Mon domingue key_introduction to semantic

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Mon domingue key_introduction to semantic

  1. 1. An Introduction to The Semantic Web: a knowledge modelling perspective © Copyright 2007 STI - INTERNATIONAL www.sti2.org John Domingue President STI International
  2. 2. Caveat • Not an historical overview • Singular perspective of some underlying motivations and issues related to the Semantic Web www.sti2.org
  3. 3. MOTIVATION & APPLICATION SCENARIO www.sti2.org
  4. 4. Agenda • Building K-HAL v1.0 www.sti2.org – Influences – Ontology – Conceptualisation – Knowledgebase – Critique • Building K-HAL v2.0 – Ontologies – Data – Getting help • Building K-HAL v3.0 • Conclusions
  5. 5. Spacecraft piloting and navigation only – the reasoning and knowledge parts BUILDING K-HAL V1.0 www.sti2.org 5/12/2007 - Vienna
  6. 6. INFLUENCES www.sti2.org
  7. 7. www.sti2.org 8/59 Cognitive Psychology
  8. 8. www.sti2.org 9/59 Semantic Network Collins and Quillian 1967
  9. 9. www.sti2.org 10/59 Knowledge Level (Allen Newell, 1982) Knowledge Level Symbol Level . . . . . Physical Level
  10. 10. www.sti2.org 11/59 Knowledge Level Symbol Level . . . . . Physical Level Knowledge Goals Principle of Rationality Agent Observer Knowledge Level (Allen Newell, 1982)
  11. 11. ONTOLOGY www.sti2.org
  12. 12. Informal Ontology Explanation • Used to structure knowledge • Facilitates interoperability • Formal explicit shared conceptualisation of a domain • A set of concepts, relationships and individuals over which there is an agreed consensus www.sti2.org
  13. 13. www.sti2.org 14/59 Ontology Construction
  14. 14. CONCEPTUALISATION www.sti2.org
  15. 15. www.sti2.org 16/59 Let’s talk to some smart people…
  16. 16. www.sti2.org 17/59 Conceptualisation
  17. 17. www.sti2.org 18/59 Conceptualisation 2 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  18. 18. www.sti2.org 19/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  19. 19. www.sti2.org 20/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  20. 20. www.sti2.org 21/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  21. 21. www.sti2.org 22/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  22. 22. www.sti2.org 23/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  23. 23. www.sti2.org 24/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  24. 24. www.sti2.org 25/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  25. 25. www.sti2.org 26/59 Re-conceptualisaiton 1 8 6 5 4 2 7 3 9
  26. 26. Concepts Relations Engineered Artifact Celestial Body www.sti2.org 27/59 K-HAL v 1.0 Ontology (small portion) Space Ship Has Component Rocket Generates Thrust Star Planet Asteroid Agent Crew Human Crew Onboard AI Has Name Has Mass Has Volume
  27. 27. K-HAL V1.0 KNOWLEDGE BASE www.sti2.org
  28. 28. Concepts Relations Engineered Artifact Celestial Body www.sti2.org 29/59 K-HAL v 1.0 Ontology (small portion) Space Ship Has Component Rocket Generates Thrust Star Planet Asteroid Agent Crew Human Crew Onboard AI Has Name Has Mass Has Volume
  29. 29. Concepts Relations Engineered Artifact Celestial Body www.sti2.org 30/59 K-HAL v 1.0 Ontology/KB (small portion) Space Ship Has Component Rocket Generates Thrust Star Planet Asteroid Agent Crew Human Crew Onboard AI Has Name Has Mass Has Volume HAL Dave Boorman The Sun Jupiter
  30. 30. www.sti2.org 31/59 Knowledge Base
  31. 31. www.sti2.org 32/59 CYC Open CYC v 4.0 239,000 concepts and 2,093,000 facts
  32. 32. www.sti2.org 33/59 K-HAL v 1.0 Ontology Knowledge Base Input/Output Vision system Speech Generation Speech Understanding User Reasoner
  33. 33. What’s wrong with K-HAL v 1.0? • ???? www.sti2.org
  34. 34. BUILDING K-HAL V2.0 www.sti2.org 5/12/2007 - Vienna
  35. 35. www.sti2.org 36/59 Underlying Principles Be Lazy Be kind and share
  36. 36. K-HAL V2.0 ONTOLOGIES www.sti2.org
  37. 37. www.sti2.org 38/59 Why work when you can Google?
  38. 38. www.sti2.org 39/59 DBpedia
  39. 39. www.sti2.org 41/59 Astronomical Objects
  40. 40. www.sti2.org 42/59 Astronomical Ontology (portion)
