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MODERN PUBLICADMINISTRATIONDEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION (1950s to 1960s)
OBJECTIVES:• To understand the meaning of development administration.• To identify its scope and importance.• To distinguish between traditional administration and development administration.• To trace the evolution of development administration.• To know the development administration as in the Philippine context.
MEANING OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION• Weidner• Riggs, Ferrel Heady, Montgomary, Gant, Pai Panandikar• is an effort towards planned transformation of the economy involving not only the sphere of administration but also formulation of policies and indeed the society as a whole• is an effort at the synchronization of changes in all spheres of development- economic, political, social and cultural
• Harry J. Friedman – The implementation of programs designed to bring about modernity – The changes within the administrative system which increase its capacity to implement the programs.
• Hahn Beenlee – involved in managing a government or an agency so that it acquires an increasing capability to adapt to and act upon new and continuing social changes with a view to achieve sustained growth.
• Gant – “that aspect of Public Administration in which focus of attention is on organizing and administering public agencies in such a way as to stimulate and facilitate defined programs of social and economic progress. It has the purpose of making change attractive and possible.”
• Fred Riggs in his “Frontiers of Development” – administration of development and the development of administration. – proper assessment of resources, proper plan formulation, evaluation and implementation, adequate involvement of people, emphasis on technological change and self- reliance – Developed bureaucracy, integrity in administration, initiative, innovativeness, delegation of powers, decentralized decision-making etc.
SCOPE OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION• political, social, economic and cultural changes• Development Administration is Culture-Bound• Wide Spectrum of Development Programs• Nation-building and Social-welding• Planning and Programming• Development Administration and Ecology• Development Administration is Organic
SIGNIFICANCE OF DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION• new perspectives, insights and understanding• democratic spirit in administration and includes people’s participation• politics-administration dichotomy is a myth• useful construct to explore the dynamics of change and administration in the developing countries of the third world
TRADITIONAL ADMINISTRATION VS. DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION• George Gant, Ferrel Heady – purpose, structure and organization, attitudes and behavior, capabilities, techniques and methods.
• Classical economists’ view• Economic Growth Model• the Instrumental Theory of Administration• Weber, Gullick, Taylor and others• Technical Assistance Era – spent $180 million – like role-play, Case Method, T-groups• “management of innovation”
• The Contributions of the Comparative Administration Group (CAG) – Fred W. Riggs in 1961 by the American Society for Public Administration – Ford Foundation – concentration on the strategies and requisites – shared the assumption of technical assistance experts – 100 occasional papers – innovate many concepts • Systems Analysis; Patterns Variables; Traditional-Modernity Dichotomy; Information Theory and Pluralism
• The Contribution of Fred W. Riggs – Criticized the development administration model by observing GNP increase – Preferred the physical quality of life indicators and social and psychological quality of life – Industria-transitia-agraria formulation – The ecological approach
• The Empirical Approach to Development Administration – normative approach to empirical approach – technical assistance enterprise of the United Nations and other agencies – contrast with the normative approach – Woodrow Wilson, L.D. White, Fayol, Gullick, F. W. Taylor and others
OTHER SIGNIFICANT PEOPLE• 1955 Herbert Kaufman, Fred W. Riggs and Walter R. Sharp• 1957 Chris Argyris and Douglas McGregor• 1959 Charles A. Lindblom• 1961 Aaron Wildavsky
Herbert Kaufman, Fred W. Riggs and Walter R. Sharp (1955)First course on comparative administrationintroduced at Yale University. This movement,which represented a broadening of publicadministration to other cultures, began to wanein later years as American foreign aid programswere scaled back.
Chris Argyris and Douglas McGregor (1957)Placed emphasis on social psychology andresearch in human relations in achieving abetter fit between the personality of a matureadult and the requirements of a modernorganization. Argyris developed an open-system theory of organization, whileMcGregor poplarized a humanistic managerialphilosophy.
Charles A. Lindblom (1959)In his influential essay, "The Science of MuddlingThrough," Lindblom attacked the rational modelsof decision making in government. In reality, themodel did not work; decision makers, therefore,depend heavily on small, incremental decisions.
Aaron Wildavsky• In an article, "The Political Implications of Budgetary Reform," Wildavsky developed the concept of budgetary incrementalism and its political nature that led to his landmark work, The Politics of the Budgetary Process. (1964).
DA in the Philippines• Raul De Guzman, who together with OD Corpuz (1986) “Is there a Philippine PA?” associated to foreign aid and western models of development implementation of administrative reform should have two major dimensions: reforming the structures of the bureaucracy and reforming the behavior of those in bureaucracy• central features of the various long and medium term Philippine Development Plans
REFERENCES:• “IS THERE A PHILIPPINE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION? OR BETTER STILL, FOR WHOM IS PHILIPPINE PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION?” BY:Alex Brillantes, Jr. and Maricel Fernandez• http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/third_world_ countries.htm• http://campus.murraystate.edu/academic/faculty/wros e/hispa.htm• http://www.scribd.com/doc/41286368/Development- Administration