Lines of evidence

1. Direct observation of change in natural populations
2. Direct observation of change under artificial
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Evolution in Natural Populations
      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)




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Evolution in Natural Populations
      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)




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Evolution in Natural Populations
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997




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Evolution in Natural Populations
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997




3
Evolution in Natural Populations
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997




3
Evolution in Natural Populations
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997




3
Evolution in Natural Populations
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997




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Evolution in Natural Populations
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997




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Evolution in Natural Populations
                                      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al....
Evolution in Natural Populations
                                      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al....
Evolution in Natural Populations
                                      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al....
Evolution in Natural Populations
                                      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al....
Evolution in Natural Populations
                                      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al....
Evolution in Natural Populations
                                      Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al....
Evolution in Natural Populations
     Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992




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Evolution in Natural Populations
     Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992




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Evolution in Natural Populations
     Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992




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Evolution in Natural Populations
             Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992

Is there evidence for a genetic b...
Evolution in Natural Populations
             Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992

Is there evidence for a genetic b...
Evolution in Natural Populations
                    Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992

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Evolution in Natural Populations
                    Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992

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Evolution in Natural Populations
                    Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992

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Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996




                         ...
Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Evolution in Natural Populations
Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Evolution in Natural Populations
 Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Hypochaeris radicata




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Evolution in Natural Populations
 Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
Hypochaeris radicata




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Evolution in Natural Populations
                     Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
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Evolution in Natural Populations
                     Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
        ...
Evolution in Natural Populations
                     Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
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Lecture 2

