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European Colonization

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European Colonization

  1. 1. Age of Exploration The Colonies
  2. 2. Colonies <ul><li>During the 1500 and 1600’s, European countries started to establish trading posts and colonies in the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>A colony is a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with a parent country by trade and direct government control. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Early Conquests, Claims and Colonies <ul><li>First conquests were made by the Spanish and Portuguese. </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Tordesillas helped them divide their empires. </li></ul><ul><li>The English, Dutch and French would soon follow with their own colonies. </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Columbian Exchange <ul><li>The movement of plants, animals and diseases between the Old World and New World. </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Spanish <ul><li>Initiated by Christopher Columbus’ first voyage in 1492 and reinforced by the conquistadors, the Spanish Empire would expand from small settlements in the Caribbean islands to larger colonies in Mexico, Central America, most of South America and the Southwestern United States. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Spanish <ul><li>The Spanish truly followed the mold of “God, Glory and Gold”. They conquered native peoples and expanded their kingdom, established missions and brought back vast amounts of riches making Spain one of the most powerful and influential empires in history. </li></ul>
  7. 8. The Spanish <ul><li>Notable Colonies include: </li></ul><ul><li>Hispaniola – 1493 </li></ul><ul><li>Lima, Peru - 1535 </li></ul><ul><li>St. Augustine, FL – 1565 </li></ul><ul><li>Mexico City - 1585 </li></ul><ul><li>Santa Fe, NM – 1610 </li></ul>
  8. 9. The Portuguese <ul><li>The leading country in the Age of Exploration, the Portuguese founded modern day Brazil. The first permanent settlements thrived on the trade of sugar cane. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Portuguese <ul><li>Notable Colony: Brazil - 1535 </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese Sugar Plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar became the New World’s leading export. To meet demand, the Portuguese enslaved the natives to cultivate the land. When demand was still not met, they started importing many African slaves. Other European colonies would model their slave labor after the successful plantation. </li></ul>
  10. 11. The Dutch (Netherlands) <ul><li>The Dutch established trading companies such as the East and West Indie Trading company to oversee all ventures in the New World. The Dutch first colonize areas in the Hudson River Valley, (Albany, New Amsterdam). However were unsuccessful in maintaining the colony. Conflicts with the British forced them to abandon their colonies. </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Dutch (Netherlands) <ul><li>The Dutch successfully colonize many islands in the Caribbean (Aruba Antilles, Virgin Islands), as well as small portions of South America (Suriname, Guyana and small areas of Brazil). </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch establish trade ports and sugar plantations. </li></ul><ul><li>Constant conflict with larger European powers keep the Dutch limited in their efforts for colonization. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Dutch (Netherlands) <ul><li>Notable Colonies: </li></ul><ul><li>Guyana – 1616 </li></ul><ul><li>New Amsterdam – 1623 </li></ul><ul><li>The Virgin Islands – 1625 </li></ul><ul><li>Tobago – 1625 </li></ul><ul><li>Dutch Antilles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tortuga – 1631 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aruba – 1637 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suriname -1650 </li></ul>
  13. 14. The French <ul><li>French colonization of the Americas began in the 16th century. France founded colonies in much of eastern North America, on a number of Caribbean islands, and in South America. Most colonies were developed to export products such as fish, sugar, and furs. </li></ul>
  14. 15. The French <ul><li>Notable colonies: </li></ul><ul><li>Montreal </li></ul><ul><li>Quebec </li></ul><ul><li>Baton Rouge </li></ul><ul><li>New Orleans </li></ul><ul><li>Haiti </li></ul><ul><li>French Guyana </li></ul>
  15. 16. The British <ul><li>The British colonization started in the early 16 th century and had established settlements throughout the Americas. </li></ul><ul><li>The British were one of the most important colonizers of the Americas, and their American empire came to rival the Spanish American colonies in military and economic might. </li></ul>
  16. 17. The British <ul><li>Notable colonies include: </li></ul><ul><li>Jamestown, VA </li></ul><ul><li>Massachusetts Bay </li></ul><ul><li>Georgia </li></ul><ul><li>Maryland </li></ul><ul><li>New Jersey </li></ul><ul><li>New York </li></ul>
