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Creativity in workplace

  3. 3. "Creativity is the ability to respond to all that goes on around us, to choose from the hundreds of possibilities of thought, feeling, action, and reaction that arise within us, and to put these together in a unique response, expression, or message that carries moment, passion, and meaning.” - Picture Colo- Clarissa Pinkola Estes, Woman Who Run With the Wolves
  4. 4. “We need a new frame of reference in which to picture ourselves growing and recognizing how the confluence of inner resources and life circumstances can present us with opportunities to revive our lives in meaningful, satisfying ways.” - Gene D. Cohen (2000), The Creative Age, p. 77
  5. 5. CREATIVITY  Although there are many approaches about creativity, it is commonly defined as a mental process, which involves the generation of new ideas or new associations of the creative mind between existing concepts. An alternative conception of creativity is that it is simply the act of making something new.  Even when creativity is popularly associated with art and literature, it is also an essential part of innovation and invention and is important in professions such as business, economics, architecture, industrial design, science and engineering.
  6. 6. Creativity n. — creative ability; artistic or intellectual inventiveness
  7. 7. — having the power to create; pertaining to creation; inventive; productive (of) as in a creative mind Creative adj.
  8. 8. Create v.t. — to originate; to bring into being from nothing
  9. 9. Definition (process)  “A creator [must] claim appreciators or admirers to be legitimatized as a true creator.” Simonton, 1990  “The intersection of two ideas for the first time” Keep, cited in Taylor, 1988  “By this term, it means ability to think outside the box, create something new and find solutions to problems.”
  10. 10. Definition (originality)  Creativity "is the skill of bringing about something new and valuable." Young (1985, p.85)  “Creativity is the process of bringing something new into birth.” (May, 1959)  “The ability to relate and to connect, sometimes in odd and striking fashion, lies at the heart of any creative use of the mind, no matter what field or discipline.” (Siedel, 1962)
  11. 11. THREE DOMAINS OF CREATIVITY  Art (ah!) as in beauty  Discovery (aha!) as in enlightenment.  Humor (haha!) as in joyful pleasure.
  12. 12. Left Brain, Right Brain  Nobel Prize-winning psychobiologist Roger Sperry showed that: Each hemisphere of the brain processed different types of information. • Broadly put, the left brain is the objective, analytical, logical half of the brain, looking at information sequentially and focusing on individual parts rather than on the whole. • The right brain, on the other hand, is the subjective, intuitive, playful part of the brain; it looks at information in a more random fashion, seeing the whole rather than the parts.
  13. 13. CREATIVE THINKING  is the process, which we use when we come up with a new idea. It is divided into divergent and convergent reasoning.
  14. 14. CREATIVE THINKING STYLES DIVERGENT THINKING • Think around or away from the problem • Discontinuity / break ‘Dig another hole’ • Spontaneous, informal, random • Remove constraints Unconscious processes CONVERGENT THINKING • Think through or into the problem • Continuity / evolution • ‘Dig a deeper hole’ • Systematic, formal, focused • Work within constraints • Conscious processes
  15. 15. Creative thinking styles Divergent thinking is the intellectual ability to think of many original, diverse, and elaborate ideas. Convergent thinking is the intellectual ability to logically evaluate, critique and choose the best idea from a selection of ideas.
  16. 16. These are two mutually exclusive mental activities Diverging and Converging
  17. 17. Joined up thinking Capacity to move between thinking styles  Tolerance for contradictions: ‘ego strength’  Putting together habitually disconnected frames of references – ‘bisociation’  Creative process is not chaotic, but finds transition points between order and chaos
  18. 18. Creativity and the Value Chain
  19. 19. Flow  (Autotelic experience) occurs when people experience a state of effortless concentration and enjoyment
  21. 21. Preparation (phase one) • The individual learns about the problem. • This includes understanding the elements of the problem and how they relate to each other. • It may include looking at the problem from different perspectives or asking other people what they know or think about the problem.
  22. 22. Incubation (phase two) • In this stage, the prepared decision maker explores a multitude of different paths toward new alternatives. o Production or generation of new alternatives
  23. 23. Illumination (phase three)  This is the instant of becoming aware of a new candidate solution to a problem, that flash of insight when all the pieces come together, either spontaneously or as the result of careful study and work.