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Lecture 2

  1. 1. Lines of evidence 1. Direct observation of change in natural populations 2. Direct observation of change under artificial selection 3. Homologous traits 4. Homologies tend to be nested 5. The fossil record 1
  2. 2. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) 2 http://www.thebody.com/nmai/cycle.html
  3. 3. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) env 2 http://www.thebody.com/nmai/cycle.html
  4. 4. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 3
  5. 5. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 3
  6. 6. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 3
  7. 7. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 3
  8. 8. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 4
  9. 9. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 4@?71+2=03+/9?A9=0=?=02@9:B++C< % $&$$$($ $ 5-=+/2>/+*21?=02@ $&$$$!$ & ) ' ( $&$$$'$ !quot;#$! #quot;#$quot; %quot;#$quot; !quot;#$quot; #quot;#$# %quot;#$# )*+,-.+/*0,-1/12-3/456)/7280+9:;1< 4
  10. 10. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 4@?71+2=03+/9?A9=0=?=02@9:B++C< % $&$$$($ $ 5-=+/2>/+*21?=02@ $&$$$!$ & ) ' ( $&$$$'$ !quot;#$! #quot;#$quot; %quot;#$quot; !quot;#$quot; #quot;#$# %quot;#$# )*+,-.+/*0,-1/12-3/456)/7280+9:;1< 5
  11. 11. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 565:7 !quot;#$%&'%()*+$&#,-$%.)/.#,#)#,&( 565:5 0()*+$&#,-$.12$$34 56597 56595 56587 56585 56557 4@?71+2=03+/9?A9=0=?=02@9:B++C< % $&$$$($ $ 5-=+/2>/+*21?=02@ $&$$$!$ & ) ' ( $&$$$'$ !quot;#$! #quot;#$quot; %quot;#$quot; !quot;#$quot; #quot;#$# %quot;#$# )*+,-.+/*0,-1/12-3/456)/7280+9:;1< 5
  12. 12. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 565:7 !quot;#$%&'%()*+$&#,-$%.)/.#,#)#,&( 565:5 0()*+$&#,-$.12$$34 56597 56595 56587 56585 56557 quot; ! 4@?71+2=03+/9?A9=0=?=02@9:B++C< % $&$$$($ $ 5-=+/2>/+*21?=02@ $&$$$!$ & ) ' ( $&$$$'$ !quot;#$! #quot;#$quot; %quot;#$quot; !quot;#$quot; #quot;#$# %quot;#$# )*+,-.+/*0,-1/12-3/456)/7280+9:;1< 5
  13. 13. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 565:7 !quot;#$%&'%()*+$&#,-$%.)/.#,#)#,&( 565:5 0()*+$&#,-$.12$$34 56597 56595 56587 56585 56557 quot; 5 5 ! 1 1 ! quot; 4 #$%&'()*%+,-+.//&0- 4@?71+2=03+/9?A9=0=?=02@9:B++C< 1(,2()*.3,(3&0- % $&$$$($ $ 5-=+/2>/+*21?=02@ $&$$$!$ & ) ' ( $&$$$'$ !quot;#$! #quot;#$quot; %quot;#$quot; !quot;#$quot; #quot;#$# %quot;#$# )*+,-.+/*0,-1/12-3/456)/7280+9:;1< 5
  14. 14. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 565:7 !quot;#$%&'%()*+$&#,-$%.)/.#,#)#,&( 565:5 0()*+$&#,-$.12$$34 56597 56595 56587 56585 56557 < < < < < < ; ; ; ; ; ; = > D E F G !quot;?,-+@%?A&BA$..,(B ;+&2+@%?A&BA$..,(B 4@?71+2=03+/9?A9=0=?=02@9:B++C< ;+&2+@%$C&+C,(B !quot;?,-+@%$C&+C,(B % $&$$$($ $ 5-=+/2>/+*21?=02@ $&$$$!$ & ) ' ( $&$$$'$ !quot;#$! #quot;#$quot; %quot;#$quot; !quot;#$quot; #quot;#$# %quot;#$# )*+,-.+/*0,-1/12-3/456)/7280+9:;1< 5
  15. 15. Evolution in Natural Populations Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) – Ganeshan et al. 1997 565:7 !quot;#$%&'%()*+$&#,-$%.)/.#,#)#,&( 565:5 0()*+$&#,-$.12$$34 56597 56595 56587 56585 56557 < < ;< < < ;< ; ; ; ; = > D E F G !quot;?,-+@%?A&BA$..,(B ;+&2+@%?A&BA$..,(B ;+&2+@%$C&+C,(B !quot;?,-+@%$C&+C,(B 565:7 !quot;#$%&'%()*+$&#,-$%.)/.#,#)#,&( 565:5 0()*+$&#,-$.12$$34 56597 56595 56587 4@?71+2=03+/9?A9=0=?=02@9:B++C< % $&$$$($ $ 56585 5-=+/2>/+*21?=02@ $&$$$!$ 56557 & D D ; ; ) ' ( $&$$$'$ <=> EFG !quot;#$! #quot;#$quot; %quot;#$quot; !quot;#$quot; #quot;#$# %quot;#$# !quot;?,-+@%?A&BA$..,(B ;+&2+@%?A&BA$..,(B )*+,-.+/*0,-1/12-3/456)/7280+9:;1< ;+&2+@%$C&+C,(B !quot;?,-+@%$C&+C,(B 6
  16. 16. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 www.dicktruedesign.com/PRINTS/prints.fin&feather.htm 7
  17. 17. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 www.dicktruedesign.com/PRINTS/prints.fin&feather.htm 7
  18. 18. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 www.dicktruedesign.com/PRINTS/prints.fin&feather.htm 7
  19. 19. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 Is there evidence for a genetic basis to the migration shift? British parents: German young: WNW (279°) SW (227°) 8
  20. 20. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 Is there evidence for a genetic basis to the migration shift? British parents: British offspring: German young: WNW (279°) WNW (273°) SW (227°) 8
  21. 21. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 British parents: WNW (279°) British offspring: WNW (273°) German young: SW (227°) Source: Berthold et al. 1992. Rapid microevolution of migratory behaviour in a wild bird species. Nature 360: 668-670. 9
  22. 22. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 British parents: WNW (279°) British offspring: WNW (273°) German young: SW (227°) Source: Berthold et al. 1992. Rapid microevolution of migratory behaviour in a wild bird species. Nature 360: 668-670. 9
  23. 23. Evolution in Natural Populations Blackcap migration – Berthold et al. 1992 British parents: WNW (279°) British offspring: WNW (273°) German young: SW (227°) Source: Berthold et al. 1992. Rapid microevolution of migratory behaviour in a wild bird species. Nature 360: 668-670. 9
  24. 24. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996 10
  25. 25. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
  26. 26. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
  27. 27. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
  28. 28. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
  29. 29. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
  30. 30. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
  31. 31. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996
  32. 32. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996 Hypochaeris radicata www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Hypochaeris_radicata_page.html Lactuca muralis biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Mycelis&Species=muralis 12
  33. 33. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996 Hypochaeris radicata www.missouriplants.com/Yellowalt/Hypochaeris_radicata_page.html Lactuca muralis www.bartleby.com/61/imagepages/A4achene.html biology.burke.washington.edu/herbarium/imagecollection.php?Genus=Mycelis&Species=muralis 12
  34. 34. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996 Hypochaeris radicata Dispersal ability (VP/VA) (Mean ± SD) Main- Island land (Old) Source: Cody and Overton. 1996. Short-term evolution of reduced dispersal in island plant populations. J. of Ecology 84:53-61. 11 13
  35. 35. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996 Hypochaeris radicata Lactuca muralis Dispersal ability (VP/VA) Dispersal ability (VP/VA) (Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) Mainland 1–4 5–7 8–9 10+ Main- Island Age (years) land (Old) Source: Cody and Overton. 1996. Short-term evolution of reduced dispersal in island plant populations. J. of Ecology 84:53-61. 11 13
  36. 36. Evolution in Natural Populations Dispersal in island plant populations – Cody & Overton 1996 Hypochaeris radicata Lactuca muralis Dispersal ability (VP/VA) Dispersal ability (VP/VA) (Mean ± SD) (Mean ± SD) Mainland 1–4 5–7 8–9 10+ Main- Island Age (years) land (Old) Source: Cody and Overton. 1996. Short-term evolution of reduced dispersal in island plant populations. J. of Ecology 84:53-61. 11 13

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