  41. 41. www.sti2.org 43/59 Space Shuttle Ontology Aft-Fusulage Air-Sampling-System Airlock Auxilliar-Power-Unit Avionics-System Body-Flap Caution-And-Warning-System Communication Crew-Apparel Crew-Compartment Crew-Equipment Crew-Equipment-Stowage Eletrical-Power-Distribution Eletrical-Power-System Emergency-Egress-Slide Environmental-Control-and-Life-Support- System Exercise-Equipment External-Tank External-Tank-Hardware Food-System-and-Dining Forward-Fuselage Hold-Down-Post Housekeeping Hydaraulic-System Hydarulic-Power-Units Inflyght-Crew-Escape-System Intertank Landing-Gear-System Liquid-Hydrogen-Tank Liquid-Oxygen-Tank Main-Propulsion-System Microcassete-Recorder Midfuselage Operational-Bioinstrumentation-System Orbial-Manuevering-System Orbital-Maneuvering-System Orbiter-External-Tank-Seperation-System Orbiter-Flight-Crew-Escape-System Orbiter-Passive-Contro-Systeml Orbiter-Purge-Vent-Drain-System Orbiter-Structure OrbiterManufacturingandAssembly Payload-Bay-Doors Personal-Hygiene-Provision Photographic-Equipment Radiation-Equipement Range-Safety-Siystem Range-Safety-Siystem-Tank Reach-Aid Reaction-Control-System Restraints-And-Mobility-Aids RSB-Descent-and-Recovery Secondary-Emergency-Egress Shuttle Shuttle-Orbiter-Medical-System ShuttleName Sighiting-Aids Sleeping-Provision Solid-Roket-Boosters Sound-Level-Meter Space-Shuttle-Coordinate-System Space-Shuttle-Orbiter-System Space-Transportation-System SRB-Ignition SRB-Rate-Gyro-Assemblies SRB-Separation Thermal-Protection-System Thermal-Protection-System-Orbiter Thrust-Vector-Control Vertical-Tail Water-Spray-Boilers Wicket-Tabs Windows Wing
  42. 42. Problems to be resolved (ontology) • Finding ontologies • Understanding ontologies • Connecting ontologies • Adapting ontologies • Version control • Agility www.sti2.org – New ontologies, changes in used ontologies … • …….
  43. 43. www.sti2.org 45/59 Building and Using Ontologies Elena Simperl Tutorial 10:45am Tuesday
  44. 44. K-HAL V2.0 DATA www.sti2.org Be Lazy
  45. 45. www.sti2.org 47/59 Solar Objects > 400km Radius
  46. 46. www.sti2.org 48/59
  47. 47. www.sti2.org 49/59 Spacecraft component data
  48. 48. Problems to be resolved • Finding semantic data • Transforming unstructured data to a semantic format • Transforming structured data to a semantic format • Connecting semantic datasets • Querying/reasoning over connected semantic data • Sharing new data • Agility www.sti2.org – New datasets, changes in used datasets…
  49. 49. Linked Data Basics • Fundamentals of Linked Data: main standards & technology components, motivating application scenario www.sti2.org – Barry Norton Tutorial 10:45am today • Querying Linked Data: SPARQL 101 – Irini Fundulaki Tutorial 2pm today • Semantic Web languages and standards: RDF, RDFS, SPARQL – Barry Norton & Irini Fundulaki Hands-on: 3:30pm today
  50. 50. Publishing and Using Linked Data • Providing and consuming Linked Data www.sti2.org – Maribel Acosta Tutorial 2:30pm Tuesday • Publishing and consuming Linked Open Data – Maribel Acosta Hands-on 4pm Tuesday
  51. 51. Linked Data and the Unstructured World • Linked Data for NLP www.sti2.org – Barry Norton Tutorial Wednesday 10:45am • Using Linked Data and GATE – Barry Norton & Isabelle Augenstein Wednesday 11:30am
  52. 52. www.sti2.org 54/59 Getting everybody to help… *picture suggested by Dan Brickley
  53. 53. www.sti2.org 55/59 GalaxyZoo
  54. 54. www.sti2.org 56/59 More Zoos
  55. 55. www.sti2.org 57/59 Crowdsourcing AI
  56. 56. Getting help tutorials and hands-on • Social Semantic Web and crowdsourcing www.sti2.org – Elena Simperl Tutorial Wednesday 2pm • Using Mechanical Turk to solve Linked Data problems – Maribel Acosta Hands-on Wednesday 3pm
  57. 57. www.sti2.org 59/59 K-HAL v 1.0 Ontology Knowledge Base Input/Output Vision system Speech Generation Speech Understanding User Reasoner
  58. 58. www.sti2.org 60/59 K-HAL v 2.0 Architecture Linked Open Vocabularies Linked Open Data HAL Ontology HAL Facts in RDF Store Reasoner Input/Output Vision system Speech Generation Speech Understanding Crowdsourced facts Corporate data
  59. 59. What about processes? BUILDING K-HAL V3.0 www.sti2.org 5/12/2007 - Vienna
  60. 60. www.sti2.org
  61. 61. www.sti2.org 63/59 Virtual Choir
  62. 62. www.sti2.org 64/59 Choir Autonomous singers Available online
  63. 63. www.sti2.org 65/59 Conductor Dictates song Common notation Selects performances Edits and mixes Choir Autonomous singers Available online
  64. 64. www.sti2.org 66/59 Listener Has a desire Has preferences Conductor Dictates song Common notation Selects performances Edits and mixes Choir Autonomous singers Available online
  65. 65. www.sti2.org 67/59
  66. 66. Conclusions (1/2) www.sti2.org In its current state the Semantic Web/Web of Data facilitates the re-use of ontologies and data • Other problems arise associated with ontology and data quality, adapting/ aligning ontologies and data … • Good SW/LD practitioners know online ontologies and datasets as a good researcher knows the related literature Be Lazy
  67. 67. Conclusions (2/2) www.sti2.org Releasing ontologies and data • Provides a community benefit for expected and unexpected uses • Can increase the value of the released artifacts • May be obligated depending on context (e.g. if paid for by public funding) • Has associated issues related to training, quality, privacy, maintenance…. Be kind and share
  68. 68. www.sti2.org THANKS

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