  24. 24. Verification (phase four)  In the final step the decision maker must verify that the candidate solution does in fact have merit.
  25. 25. Three definitions of creativity Process Tolerating contradictions + Bisociative thinking Content Innovation + Value Outcomes Transformation + Rethinking (From Bilton and Cummings, Creative Strategy (forthcoming)
  26. 26. Types of Creativity The 4 P’s  Person  Process  Product  Place (or environment)
  27. 27. Person Process
  28. 28. Place (or environment) Workplace
  29. 29. PERSON
  30. 30.  Aware of Creativeness  Original  Independent  Risk Taking  Energetic  Curious  Humorous  Attracted to Complexity  Artistic  Open-Minded  Needs Alone Time  Perceptive Creative People: Creative Characteristics
  31. 31. BEING CREATIVE "Being creative is seeing the same thing as everybody else but thinking of something different”.
  32. 32. Only if you are able to view things in new ways or from a different perspective and to generate new possibilities or new alternatives you can be a creative person. The characteristics of the creative personality are:
  33. 33. The characteristics of the creative personality are  Creative individuals not only have a great deal of energy, but they are also quiet.  Creative individuals tend to be smart, yet also naive at the same time.  Creative individuals alternate between imagination and reality.  Even if creative individuals are remarkable humble, they are proud at the same time.  Most creative people are very passionate about their work, yet they can be extremely objective about it as well.  Creative individuals have a combination of or responsibility and irresponsibility.
  34. 34. PRODUCT
  35. 35. PRODUCT What makes a product, service, process or procedure innovative? It is useful to think of product/service as a collection of consumer benefits – technical, non-technical and attitudinal
  36. 36. Creative Product  Convergent Thinking (left brain)  Divergent Thinking (right brain) • Fluency • Flexibility • Originality • Elaboration
  37. 37. Creative Product • Convergent Thinking (left brain) • Divergent Thinking (right brain) • Fluency • Flexibility • Originality • Elaboration
  38. 38. Fluency  refers to the production of a great number of ideas or alternate solutions to a problem. Fluency implies understanding, not just remembering information that is learned. Keywords: Compare, convert, count, define, describe, explain, identify, label, list, match, name, outline, paraphrase, predict, summarize.
  39. 39. Flexibility  refers to the production of ideas that show a variety of possibilities or realms of thought. It involves the ability to see things from different points of view, to use many different approaches or strategies. Keywords: Change, demonstrate, distinguish, employ, extrapolate, interpolate, interpret, predict.
  40. 40. Originality  involves the production of ideas that are unique or unusual. It involves synthesis or putting information about a topic back together in a new way. Keywords: Compose, create, design, generate, integrate, modify, rearrange, reconstruct, reorganize, and revise.
  41. 41. Elaboration  is the process of enhancing ideas by providing more detail. Additional detail and clarity improves interest in, and understanding of, the topic. Keywords: Appraise, critique, determine, evaluate, grade, judge, measure, select, and test.
  42. 42. PROCESS
  43. 43. Creative Process  Combinations of two ideas that are unrelated  Torrance’s Definition  Creative Problem Solving (CPS)  Brainstorming
  44. 44. Torrance’s Definition “I have tried to describe creative thinking as taking place in the process of (1) sensing difficulties…(2) making guesses/formulating hypotheses…(3) testing these guesses and possibly revising (4) communicating the results. I like this definition because it describes a natural process” (1995)
  45. 45. Creative Problem Solving (CPS) CPS MODEL (sometimes without first step) • Mess finding (locating a problem) • Fact finding (examine what you know) • Problem finding (select a definition) • Idea finding (brainstorming) • Solution finding (evaluating ideas) • Acceptance finding (implementing ideas)
  46. 46. Brainstorming • As much as you can as fast as you can • Piggyback on the ideas of others • Don’t judge yourself or others • Wild, wacky, zany is desired
  47. 47. Brainstorming Rules Expressiveness - Say whatever ideas come to mind without focusing on constraints Non-evaluation - No criticism allowed; all are valuable Quantity - Produce as many ideas as possible Building - Expand on other people’s ideas
  48. 48. Brain Writing • Hybrid of both individual and group brainstorming • Produces more ideas than • brainstorming
  49. 49. CAN YOU TEACH CREATIVITY?? (It depends on your definition) 1990’s change to Bloom’s Taxonomy (Reflects the relevance to 21st century skills)
  50. 50. What is Everyday Creativity?
