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Brief slide show looking at taxonomy and its history

Publié dans : Environnement
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  1. 1. Taxonomy Natures filing system?
  2. 2. Learning Outcomes • Define the term “taxonomy” • List the different levels of taxonomy in order • Name 4 different species using their full taxonomic name • Relate species differences to selective processes (previous session!)
  3. 3. Why classify? • Helps humans to make sense of the abundant biological diversity that exists in nature. • Enables us to categorise what is out there!
  4. 4. What is Taxonomy? • Science of naming organisms and assigning them to groups • Looks at different and common species • Looks at relationships of species at different levels - general - specialised
  5. 5. Why is Taxonomy Useful? • Allows us to identify new species! • Taxonomists spend their time searching for previously unknown organisms, determining their relationships to known organisms, and giving them names. • Without classification, this would not be possible.
  6. 6. So Who is Involved?
  7. 7. Aristotle • Realised that you had to observe various characteristics, not just one • Considered to be 1st person to group organisms in ways that made sense! • Involved in the terms “substance”, “species” and “genus”
  8. 8. Ernst Haeckle • Discovered, described and named thousands of new species • Mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms • Coined many terms including phylum, phylogeny, ecology and the kingdom Protista
  9. 9. Carolus Linnaeus • Divised system for clear and easy descriptions of plants, animals and minerals • Classified organisms using a two part latin name – binomial classification • System still used by scientists today!
  10. 10. The Seven Levels • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species • Kings • Play • Chess • Only • For • Good • Sports!
  11. 11. Example: Grizzly Bear!
  12. 12. Kingdom • The starting point of species classification • Divided into 5 kingdoms The 5 kingdoms are : • Monera (Bacteria) • Protocista (Protozoa) • Fungi (Mushrooms, Mould) • Plantae (Ferns, Herbs, Tres) • Animalia (Fish, Birds, Insects)
  13. 13. Phylum • Each kingdom is subdivided into smaller, more specific groups called phyla. • Groups with general common features (shells, legs, spine) e.g. birds, mammals, fish (spine) snails, limpets, lobsters (shells)
  14. 14. Class • Each phylum is subdivided into smaller groups called classes. • Divides groups into general common features e.g. Mammals – bears, mice, elephants, dolphins • Base of most fossil studies!
  15. 15. Order • Each class is subdivided into smaller groups called orders. • Groups of individuals with a major similar quality e.g. Carnivora = cats, dogs, weasels = meat eaters!!!
  16. 16. Family • Each order is subdivided into smaller groups called families. • Major groups of similar organisms E.g. Felidae = cats
  17. 17. Genus • Each family is subdivided into smaller groups called genera. • Group of species very closely related E.g. Sciurus = Squirrels
  18. 18. Species • Each genus is subdivided into smaller groups called species. • Group of similar individuals which can breed freely, but not successfully with other species (hence sub-species). • The species is the most specific level of classification.
  19. 19. In General The way the kingdom is broken down is as follows: • A number of species make up a genus. • A number of genera make up a family. • A number of families make up an order. • A number of orders make up a class. • A number of classes make up a phylum. • A number of phyla make up a kingdom.
  20. 20. Scientific Names • The scientific name of an organism contains two parts - the name of the genus and - the name of the species. • Binomial naming – Linnaeus!
  21. 21. Writing Scientific Names The rules for writing scientific names: • CAPITALIZE the first letter of the genus name. • Do not capitalize the species name. • Both names must be underlined or italicized. • Example: human = Homo sapiens
  22. 22. Recognising the groups • Kingdom: Always starts with a capital letter (e.g. Animalia) • Phylum: Always starts with a capital letter (e.g. Chordata) • Class: Always starts with a capital letter (e.g. Mammalia) • Order: Always starts with a capital letter (e.g. Rodentia)
  23. 23. Recognising the groups • Family: Always end in “ae” (e.g. Sciurinae) • Genus: Always starts with a capital letter and in italics (e.g. Sciurus) • Species: ALWAYS lower case and italics!!! (e.g. vulgaris)
  24. 24. Recognising the Groups! • Kingdom • Phylum • Class • Order • Family • Genus • Species • Animalia • Chordata • Mammalia • Rodentia • Sciurinae • Sciurus • vulgaris
  25. 25. Example 1: A Dog • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Mammalia • Order: Carnivora • Family: Canidae • Genus: Canis • Species: familiaris
  26. 26. Example 2: A Lion • Kingdom: Animalia • Phylum: Chordata • Class: Mammalia • Order: Carnivora • Family: Felidae • Genus: Panthera • Species: leo
  27. 27. Example 3: A Dandelion • Kingdom: Plantae • Phylum: Tracheophyta • Class: Anthophyta • Order: Asterales • Family: Compositae • Genus: Taraxacum • Species: officinale
  28. 28. Over to You! Using the information you have just gained… • Organize your sets of cards into order of the seven taxonomic levels • As a minimum you should get Kingdom, Family, Genus and Species • Once you have done this, try and work out what your organism is!
  29. 29. Recap! • Taxonomy is the classification of all organisms • It allows us to identify new species using common features • Carolus Linnaeus is the founder of the binomial system, which we use today • There are seven taxonomic levels • Each level becomes more specialised as you move down