make thispossible, namely: • LOD are hard to comprehend; • Diversity comes at a price; • LOD is unreliable; • Dealing with data distributed on the web is slow; • No consistency is guaranteed.Using reason-able views (Kiryakov et al., 2009a) – a solution to LOD management. Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #7
  8. 8. Reason-able View – Linked Open Data Management• An approach for reasoning with and managing linked data - an assembly of independent datasets, which can be used as a single body of knowledge with respect to reasoning and query evaluation - lowering the cost and the risks of using specific linked datasets for specific purposes• The linkage between the data - at the schema level - at the instance level• Accessible via - SPARQL endpoint - keywords• Queries with predicates from different datasets• “Federated” results from different datasets Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #8
  9. 9. Museum Reason-able View – Data• Requirements: - the ability to handle generic knowledge, such as people, institutions, and locations - the ability to handle specific subject domains, such as the cultural heritage and museums• Datasets covering the Generic Knowledge of the Museum Reason-able View. - DBpedia - the RDF-ized version of Wikipedia, describing more than 3.5 million things and covers 97 languages. - Geonames - a geographic database that covers 6 million of the most significant geographical features on Earth. - PROTON - an upper-level ontology, 542 entity classes and 183 properties. Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #9
  10. 10. Museum Reason-able View – Museum Data Models• CIDOC – CRM developed by the International Council of Museum’s Committee for Documentation (ICOM-CIDOC) an upper-level ontology for cultural and natural history for museum professionals to perform their work well 90 classes and 148 properties - Entity, Temporal Entity, Time Span, Place, Dimension, - Production, Creation, Dissolution, Acquisition, Curation Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #10
  11. 11. Museum Reason-able View – Museum Data ModelsK-samsök, the Swedish Open Cultural Heritage (SOCH)• a Web service for applications to retrieve data from cultural heritage institutions or associations with Cultural Heritage information.• includes features which are divided in the following categories: - Identification of the item in the collection - Internet address, and thumbnail address - Description of the item - Description of the presentation of the item, including a thumbnail - Geographic location coordinates - Museum information about the item - Context, when was it created, to which style it belongs, etc. - Item specification, e.g. size, and type of the item – painting, sculpture and the like Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #11
  12. 12. Museum Reason-able View – Museum Data ModelsPainting Ontology OWL 2 182 classes and 92 properties <owl:Class rdf:about="&painting;Painting"> <owl:equivalentClass> <owl:Class> <owl:intersectionOf rdf:parseType="Collection"> <rdf:Description rdf:about="&ksasok;item"/> <rdf:Description rdf:about="&milo;PaintedPicture"/> </owl:intersectionOf> </owl:Class> </owl:equivalentClass> <rdfs:subClassOf rdf:resource="&core;E22_Man-Made_Object"/> </owl:Class>Integrated with SOCH Time Ontology MERGE from SUMO Mid-Level-Ontology from SUMO Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #12
  13. 13. Museum Reason-able View – Gothenburg City Museum Data 8900 museum objects in two museum collections – GSM and GIM GSM – Gothenburg Stads Museum GIM – Gothenburg Industry Museum 39 properties describe each museum object in each collection The Gothenburg City Museum data is integrated by using predicates from : - CIDOC-CRM - PROTON - Painting Ontology - linkages to DBpedia Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #13
  14. 14. Museum Reason-able View – Architecture Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #14
  15. 15. Museum Reason-able View – Museum Data Triplification Process of triplification and localization of Gothenburg City Museum data in English. Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #15
  16. 16. Museum Reason-able View – Environment• OWLIM• Ontologies and data loaded with full materialization – Dbpedia 3.6, Geonames 2.2.1, PROTON 3.0, CIDOC-CRM 1.0, GCM data• 20% more retrievable statements than loaded explicit statements – 257,774,678 (explicit) – 305,313,536 (retrievable)• SPARQL endpoint – Museum artefacts preserved in the museum since 2005 – Paintings from the GSM collection – Inventory numbers of the paintings from the GSM collection – Location of the objects created by Anders Hafrin – Paintings with length less than 1 m – etc. http://museum.ontotext.com Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #16