  51. 51. Everyday Creativity Nine Key Concepts:  Creativity is the ability to look at the ordinary and see the … extraordinary.  Every act can be a creative one.  Creativity is a matter of perspective.  There’s always more than one right answer.  Reframe problems into opportunities.  Don’t be afraid to make mistakes.  Break the pattern.  Train your technique.  You’ve got to really care. - (Dewitt Jones)
  52. 52. - Ruth Richards "Everyday creativity is about everyone, throughout our lives, and fundamental to our very survival...With our everyday creativity, we adapt flexibly, we improvise, we try different options.”
  53. 53. - Davis, 2004 “Creativeness is not identical to mentally- healthy self-actualization; however, it is an important component. Further, the more you come to define creativity as a lifestyle — a way of living and perceiving—the greater is the overlap.” “We know this—everyone can increase his or her creative capability.”
  54. 54. Final thoughts…  Many definitions of creativity add to the richness and confusion surrounding the topic  Creativity can be encouraged and aspects can be taught  Creative people go through a creative process to produce creative products in a creative press  Cultivate the creative ideas of others - (Bleadow, 2002)
  55. 55. “Above all, watch with glittering eyes the whole world around you, because the greatest secrets are always hidden in the most unlikely place. Those who don’t believe in magic will never find it.”
  57. 57. What is Creativity? • It is the reorganization of experience into new configurations. • A function of knowledge, imagination, and evaluation
  58. 58. Creativity in Management: Paradoxical thinking
  59. 59. What is creativity? The ‘industrial’ definition (DCMS): • Individual creativity, skill and talent. • Potential for wealth and job creation • Generation and exploitation of intellectual property • Implications (‘the myth of genius’) • Emphasis on individual talent (myth of genius) • Wealth and jobs (economic rationality) • Value chain – content is king, task specialization
  60. 60. Beyond Innovation o Innovation + Value / fitness for purpose o Ideas are not enough o Multiplicity o Stages in the process o Members of the team o From ideas to intellectual property o Beyond the myth of genius Management / strategy as a creative process Creativity as a managed / strategic process
  61. 61. Uncreative management Career specialization o Education o Career paths Organisational specialization o Task specialization, especially as organisations grow –‘creatives vs. suits’ o ‘Buffering’ the creative process: ‘talent silos’ o Separation of ‘strategic’ and ‘operational’ roles o Value chain specialization…
  62. 62. Rethinking ‘creatives vs. suits’  Kirton’s ‘Adapters and Innovators’  Mixing not matching  De Bono’s ‘Six Thinking Hats’  Thinking outside the role  Bilton & Leary  Management as talent broker
  63. 63. Rethinking ‘creative individuals’ The comfort zone: unmanageable creative and uncreative managers Mutual stereotyping which supports task specialization and allows us to feel superior The Dorian Gray Effect: avoiding our own reflections
  64. 64. Creative management Process: paradoxical thinking, tolerating contradictions - Honda Content: innovation + valuable (valuable innovation) - Marks & Spencer Outcome: transformation and rethinking - Cirque du Soleil
  65. 65. Creativity and Innovation  Innovation vs. creativity • Creativity = the idea • Innovation = putting into place • Innovation essential to establish and maintain competitive advantage • New approaches • Options for adaptation
  66. 66. Creative Personality • An ability to generate large number of ideas • To give different perspective • Unusual Novel answer • Ability to handle ambiguity • Intellectual abilities • Adequate knowledge • Confidence
  67. 67. Learning to Be More Creative Mental Locks That Block Creativity - Von Oech’s Ten Block  The Right Answer - Looking for the “right” answer.  That’s Not Logical - Always trying to be logical.  Follow The Rules - Strictly following the rules.  Be Practical - Insist on being practical.  Play Is Frivolous - Not having serious purpose or value.  That’s Not My Area - Becoming too specialized.  Don’t Be Foolish - Not wanting to look foolish.  Avoid Ambiguity - Avoiding ambiguity or lack of commitment.  To Err Is Wrong  I’m Not Creative - Saying, “I’m not creative.
