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MARKETING OFMARKETING OF
TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICSTRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS
SERVICES/PRODUCTS USINGSERVICES/PRODUCTS USING
THE...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
TOPIC OBJECTIVESTOPIC OBJECTIVES
• Explain the meaning of Marketing an...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• LECTURELECTURE
PREVIEWPREVIEW
• What is Marketing ?What is Marketing...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
What is Marketing?What is Marketing?
• There are about 50 definitions ...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• The key definitions could be as follows:The key definitions could be...
THE EXCHANGE PROCESSTHE EXCHANGE PROCESS
08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT 66
Customer
Something of Valu...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
Products and Services Offered By LogisticsProducts and Services Offere...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• It refers to those marketing variables which are internal and canIt ...
08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• A product is made upA product is made up
of three attributesof three...
08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• A product is made up of three attributes namelyA product is made up ...
08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• TheThe symbolicsymbolic
(Augmented product)(Augmented product)
attri...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• The price is the amount a customer pays for a product.The price is t...
08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• Cost –Plus pricing;Cost –Plus pricing; This is a pricing methodThis ...
08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
Popular price points/Psychological Pricing;Popular price points/Psych...
Price/Quality MatrixPrice/Quality Matrix
08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT 1515
Economy
Pricing
Exploita...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• Place represents the location where a product can bePlace represents...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• The producer must plan for the availability of theThe producer must ...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
PLACE Cont… (DISTRIBUTIONPLACE Cont… (DISTRIBUTION
CHAIN)CHAIN)
Manufa...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• Type of product (specialised vs general)Type of product (specialised...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• The tools that the marketerThe tools that the marketer
uses to commu...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• People or personnel are very importantPeople or personnel are very i...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
PHYSICAL EVIDENCEPHYSICAL EVIDENCE
• This refers to the point-of-saleT...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
PROCESSPROCESS
• This refers to the format forThis refers to the forma...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
4Ps vs. 4As4Ps vs. 4As
Supplier Decisions
(4Ps)
Product
Price
Place
Pr...
MARKETING
MIX
STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE
ADVANTAGE
Product Appealing designs, new product introduction, attracti...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION
• Broadly defined, optimizing the marketing mixBr...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
• LECTURE REVIEWLECTURE REVIEW
• What is Marketing ?What is Marketing ...
03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
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Marketing Mix and Logistics Management

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Topic Treats the application of Marketing Mix to Logistics and Transport Sector.

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Marketing Mix and Logistics Management

  1. 1. MARKETING OFMARKETING OF TRANSPORT AND LOGISTICSTRANSPORT AND LOGISTICS SERVICES/PRODUCTS USINGSERVICES/PRODUCTS USING THE 7Ps MODELTHE 7Ps MODEL (MARKETING MIX)(MARKETING MIX) Presented ByPresented By EBO HAMMONDEBO HAMMOND (CMILT)(CMILT) PROFESSIONAL DIPLOMAPROFESSIONAL DIPLOMA CILT GIMPA PROGRAMMECILT GIMPA PROGRAMME
  2. 2. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT TOPIC OBJECTIVESTOPIC OBJECTIVES • Explain the meaning of Marketing and marketingExplain the meaning of Marketing and marketing exchangeexchange • Acquire the key principles underpinning the 7PsAcquire the key principles underpinning the 7Ps Model (Marketing Mix)Model (Marketing Mix) • Understand the role and application of 7PsUnderstand the role and application of 7Ps Model in transport and logistics services andModel in transport and logistics services and productsproducts • Identify how to gain competitive advantageIdentify how to gain competitive advantage through effective management of the Psthrough effective management of the Ps
