4. Great mountain range of Pakistan
Pakistan is blessed with a long range of mountains that are an
attraction for geologists and mountain climbers from all over the
world. Pakistan is home of many mountains like northern and
western mountains above 7,000 metres (22,970 ft). Most of the high
peaks in Pakistan are in Karakoram range, the highest of which is K2
(8,611m), the second highest peak on Earth. The highest peak of
Himalayan range in Pakistan is Nanga Parbat (8,126m), which is the
ninth highest peak of the world. Hindu Kush; highest peak is Tirich Mir
(7,690 metres (25,230 ft). Sulaiman Mountains; highest peak is Takht-
e-Sulaiman (3,487 metres (11,440 ft).
6. Karakoram :
Karakoram is a Turkic term meaning black gravel. The Central Asian traders
originally applied the name to the Karakoram Pass (Mason, Kenneth (1928)). The
Karakoram, is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and
China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and
Tajikistan. It begins in the Wakhan Corridor (Afghanistan) in the west and encompasses
the majority of Gilgit–Baltistan (Pakistan) and extends into Ladakh (India), and the
disputed Aksai China region controlled by China. It is the second highest mountain
range in the world.
The range is about 500 km (311 mi) in length 200 km wide, and is the most heavily
glaciated (28-50%) part of the world outside the polar regions. The Siachen Glacier at 76
kilometres (47 mi) and the Biafo Glacier at 63 kilometres (39 mi) rank as the world's
second and third longest glaciers outside the polar regions.(Zurich, 1990).
The climate of the Karakoram Range is for the most part semiarid and
strongly continental. The southern slopes are exposed to the moist
monsoon (rain-bearing) winds coming in from the Indian Ocean, but the
northern slopes are extremely dry. On the lower and middle slopes, rain
and snow fall in small quantities; average annual precipitation does not
exceed 4 inches (100 mm).
At elevations of about 18,700 feet (5,700 metres), the average
temperature during the warmest month is lower than 32 °F, and, at
heights of between 12,800 and 18,700 feet (3,900 and 5,700 metres), the
temperature is lower than 50 °F (10 °C)
From west to east
Khunjerab Pass (the highest paved international border crossing at
4,693 m (15,397 ft) Chinese and Pakistani border at Khunjerab Pass
16. Cultural References:
The Karakoram mountain range has been referred to in a number
of novels and movies. Rudyard Kipling refers to the Karakoram
mountain range in his novel Kim, which was first published in 1900.
Marcel Ichac made a film titled Karakoram (1936). The film won
the Silver Lion (1937). Greg Mortenson details the Karakoram, and
specifically K2 and the Balti, extensively in his book Three Cups of
Tea, about his quest to build schools for children in the region.
Urdu is the main language.
There are also six main local languages aside from Urdu spoken
by the people of the Karakoram: Bali, Burushashki, Kalasha,
Khowar, Shina, and Wakhi.
As working guides… speak English but other European and Asian
languages as well.
18. What is the difference between people
living in mountains and on plains?
19. Peoples: The population of the Karakoram Range is
concentrated in three towns in the disputed Kashmir region of
the northern Indian subcontinent—Gilgit and Skardu in the
Northern Areas (in the Pakistani administered portion) and Leh
in the Ladakh area of Jammu and Kashmir state (in the Indian-
Sunni, Ismaili,Shia, and Non Muslim there in Karakoram.
26. the valley of South-Braldu (river from
Karakoram hills, Snow, River, Station
Baltoro-Glacier) near the mouth(2008)
28. Environmental Threats:
Several human activities like the hunting of rare
species and grazing of animals in the upper areas of
the mountain range adversely affect the ecosystem of
the area. Global climatic conditions also affect the
glacier melting in the mountain regions, adversely
affecting the hydrology patterns of the Karakoram.
Deforestation for human habitation and other
anthropogenic activities is also common.
29. Karakoram Highway:
The Karakoram Highway (Urdu: قراقرم )شاہراہ also known as N-35 or National
Highway 35 (Urdu: شاہراہ قومی35), ) or the China-Pakistan Friendship
Highway) is a 1300 km national highway which extends from Hasan Abdal in the
Punjab province of Pakistan to the Khunjerab Pass in Gilgit-Baltistan, where it
crosses into China and becomes China National Highway 314.