  68. 68. For Discussion: Which of these mental locks typically stifle your own creativity? What can you do to avoid them?
  69. 69. Creativity: why promote it?  Leads to more rigorous and critical thinking  Objectives are achieved more readily  Increases motivation, deep concentration and engagement  Improves relationships  Develops the talent of the individual  Develops skills for adult life – adaptability, coping with uncertainty and change
  70. 70. Creative Process
  71. 71. A Model of Creativity
  72. 72. Stages Of Creativity Exploring: Questioning and challenging Inventing: Making significant connections Selecting: Playing with ideas, keeping options open Implementation: Applying learning in new ways and contexts Evaluation: Evaluating ideas and actions
  73. 73. Enhancing Creativity • How to develop your Creativity Tools for Developing Creativity o The Global Brain: Internet, Blog, and Wikipedia • The Local Brain: Brain storming • The Individual Brain: Eating, Drinking, Playing, Exercising, Sleeping
  74. 74. Tips on Enhancing Creativity • Always keep a notepad around to write down your thoughts. Even at night, write down what one can remember from my dreams. • Always keep the computer handy so that you can enter well developed thoughts from your notepad. • Whenever feasible, get on the Internet to do a search to find related ideas.
  75. 75. -Newspapers and magazines offer important clues. -To invent, you need a good imagination and a pile of junk.
  76. 76. Creativity Techniques  Fluent and flexible thinking  Idea checklists (Alex F Osborn) (Add, Subtract, Alter, Rearrange, Adapt, Magnify, Opposite, Minify)
  77. 77. Other, Alternative • Brainstorming (Alex F Osborn) • Synectics (W J J Gordan) • Delphi Method • Six thinking Hats (Dr. Edward De Bono) White- Information; Green-Alternatives; Yellow – benefits; Black- Judgment; Red – Emotions; Blue- Control • Morphological (Fritz Zwicky) – 3 to the power 3 • Mind Mapping (Tony Buzan) • Lateral thinking (Edward De Bono) • Guided Visualization (Chris Musselwhite and Cheryl De Ciantis)
  78. 78. Brainstorming  is a lateral thinking process. It asks that people come up with ideas and thoughts even if it seem at first to be a bit shocking or crazy. You can then change and improve them into ideas that are useful, and often stunningly original.
  79. 79. Synectics  is a problem solving methodology that stimulates thought processes of which the subject may be unaware.  The name Synectics comes from the Greek and means, "the joining together of different and apparently irrelevant elements.
  80. 80. Synectics  The process was derived from tape- recording (initially audio, later video) meetings, analysis of the results and experiments with alternative ways of dealing with the obstacles to success in the meeting. "Success" was defined as getting a creative solution that the group was committed to implement.
  81. 81. Synectics research has three main assumptions: • The creative process can be described and taught; • Invention processes in arts and sciences are analogous and are driven by the same "psychic" processes; • Individual and group creativity are analogous.
  82. 82. Delphi Method  is a structured communication technique, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts. The experts answer questionnaires in two or more rounds. After each round, a facilitator provides an anonymous summary of the experts’ forecasts from the previous round as well as the reasons they provided for their judgments.
  83. 83. Delphi Method  Thus, experts are encouraged to revise their earlier answers in light of the replies of other members of their panel. It is believed that during this process the range of the answers will decrease and the group will converge towards the "correct" answer.
  84. 84. The six thinking hats  While using this technique, you can see different alternatives to get the best solution to solve a problem. Your decisions and plans will mix ambition, skill in execution, sensitivity, creativity and good contingency planning.
  85. 85. The six thinking hats
  86. 86. Morphological  is actually a group of methods that share the same structure. This method breaks down a system, product or process into its essential sub-concepts, each concept representing a dimension in a multi- dimensional matrix. Thus, every product is considered as a bundle of attributes. New ideas are found by searching the matrix for new combination of attributes that do not yet exist. It doesn’t provide any specific guidelines for combining the parameters. It tends to provide a large number of ideas.
  87. 87. Mind Mapping  graphical technique for visualizing connections between several ideas or pieces of information. Each idea or fact is written down and then linked by lines or curves to its major or minor (or following or previous) idea or fact, thus creating a web of relationships.