  3. 3. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • LECTURELECTURE PREVIEWPREVIEW • What is Marketing ?What is Marketing ? • A simple marketing exchangeA simple marketing exchange processprocess • Four Ps and Three extendedFour Ps and Three extended PsPs • Gaining competitiveGaining competitive
  4. 4. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT What is Marketing?What is Marketing? • There are about 50 definitions ofThere are about 50 definitions of marketing. Marketing could bemarketing. Marketing could be categorized into three main definitionscategorized into three main definitions as follows:as follows: – Marketing as a process; concerned withMarketing as a process; concerned with connecting supplier and customerconnecting supplier and customer – Marketing as an orientation; mindsetMarketing as an orientation; mindset – Marketing as a concept; ideaMarketing as a concept; idea
  5. 5. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • The key definitions could be as follows:The key definitions could be as follows: – ‘‘It is the action or business of bringing or sending toIt is the action or business of bringing or sending to the market’-Oxford English Dictionarythe market’-Oxford English Dictionary – ‘‘It is the human activity directed at satisfying needsIt is the human activity directed at satisfying needs and wants through an exchange process’-Kotler,and wants through an exchange process’-Kotler, 19801980 – ‘‘It is a social and managerial process by whichIt is a social and managerial process by which individuals and groups obtain what they want andindividuals and groups obtain what they want and need through creating, offering, and exchangingneed through creating, offering, and exchanging products of value with others’-Kotler 1991products of value with others’-Kotler 1991 – It is the management process responsible forIt is the management process responsible for identifying, anticipating and satisfying customers’identifying, anticipating and satisfying customers’ requirements profitably’-CIM (UK)requirements profitably’-CIM (UK) WHAT IS MARKETING? Cont..WHAT IS MARKETING? Cont..
  6. 6. THE EXCHANGE PROCESSTHE EXCHANGE PROCESS 08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT 66 Customer Something of Value Money, Goods, Services Something of Value Goods, Services, Benefits Supplier
  7. 7. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT Products and Services Offered By LogisticsProducts and Services Offered By Logistics and Transport Companiesand Transport Companies • Physical ProductsPhysical Products – Consumers goodsConsumers goods – Industrial goodsIndustrial goods • ServicesServices – Freight haulageFreight haulage – Freight ForwardingFreight Forwarding – Passenger transportationPassenger transportation – PackagingPackaging – Courier servicesCourier services – PurchasingPurchasing – Waste disposalWaste disposal – Storage/warehousingStorage/warehousing – StevedoringStevedoring – ITIT – othersothers
  8. 8. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • It refers to those marketing variables which are internal and canIt refers to those marketing variables which are internal and can be influenced by the organization to enhance the exchangebe influenced by the organization to enhance the exchange processprocess • It is also known as Marketing MixIt is also known as Marketing Mix • It was first developed by Neil Borden in 1953 (covering 4Ps)It was first developed by Neil Borden in 1953 (covering 4Ps) • McCarthy coined the term 4Ps in 1960McCarthy coined the term 4Ps in 1960 • They have been developed as Acronyms; with 4Ps being theThey have been developed as Acronyms; with 4Ps being the traditional Ps and 3 Extended Ps developed later.traditional Ps and 3 Extended Ps developed later. • While the 4 traditional Ps were developed for tangible products,While the 4 traditional Ps were developed for tangible products, the 3 extended Ps were developed for the non-tangible productsthe 3 extended Ps were developed for the non-tangible products (services)(services) • The full meanings of the 7Ps areThe full meanings of the 7Ps are Product, Price, Promotion,Product, Price, Promotion, Place, Physical Evidence, People, and ProcessPlace, Physical Evidence, People, and Process • The Key objective for strategic management of the 7Ps is toThe Key objective for strategic management of the 7Ps is to achieve effective communications to customers of products andachieve effective communications to customers of products and services offered by logistics and transport organisations to helpservices offered by logistics and transport organisations to help attract patronageattract patronage WHAT IS Marketing Mix?WHAT IS Marketing Mix?