  17. 18. St. Augustine, FL (1565) <ul><li>Early explorations were conducted by Ponce de Leon. </li></ul><ul><li>Famous for being the first continuously occupied settlement in the current United States. </li></ul><ul><li>The colony was founded 42 years before Jamestown and 55 years before the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Did you know? <ul><li>Fort Caroline was a colony established by French explorer Jean Ribault in Jacksonville in 1562, making it older than the colony of St. Augustine. </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling the French had trespassed on Spanish territory and posed a threat to their fleets, the experienced Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles was sent by Spain to destroy the French colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Following the destruction of Fort Caroline, Pedro Menendez founded the colony of St. Augustine and became the first governor of Florida in 1565. </li></ul>
  19. 21. Roanoke, NC (1585) <ul><li>Roanoke was a colony financed and organized by Sir Walter Raleigh and carried out by Ralph Lane and Richard Greenville (Raleigh’s cousin). </li></ul><ul><li>Numerous expeditions were sent to establish a colony from 1585-1587, but each time the settlers disappeared without a trace. </li></ul><ul><li>Roanoke is famous for being “The Lost Colony”. </li></ul><ul><li>Archaeologists have uncovered many artifacts from the colony such as guns, jewelry and a family crest of one of the settlers. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Roanoke, NC (1585) <ul><li>There are many theories about what had happened to the settlers on Roanoke Island. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many think the settlers assimilated into the Native cultures. In fact, many Native Americans in the area claim to have a European descent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some say the colony just decided to move to another location. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another archaeologist claims that the settlers may have been eaten by cannibals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some also think the Spanish, who destroyed Fort Caroline, may have done the same to Roanoke </li></ul></ul>
  21. 24. Jamestown, VA (1607) <ul><li>The Virginia Company was given approval by King James to establish a colony in the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>Life in Jamestown was pretty rough. There was constant threat of attack from the natives, a lack of drinkable water and very harsh winters, all of which nearly destroyed the colony. </li></ul><ul><li>80 % of the 214 settlers died within the first year. </li></ul>
  22. 25. John Smith (1580-1631) <ul><li>Known for a being a troublemaker, John Smith was supposed to be executed upon arrival to the colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Once arrived, sealed orders from the king were opened by the captain and to his dismay, John Smith was to be one of the appointed leaders for the colony. </li></ul>
  23. 26. John Smith <ul><li>While out foraging for food, Captain John Smith was captured by the native Powhatan tribe. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Smith’s account, he was to be executed but the chief’s own daughter, Pocahontas, threw herself across his body to protect him. (1607) </li></ul>
  24. 27. Did John Smith and Pocahontas really fall in love like in the movies? <ul><li>John Smith was 28 years old at the time of his capture while Pocahontas was roughly 10-11 years old. A relationship developing between the two is highly doubtful. Smith would go back to England soon after the encounter and would not return to the New World for another 6 years. </li></ul>
  25. 28. John Rolfe (1585-1622) <ul><li>John Rolfe was a settler that came over on the third supply fleet for Jamestown. </li></ul><ul><li>He is most renowned for introducing a new strain of tobacco which the Jamestown settlers cultivated. </li></ul><ul><li>This tobacco helped turn Jamestown from a struggling settlement into a profitable venture. </li></ul>
  26. 29. Pocahontas and John Rolfe <ul><li>Years later, there was a dispute amongst Jamestown and the Natives. Pocahontas was actually captured by the settlers and held for ransom. While Pocahontas was held captive, a young settler named John Rolfe fell in love with her. They married in 1614. Rolfe would take Pocahontas back to England. </li></ul>
  27. 30. Whatever happened to Pocahontas? <ul><li>The Virginia Company was having a hard time convincing people to come to the New World and settle, so they used Pocahontas as symbol that the Natives could be educated and that the colonies were safe. She would go around the country speaking to large crowds. She even met the king and queen of England! </li></ul><ul><li>She would die from smallpox in 1617 before ever returning to the New World. She was 21-22 years old. </li></ul>
  28. 32. Plymouth, MA (1620) <ul><li>Unlike the entrepreneurs of Jamestown, the settlers of the Plymouth colony were fleeing religious persecution and in search for a place where they could worship as they saw fit. </li></ul><ul><li>The social and legal systems of the colony were based religious beliefs as well as English custom. </li></ul>