  88. 88. Mind Mapping  Mind mapping is used in note taking, brainstorming, problem solving, and project planning. Like other mapping techniques its purpose is to focus attention, and to capture and frame knowledge to facilitate sharing of ideas and concepts.
  89. 89. Mind Mapping
  90. 90. Guided imagery or visualization:  Imagery is the most fundamental language we have. Everything you do, the mind processes through images. When we recall events from our past or childhood, we think of pictures, images, sounds, pain, etc. It is hardly ever be through words.
  91. 91. Guided imagery or visualization:  Unfortunately, many of the images popping into our heads do more harm than good. In fact, the most common type of imagery is worry. Being worrying, what we worry about exists only in our imaginations.
  92. 92. Guided imagery or visualization:  One of the main things his research showed was that almost all of the world-class athletes and other peak performers are visualizers. They see it; they feel it; they experience it before they actually do it. They begin with the end in mind.
  93. 93. Guided imagery or visualization:  You can do it in every area of your life. Before a performance, a sales presentation, a difficult confrontation, or the daily challenge of meeting a goal, see it clearly, vividly, relentlessly, over and over again. Create an internal "comfort zone." Then, when you get into the situation, it isn't foreign. It doesn't scare you.
  94. 94. Lateral thinking  Recognizes that our brains are pattern recognition systems, and that they do not function like computers. It takes years of training before we learn to do simple arithmetic – something that computers do very easily
  95. 95. Lateral thinking  On the other hand, we can instantly recognize patterns such as faces, language, and handwriting. The only computers that begin to be able to do these things do it by modeling the way that human brain cells work. Even then, computers will need to become more powerful before they approach our ability to handle patterns.
  96. 96. Lateral thinking  The benefit of good pattern recognition is that we can recognize objects and situations very quickly. Imagine how much time would be wasted if you had to do a full analysis every time you came across a cylindrical canister of effervescent fluid. Most people would just open their can of fizzy drink. Without pattern recognition we would starve or be eaten. We could not cross the road safely.
  97. 97. Lateral thinking  Unfortunately, we get stuck in our patterns. We tend to think within them. Solutions we develop are based on previous solutions to similar problems. Normally it does not occur to us to use solutions belonging to other patterns.
  98. 98. Lateral thinking  We use lateral thinking techniques to break out of this patterned way of thinking.  Lateral thinking techniques help us to come up with startling, brilliant and original solutions to problems and opportunities.
  99. 99. Lateral thinking  It is important to point out that each type of approach has its strength. Logical, disciplined thinking is enormously effective in making products and services better. It can, however, only go so far before all practical improvements have been carried out.
  100. 100. Lateral thinking  Lateral thinking can generate completely new concepts and ideas, and brilliant improvements to existing systems. In the wrong place, however, it can be sterile or unnecessarily disruptive.
  101. 101. Creativity Stimulation Techniques  Reverse Brain storming  Creative Overloading  Creative benchmarking  Creative thinking network  Stakeholder Council  Creative Scenario building  Exnovation  Creativity Training
  102. 102. Determinants of Organizational Creativity Five major organizational factors that enhance creativity in a work environment:  Organizational climate Leadership style Organizational culture Resources and skills The structure and systems of an organization
  104. 104. Innovation – is the implementation of new ideas at the individual, group or organizational level
  105. 105. Creativity – is the development of ideas about products, practices, services, or procedures that are novel and potentially useful to the organization
  106. 106. Eureka! (A cry of joy or satisfaction when one finds or discovers something)
  107. 107. What Does It Take to Be Creative?  Time  Hard work  Mental energy
  108. 108. What Does It Take to Be Creative?  Time  Hard work  Mental energy
  109. 109. Characteristics of Creative People
  110. 110. Personality Traits of Creative People • Persistence • Self-confidence • Independence • Attraction to complexity • Tolerance of ambiguity • Intuitiveness • Have broad interests • Are energetic • Drive to achieve • Love their work • Take risks
  111. 111. Cognitive Creativity Skills • Think creatively • Generate alternatives • Engage in divergent thinking • Suspend judgment
  112. 112. Domain-Specific Knowledge Develops Via  Education  Training  Experience  Contextual Knowledge
  113. 113. Creativity Enhancers Focus on intrinsic motivation Creativity goals Developmental feedback Supportive supervision Healthy competition Participative decision making Autonomy Hire creative people Enriched, complex jobs Provide resources Clear organizational goals Instructions to be creative Recognize and reward creativity
  114. 114. Creativity Enhancers  Encourage risk taking  No punishment for failure  Workforce diversity  Internal and external interaction  Diverse teams skilled at working together  Supportive climate  Organizational culture the promotes innovation  Flexible, flat structures  Close interaction and relationships with customers
  115. 115. How Can Organizations Foster Creativity?