  9. 9. 08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • A product is made upA product is made up of three attributesof three attributes namely the:namely the: – PhysicalPhysical – FunctionalFunctional – SymbolicSymbolic PRODUCTPRODUCT 99 Product Body (Tangible) Product Spirit (Augmented) Product Soul (Core)
  10. 10. 08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • A product is made up of three attributes namelyA product is made up of three attributes namely the (1)the (1) PhysicalPhysical (2)(2) FunctionalFunctional and (3)and (3) SymbolicSymbolic attributes.attributes. • TheThe physical (Tangible product)physical (Tangible product) attributesattributes refer to those aspects of the product that couldrefer to those aspects of the product that could bebe felt, touched, seen, smelled or heardfelt, touched, seen, smelled or heard. It is the. It is the products’ tangibility.products’ tangibility. • TheThe functional (Core product)functional (Core product) attributesattributes refer to therefer to the perceived need that the productperceived need that the product satisfiessatisfies e.g. A soft drink has a functionale.g. A soft drink has a functional attribute of satisfying thirst, or a car is purchasedattribute of satisfying thirst, or a car is purchased to aid mobilityto aid mobility PRODUCTPRODUCT 1010
  11. 11. 08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • TheThe symbolicsymbolic (Augmented product)(Augmented product) attribute refers to theattribute refers to the image or valueimage or value that the customer expects from thethat the customer expects from the productproduct. People tend to buy particular. People tend to buy particular products as opposed to othersproducts as opposed to others because of the prestige they are likelybecause of the prestige they are likely to obtain from it.to obtain from it. – The physical aspects of the productThe physical aspects of the product do carry marketing communications.do carry marketing communications. The packaging of a product createsThe packaging of a product creates certain perceptions that communicate.certain perceptions that communicate. The material used, colour, size,The material used, colour, size, shape, packaging attracts attentionshape, packaging attracts attention and communicate a messageand communicate a message sufficient enough to attract a customersufficient enough to attract a customer • PRODUCT Cont..PRODUCT Cont.. 1111
  12. 12. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • The price is the amount a customer pays for a product.The price is the amount a customer pays for a product. • The price of a product of service indicates its ‘value’ toThe price of a product of service indicates its ‘value’ to the customer. Low price may connote cheap productthe customer. Low price may connote cheap product and high price, great value. An ‘expensive product’ mayand high price, great value. An ‘expensive product’ may bestow great status, or be over – priced compared tobestow great status, or be over – priced compared to functionally similar competition.functionally similar competition. • Price is a major cue in the purchase decision processPrice is a major cue in the purchase decision process • Low priced products normally receive more patronageLow priced products normally receive more patronage and vise versaand vise versa • Low price, high quality is the best formula to getLow price, high quality is the best formula to get customerscustomers PRICEPRICE
  13. 13. 08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • Cost –Plus pricing;Cost –Plus pricing; This is a pricing methodThis is a pricing method that set the price at production cost, includingthat set the price at production cost, including both cost of goods and fixed costs at yourboth cost of goods and fixed costs at your current volume, plus a certain profit margincurrent volume, plus a certain profit margin.. • Return on Investment pricing;Return on Investment pricing; Set yourSet your price to achieve a target return-on-investmentprice to achieve a target return-on-investment (ROI).(ROI). • Value based pricing;Value based pricing; Price your productPrice your product based on the value it creates for the customer.based on the value it creates for the customer. This is usually the most profitable form of pricingThis is usually the most profitable form of pricing PRICINGPRICING METHODS/STRATEGIESMETHODS/STRATEGIES 1313
  14. 14. 08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT Popular price points/Psychological Pricing;Popular price points/Psychological Pricing; ThereThere are certain "price points" (specific prices) at whichare certain "price points" (specific prices) at which people become much more willing to buy a certainpeople become much more willing to buy a certain type of product. They feel they are having a goodtype of product. They feel they are having a good dealdeal Fair/Ethical pricing;Fair/Ethical pricing; Sometimes it simply doesn'tSometimes it simply doesn't matter what the value of the product is, even if youmatter what the value of the product is, even if you don't have any direct competition.don't have any direct competition. Positioning pricing;Positioning pricing; This is where pricing is done toThis is where pricing is done to provide psychological pride or esteem or any otherprovide psychological pride or esteem or any other relevant mental state that give satisfaction torelevant mental state that give satisfaction to customers.customers. PRICING METHODSPRICING METHODS 1414