  17. 17. Museum Reason-able View – Access and Querying http://museum.ontotext.com/sparql Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #17
  18. 18. Ontologies Verbalization• The Grammatical Framework (GF) - key feature is the division of a grammar in the abstract syntax which acts as a semantic interlingua and the concrete syntaxes- representing verbalizations in various target languages (natural or formal). - a resource library (Ranta, 2009), where the abstract syntax describes the most common grammatical constructions allowing text generation, which are further mapped to concrete syntaxes corresponding to 18 languages. Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #18
  19. 19. Museum Reason-able View Verbalization• subclass relation rdfs:subClassOf from the ontology are encoded as functions in the GF grammar• Other information stated in the ontology, is encoded in GF as axioms• The natural language generation is based on composeable templatesExample: OWL entry corresponding to the painting Big Garden: <owl:NamedIndividual rdf:about="&painting; BigGardenObj"> <rdf:type rdf:resource="&painting;Painting"/> <isPaintedOn rdf:resource="&painting;Canvas"/> <createdBy rdf:resource="&painting;CarlLarsson"/> <hasCreationDate rdf:resource="&painting;Year1937"/> </owl:NamedIndividual> Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #19
  20. 20. Museum Reason-able View Verbalization• fun BigGardenObj : Ind Painting ;• A set of Axioms – isPaintedOn (el BigGradenObj) (el Canvas) – createdBy (el BigGardenObj)(el CarlLarsson) – hasCreationDate (el BigGardenObj) (el (year 1937))• Generated sentences – Big Garden is a painting – Big Garden is painted on canvas – Big Garden is painted by Carl Larsson – Big Garden was created in 1937 Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #20
  21. 21. GF Abstract Representation to English Syntax• Abstract Representation for CreationDate fun Painting_hasCreationDate : El Painting_Artwork -> El Painting_TimePeriod -> Formula ;• GF syntactic rule for CreationDate lin Painting_hasCreationDate o1 o2 = mkPolSentPast (S.mkCl o1 (S.mkVP (S.passiveVP create_V2) (S.mkAdv in_Prep o2))) ; Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #21
  22. 22. Related Work MAO – Finland http://www.seco.tkk.fi/projects/finnonto/ Europeana – EU http://www.europeana.eu/portal/ VUA – Amsterdam Museum with semantic technologies within Europeana connect British Museum – Research Space just won tender funded by Melon foundation Contribution of the paper: First to link real museum data to LOD First to use schema-level mapping to data integration in a specific domain like cultural heritage Ontology-based verbalization of query result triples Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #22
  23. 23. Conclusion A framework for integrating and accessing museum linked data A method to present this data using natural language generation technology A Museum Reason-able View - a series of upper-level and domain specific ontologies used to transform Gothenburg museum data from a relational database into RDF - links to LOD cloud dataTemplates automatically obtained in GF to generate the query results in natural languageFuture work Experiments with the Museum Reason-able view Extension of the data Increasing the coverage of the GF grammar Fluent discourse generation from ontologies MOLTO, FP7-ICT-247914 Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #23
  24. 24. References• Tim Berners-Lee. 2004. OWL Web Ontology Language reference, February. W3C Recommendation. T. Berners-Lee. 2006. Design issues: Linked data. Retrieved from http://www.w3.org/DesignIssues/LinkedData.html.• B. Bishop, A. Kiryakov, D. Ognyanoff, I. Peikov, Z. Tashev, and R. Velkov. 2011. Owlim: A family of scalable semantic repositories. Semantic Web Journal, Special Issue: Real-World Applications of OWL.• Nick Crofts, Martin Doerr, Tony Gill, Stephen Stead, and Matthew Stiff, 2008. Definition of the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model.• Mariana Damova and Dana Dannells. 2011. Reasonable view of linked data for cultural heritage. In Proceedings of the third International Conference on Software, Services and Semantic Technologies (S3T).• Ramona Enache and Krasimir Angelov. 2010. Typeful ontologies with direct multilingual verbalization. Workshop on Controlled Natural Languages (CNL) 2010.• Bernhard Haslhofer and Antoine Isaac. 2011. data.europeana.eu the europeana linked open data pilot. In Proceedings of the Intl. Conf. on Dublin Core and Metadata Applications.• Aarne Ranta. 2009. The GF resource grammar library. Linguistic Issues in Language Technology, 2(2). Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #24
  25. 25. Thank you for your attention! Questionsmariana.damova@ontotext.com Museum Reason-able View September 2011 #25