  116. 116. Management Style and Creativity  Encourage risk taking  Provide autonomy  Encourage productivity - “sweat equity”  Supportive supervision, climate, and work group  Participative leadership
  117. 117. Organization Design and Creativity
  118. 118. Creativity Killers  Excessive focus on extrinsic motivation  Limits set by superiors  Critical evaluation  Close, controlling supervision  Competition in a win-lose situation  Control of decision makingControl of information
  119. 119. Management Style and Creativity  Encourage risk taking  Provide autonomy  Encourage productivity - “sweat equity”  Supportive supervision, climate, and work group  Participative leadership
  120. 120. Innovation has three distinct determining characteristics:  Novelty  Resolution  Elaboration or Synthesis
  121. 121. Novelty refers to the originality of the product, service or procedure: that is, will users be attracted to it because of its uniqueness?
  122. 122. Resolution refers to whether the idea, product, service or procedure will ‘fill the bill’ and be relevant to the problem or unanswered need at hand. In other words, the innovative product or service has to be perceived as ‘the answer’ to the existing challenge, problem or situation.
  123. 123. Elaboration or Synthesis relates to style and how the product, service or procedure is completed and presented. Is the product, service or procedure: Well-crafted and/or appealing to users/consumers? Well presented or packaged? Simple to used or understand? User friendly? Easy to commercialize? Will people buy it and/or use it?
  124. 124. Ideas Management Ideas need to be: Generated Captured and Retrievable Evaluated Developed Implemented Rewarded Measured
  125. 125. Innovation Leadership: Attitudes  Deliberate climate creation and cultural influence  Innovation vision  Encourage challenge & risk taking  Collaboration  Resources for innovation  Celebration
  126. 126. Innovation Leadership: Innovation Competence  Model and coach for innovation and creativity  Develop innovation teams and leaders  Generate breakthrough ideas  Capitalize on entrepreneurship  Customer Service  Insight into drivers and opportunities
  127. 127. Four-Power Innovation
  130. 130. Opening Our Minds: Perception, Curiosity and Exploration  Imagine the familiar in a new light  Find links among unrelated phenomena  Realize the impact of change  Accept new perspectives  Follow a broad and moving path
  131. 131. Exploring Creative Thinking Techniques  Soft Thinking  Hard Thinking  Visual Thinking Activities  Idea Listing Activities  Writing Activities  Group Interaction Activities  Process-Product Activities
  132. 132. Exploring Creative Thinking Techniques
  133. 133. Examining Creativity in the Workplace  Supervisors that held higher creativity expectations were viewed as rewarding creativity, recognizing creative efforts, allocating more resources, encouraging collaboration and sharing, applying creative goal setting and modeling creative behavior in their own work
  134. 134. Examining Creativity in the Workplace  Employees interpret meaning through environmental cues and supervisors must communicate through behavior.
  135. 135. Examining Creativity in the Workplace  Self-efficacy levels influence the extent to which employees entertain creative activities, initiate creative acts, and sustain creative levels in their work.
  136. 136. Examining Creativity in the Workplace  Supervisors must be aware of the impact and clearly state expectations to shape creative effort and manage the supervisor/employee relationship.
  137. 137. Measuring Creativity o Divergent Thinking Tests – Open- ended questions o Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking o Guilford Tests o Personality & Biographical Inventories – perceptions, attitudes, values, interests, motivations o Hocevar
  139. 139. Self-Actualized Creativity (Maslow) • Perceive reality more accurately and objectively; tolerate and even like ambiguity; are not threatened by the unknown. • Accept themselves, others, and human nature. • Are spontaneous, natural, and genuine. • Are problem-centered, non-egotistical; have a philosophy of life and probably a mission in life • Need some privacy and solitude more than others do; are able to concentrate intensely.