  29. 33. The Puritans <ul><li>The Puritans were staunchly against Catholicism. </li></ul><ul><li>They believed that they needed to rid themselves of anything Catholic and “purify” themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>They strongly believed in the Bible, Jesus and God. </li></ul><ul><li>They did not feel they needed a bishop or priest to tell them what how to worship. </li></ul><ul><li>They also believed that faith in God and Jesus would relieve you of your sins, not indulgences. </li></ul>
  30. 34. Did you know? <ul><li>Of the 102 passengers on the Mayflower, only 27 were the “Pilgrims”. The rest had no religious interest in the colony. They were indentured servants or adventurous pioneers looking to seek their fortune in the New World, not to find religious freedom. </li></ul>
  31. 35. The First Year <ul><li>Because of delays organizing their trip, the Pilgrims never left England until September and arrived in the New World in late November. Searching for a safe harbor, they didn’t actually set foot on land until December. </li></ul><ul><li>By now, winter was in full effect. </li></ul><ul><li>While the men left the ship to work on building the colony during the day, the women and children remained aboard the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of the harsh winter, progress was slow and most of the Pilgrims remained living on the Mayflower for the next 6 months! </li></ul>
  32. 36. The First Year <ul><li>During the first winter, the Pilgrims suffered greatly from scurvy (deficiency of vitamin C), lack of shelter, and poor conditions aboard the ship. </li></ul><ul><li>Of the 102 passengers, nearly half of them died including 13 out of the 18 adult women. </li></ul><ul><li>It was not until March of 1621 that the Pilgrims finally were able to get most of their supplies ashore. This is also when they had the first contact with the Natives. </li></ul>
  33. 37. The First Thanksgiving <ul><li>As autumn came, there was a harvest celebration. </li></ul><ul><li>Many native tribes have similar celebrations in the fall where they ceremonies and festivals to give thanks for a successful bounty of crops. </li></ul><ul><li>As for the Pilgrims, “thanks-giving” was typically a ceremony that would occur to give thanks and praise to God for good fortune. </li></ul><ul><li>The first official “Thanksgiving” probably wasn’t celebrated until 1623 with the arrival of new colonists and supplies. This would have most likely occurred in July. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Massachusetts Bay Colonies <ul><li>Established by the Plymouth Company and mostly consisted of Puritan colonists. </li></ul><ul><li>The Massachusetts Bay Colony consisted of a large area in New England including areas of New Haven, Connecticut, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey and Plymouth. Most notable colonies were Boston and Salem. </li></ul>
  35. 40. Salem <ul><li>Founded in 1629, Salem was one of the most important early seaports in the New World. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite its economic importance, Salem gained notoriety from a series of trials and accusations of witchcraft in 1692-1693. </li></ul>
  36. 41. Causes <ul><li>In 1692, the young daughter of the Reverend Samuel Parris began to exude peculiar behavior. Soon after, her cousin exhibited the same symptoms. The girls would throw fits, scream, throw things about the room, utter strange sounds, crawl under furniture and contort themselves into odd positions. </li></ul>
  37. 42. The Accusations <ul><li>Not long after, many other young girls started to exhibit similar behaviors. Doctors tried to treat them but there was no physical evidence of any ailment. Three women were accused of placing the curse on the girls, Sarah Good, Sarah Osborne and an native slave named Tituba. </li></ul>
  38. 43. The Accused <ul><li>The three accused women: </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah Good – was a homeless beggar </li></ul><ul><li>Sarah Osborne – an unmarried woman who rarely attended church meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Tituba – a Native American slave </li></ul>
  39. 44. The Accused <ul><li>Of the three women accused, only Tituba admitted to practicing witchcraft, (although she was likely coerced in to a confession). She described things like flying on sticks to different places and mentioned animals such as rats, wolves, black cats, etc. She also accused many other women of witchcraft. This sent Salem into hysteria. </li></ul>
  40. 45. The Witch Trials <ul><li>Over the next 16 months, countless numbers of people were accused of witchcraft, including upstanding members of the village. </li></ul><ul><li>If someone felt there was something strange or odd, they could accuse another of witchcraft. They were then arrested and brought to “trial” where they were interrogated and pressed for a confession. </li></ul><ul><li>Many times, the accused were unmarried women or wealthy widows. </li></ul>
  41. 46. The Aftermath <ul><li>By the end of the trials, 43 people claimed to be afflicted by witchcraft </li></ul><ul><li>Over 140 people were accused. </li></ul><ul><li>19 people were hanged, (not burned at the stake) and one person was crushed to death by stones. </li></ul><ul><li>Another 13 people died in prison while awaiting trial. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest were pardoned when people started to lose interest and/or there was an outcry that too many innocent people were being accused. </li></ul>