  15. 15. Price/Quality MatrixPrice/Quality Matrix 08/03/1108/03/11 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT 1515 Economy Pricing Exploitative/ Skimming (short Term) Premium Pricing Penetration Pricing (short term) Low High LowHigh Price Quality
  16. 16. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • Place represents the location where a product can bePlace represents the location where a product can be purchased. It can include any physical store as well aspurchased. It can include any physical store as well as virtual stores on the Internet.virtual stores on the Internet. • It also refers to distribution and making productsIt also refers to distribution and making products available to customersavailable to customers • The place a product or service is distributed plays a veryThe place a product or service is distributed plays a very important function in gaining competitive advantageimportant function in gaining competitive advantage • There is no point in researching the consumer,There is no point in researching the consumer, designing a package to meet the identified needs,designing a package to meet the identified needs, establishing a price that is fair and acceptable andestablishing a price that is fair and acceptable and creating a brilliant promotion campaign if the packagecreating a brilliant promotion campaign if the package cannot be accessed by the consumer.cannot be accessed by the consumer. PLACEPLACE
  17. 17. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • The producer must plan for the availability of theThe producer must plan for the availability of the product and the distribution channels to be usedproduct and the distribution channels to be used • The product must be readily available whereThe product must be readily available where consumers would expect to find itconsumers would expect to find it • The product distribution model could be theThe product distribution model could be the followingfollowing – Manufacturer to CustomerManufacturer to Customer – Manufacturer to Retailer to CustomerManufacturer to Retailer to Customer – Manufacturer to Wholesaler to Retailer to CustomerManufacturer to Wholesaler to Retailer to Customer PLACE Cont…PLACE Cont…
  18. 18. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT PLACE Cont… (DISTRIBUTIONPLACE Cont… (DISTRIBUTION CHAIN)CHAIN) Manufacturer/Service Provider Customer Wholesaler Retailer
  19. 19. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • Type of product (specialised vs general)Type of product (specialised vs general) • Length of supply chainLength of supply chain • Purchase volumesPurchase volumes • Protection of intellectual property rightsProtection of intellectual property rights • Level of control over outbound supply chainLevel of control over outbound supply chain • Financial implicationsFinancial implications • Speed of market penetration to customerSpeed of market penetration to customer • Technological considerations (internet)Technological considerations (internet) • Can you think of any other considerations?Can you think of any other considerations? FACTORS CONSIDERED IN ADOPTING AFACTORS CONSIDERED IN ADOPTING A PARTICULAR DISTRIBUTION MODELPARTICULAR DISTRIBUTION MODEL
  20. 20. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • The tools that the marketerThe tools that the marketer uses to communicate ideas anduses to communicate ideas and to stimulate a particularto stimulate a particular perception of products andperception of products and services by individuals orservices by individuals or people who have beenpeople who have been aggregated into a target marketaggregated into a target market are referred to as theare referred to as the Promotional Mix (MarketingPromotional Mix (Marketing communication mix)communication mix) • The key elements comprisingThe key elements comprising the Promotional Mix arethe Promotional Mix are advertising, public relations,advertising, public relations, sales promotion, personalsales promotion, personal selling, direct marketing. Theseselling, direct marketing. These elements each have a variety ofelements each have a variety of sub-classifications.sub-classifications. PROMOTIONPROMOTION