  140. 140. Self-Actualized Creativity (Maslow) • Are independent, self-sufficient and autonomous; have less need for praise or popularity. • Have capacity to appreciate again and again simple and commonplace experiences; have zest in living, ability to handle stress, high humor. • Have (and are aware of) their rich, alive, fulfilling peak experiences. • Have deep feelings of brotherhood with all mankind; are benevolent, altruistic. • Form strong friendship ties with relatively few people; are capable of greater love.
  141. 141. Self-Actualized Creativity (Maslow) • Are democratic, unprejudiced in the deepest possible sense. • Are strongly ethical and moral individual (not necessarily conventional) ways; enjoy work in achieving a goal as much as the goal itself; are patient, for the most part. • Have a more thoughtful, philosophical sense of humor that is constructive, not destructive. • Are creative, original inventive with a fresh, naïve, simple and direct way of looking at life; tend to do most things creatively – but do not necessarily possess great talent.
  142. 142. Self-Actualized Creativity (Maslow) • Are capable of detachment from their culture; can objectively compare cultures; can take or leave conventions.- Davis (1998) Creativity is Forever • Your character is your destiny • On a circle, an end point can also be a beginning point • A thing rests by changing • You can’t step in the same river twice • The sun is new each day • When there is no sun, we can see the evening stars
  146. 146. BEING CREATIVE "Being creative is seeing the same thing as everybody else but thinking of something different”.
  147. 147. “Creativity can be stimulated in the workplace in a variety of ways to enhance creative thinking and productivity.”
  148. 148. 1 Encourage Unconventional Thinking
  149. 149. Traditional thinking that only certain people are creative has to be thrown out the window as all of us have a certain amount of creativity within us. Everyone in the creative workplace should be encouraged to think “Outside the Box”, (the Box being conventional thinking). Knowledge, technical skills, every day life experiences and “thinking in new and unconventional ways about things” are just some of the things that contribute to creativity in the workplace.
  150. 150. 2 Challenge The Rules of Thinking
  151. 151. Humans thought the world was flat and we would fall off the edge until someone thought the rules of thinking were wrong, challenged and changed them and set about proving that the world is in fact round. Thomas Edison said, “If we did all things we are capable of doing, we would literally astonish ourselves”. Let go of the old traditional ways of thinking. There are always new ways of doing things, challenge traditional thinking, be innovative in your thinking and encourage it in the workplace. Remove the “It can only be done this way” mind set.
  152. 152. 3 Recognize and Encourage Creative Talents
  153. 153. Creative talent comes in many forms from cooking, writing, designing or decorating the home or office. Recognizing “Creative Talents” and encouraging them whenever possible will promote creativity and productivity in the workplace.
  154. 154. 4 Encourage and Share New Ideas / Imagination
  155. 155. Open planning invites conversation and encourages interaction and the sharing of new and imaginative ideas. The downside of Open planning can be interruption from elsewhere in the workplace. With careful balancing between interaction and interruption, fostering creative thinking in the workplace is possible.
  156. 156. 5 Remove Distractions
  157. 157. A tidy workplace stimulates creative thinking. Remove all of the clutter (boxes, unnecessary papers, rubbish etc.) from the workplace. Have a “Quiet Area” within the workplace to finalize and consolidate ideas, or maybe, go to the park for quite reflection and consolidation of ideas.
  158. 158. 6 Make The Office Fun
  159. 159. Author Roger Von Oech wrote, “Necessity may be the mother of invention, but play is certainly the father.” A fun office environment is essential to a creative and productive workplace. Inspiration can come in many forms; ie: Music, Art, Plants and Animals can enhance creativity. Creativity is associated with Joy and Love and negativity associated with Fear, Anxiety and Anger. So whenever possible make sure the workplace is a “Fun and Happy” environment. Today’s happiness often predicts tomorrows creativity.
  160. 160. 7 Remove Competitive Boundaries
  161. 161. Studies have shown creativity is compromised when people in a workgroup compete instead of collaborating. When people compete for information they stop sharing information and that doesn’t stimulate creative thinking. No single individual has got all the information required to complete the creative process. Encourage the sharing of ideas and the ideas will benefit greatly.
  162. 162. 8 Furnishings and Layout
  163. 163. Ergonomics are a consideration that should be made as a person’s comfort is a big part of their creativity, and the workplace layout is a big part of the creative process.
  164. 164. 9 Brainstorming Ideas
  165. 165. Have regular group meetings or “think tanks” with the Creative Team to discuss ideas for Ad Campaigns or general workplace environment.
  166. 166. 10 Be Flexible
  167. 167. Flexibility is a key component of the creative workplace. Be willing to try new and different approaches to just about anything and you will see the creative juices flow.
  168. 168. “Value and recognize people’s talent and creativity will flourish, and remember Creative Thinking turns great ideas into reality.”
  169. 169. Blocking Creativity In The Workplace
  170. 170. Creativity can be blocked in the workplace in a variety of ways
  171. 171. 1 Being To Practical  Being practical is good business sense but can restrict Creative Thinking. Complacency, lack of innovation or not trying new things to inspire and interest people can all block creativity in the workplace.
  172. 172. 2 Competition, Not Collaboration  If only one person’s opinion matters then you have an unhealthy workplace. Keeping ideas to yourself can block the growth of the idea, while sharing the idea may enhance it. If there is no collaboration of ideas and no sharing of ideas, the Creative Process is stifled. Too much competition can block creativity while Creative Teams sharing and debating ideas enhances creativity.
  173. 173. 3 Seeing Failure As A Negative  Seeing failure as a negative will discourage a person and inhibit their Creative Ideas. Not seeing failure as a stepping-stone to new ideas would block creativity in the workplace.
  174. 174. 4 Following The Rules  Following the rules of Standard Business Practice will keep your business moving forward, but too many rules and boundaries or a lack of flexibility can block creativity in the workplace.
  175. 175. 5 Inhibiting Creative Talents  Restricting people to one area of work and not allowing interaction and sharing of ideas will block creativity in the workplace, as will failure to look at new and innovative ways of creative thinking.
  176. 176. 6 Group Think Mindset  Peer pressure can cause people to agree to something they wouldn’t normally agree to. This “Group Think” mindset stops people from being creative; people will “agree to agree” because the Boss may think a certain way and this blocks peoples creativity in the workplace.
  177. 177. 7 Failure to encourage or recognize talent  Failing to recognize talent in people will block their creativity, so it is important to recognize and encourage that talent.
  178. 178. 8 Too Many Distractions  Clutter (boxes, papers, note pads, etc.), lack of space, wrong furnishings or the lack of flare can all contribute to blocking creativity in the workplace.
  179. 179. 9 Creative Boundaries  If you restrict people in their creative thinking by giving them boundaries then you block their creativity. True creativity has no boundaries or restrictions placed on it so remove as many boundaries as possible in the creative thinking process.
  180. 180. 10 No Flexibility  Being practical is good business sense but can restrict Creative Thinking. Complacency, lack of innovation or not trying new things to inspire and interest people can all block creativity in the workplace.
  181. 181. Three definitions of creativity Process Tolerating contradictions + Bisociative thinking Content Innovation + Value Outcomes Transformation + Rethinking (From Bilton and Cummings, Creative Strategy (forthcoming)
  182. 182. We are moving from industrial societies to knowledge societies Reading ‘Riting ‘Rithmetic - We must realize that it is time to move past the 3Rs :
  183. 183. 1. Richness of curriculum 2. Recursion through reflective interaction 3. Relations of new understandings into the larger picture; and 4. Rigor of being a critical consumer and understanding the transitory nature of knowledge (Doll,1993) To the 4 Rs
  184. 184. Passive  Active Consumer  Producer Dependent Independent 5th R: Reverse the Role of the Learner
  186. 186. Inventive  addresses a worthwhile problem novel and appropriate solution Expressive  Illustrates the creator’s emotions and aesthetics original and valuable
  187. 187. Inventive Creativity  Exhibited in mathematics, science, and social arenas  Recognizes and identifies problems that may or may not be apparent to others,  When solved, result in an improvement in the domain
  188. 188. Inventive Creativity  Saves and improves lives
  189. 189. Inventive Creativity  May produce an intangible product- -such as a social movement Mohandas Ghandi Martin Luther King, Jr.
  190. 190. Inventive Creativity  Finds worthwhile problems  Produces solutions of value Watson, Crick, and Franklin (and Wilkins)

Notes de l'éditeur

  • This template can be used as a starter file for a photo album.