  21. 21. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • People or personnel are very importantPeople or personnel are very important in marketing communication becausein marketing communication because they are the first point of contact withthey are the first point of contact with the customer or prospective customer.the customer or prospective customer. • If they are not intellectually capableIf they are not intellectually capable they cannot be trained in specializedthey cannot be trained in specialized products. If their dress, manner andproducts. If their dress, manner and bearing are not correct, the image willbearing are not correct, the image will suffer.suffer. • Above all they have to be concerned toAbove all they have to be concerned to help the customer make the besthelp the customer make the best choice and to go away pleased with thechoice and to go away pleased with the service received.service received. • Key factors considered are dress code,Key factors considered are dress code, mannerism, appearance andmannerism, appearance and countenance, educational level, sensecountenance, educational level, sense of duty, multilingual skills and othersof duty, multilingual skills and others • People add a human touch to thePeople add a human touch to the exchange processexchange process PERSONNEL/PEOPLE/PERSONPERSONNEL/PEOPLE/PERSON SS
  22. 22. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT PHYSICAL EVIDENCEPHYSICAL EVIDENCE • This refers to the point-of-saleThis refers to the point-of-sale environmentenvironment • The physical aspects of theThe physical aspects of the point-of-sale, the store image,point-of-sale, the store image, etc have implications foretc have implications for communicating a message tocommunicating a message to customerscustomers • A customer’s perception ofA customer’s perception of the point-of-sale can bethe point-of-sale can be crucial to the success of thecrucial to the success of the whole package. For example,whole package. For example, if the ambience is wrong, theif the ambience is wrong, the target customer may nevertarget customer may never enter the chosen store(s).enter the chosen store(s). • Issues considered areIssues considered are cleanliness, temperature,cleanliness, temperature, comfort, colour, interiorcomfort, colour, interior design/décor, location, etcdesign/décor, location, etc
  23. 23. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT PROCESSPROCESS • This refers to the format forThis refers to the format for dealing with or processingdealing with or processing customerscustomers • An efficient processingAn efficient processing system providessystem provides convenience for customersconvenience for customers • Key issues considered areKey issues considered are waiting time, privacy,waiting time, privacy, secrecy, safety, security,secrecy, safety, security, speed, integrity and others.speed, integrity and others. • Logistics and TransportLogistics and Transport Organizations that provideOrganizations that provide a hassle free processinga hassle free processing method for customers standmethod for customers stand to attract and retainto attract and retain customerscustomers
  24. 24. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT 4Ps vs. 4As4Ps vs. 4As Supplier Decisions (4Ps) Product Price Place Promotion Customer Reactions (4As) Awareness Availability Affordability AcceptabilityPeople Physical Evidence Process Service Support (3Ps)
  25. 25. MARKETING MIX STRATEGIES FOR ACHIEVING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Product Appealing designs, new product introduction, attractive colour, quality packaging, superior performance, effective positioning Price Competitive pricing, Premium pricing Place Appointing and managing distributors effectively, effective push/pull mix in the supply pipeline, effective transportation system Promotion Effective Promotion Mix Physical Evidence Mindful of cleanliness, ambient temperature, lighting, aesthetics, architecture, etc People Use of celebrities, revered or people popular for a particular course to endorse products/services Process Less waiting time, hassle free product access, adequate security at point of sale, protection of customer privacy 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT
  26. 26. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT CONCLUSIONCONCLUSION • Broadly defined, optimizing the marketing mixBroadly defined, optimizing the marketing mix is the primary responsibility of marketing.is the primary responsibility of marketing. • By offering the product with the rightBy offering the product with the right combination of the Seven Ps, marketers cancombination of the Seven Ps, marketers can improve their results and marketingimprove their results and marketing effectiveness.effectiveness.
  27. 27. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT • LECTURE REVIEWLECTURE REVIEW • What is Marketing ?What is Marketing ? • A simple marketing exchangeA simple marketing exchange processprocess • Four Ps and Three extendedFour Ps and Three extended Ps (7Ps)Ps (7Ps) • 4Ps vs. 4As4Ps vs. 4As • Gaining competitiveGaining competitive advantageadvantage
  28. 28. 03/03/1003/03/10 EBO HAMMOND-CMILTEBO HAMMOND-CMILT

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