Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Le téléchargement de votre SlideShare est en cours. ×


Prochain SlideShare
Geoinformatics 2019
Geoinformatics 2019
Chargement dans…3

Consultez-les par la suite

1 sur 63 Publicité

Plus De Contenu Connexe

Diaporamas pour vous (20)

Similaire à Geoinformatics (20)


Plus récents (20)


  1. 1. Geoinformatics The combined use of GIS, GPS, Remote Sensing, andRemote Sensing, and Internet. coined as geoinformatics provides an innovative tool in developing decision support system, use in strategic planning, monitoring and evaluation of geo-referenced data and information.
  2. 2. • Such emerging technology should be incorporated in the trilogy functions (academic, research and extension) of higher education institutions, among other functions of the other agencies and entities, local and abroad. • Sharing of expertise on such allied fields is• Sharing of expertise on such allied fields is recommended for collaborative research support systems and spread the advances of such technology.
  3. 3. A computer-based tool for mapping and analyzing things that exist and events that happen on earth. GIS technology integrates common database Social factors Biodiversity Networks Land use Environmental What is GIS? common database operations such as query and statistical analysis with the unique visualization and geographic analysis benefits offered by maps Environmental considerations Real world GIS integration to model the real world
  4. 4. Geographically Reference Information Data stored in a mathematically defined coordinate systems Land use Zoning Transportation Well locationcoordinate systems which can be reproduced and projected into another system. Well location Surface water Soils GIS integrates data in a common data model
  5. 5. Spatial Personnel Computer Hardware Mapping Software Resources Component Spatial Data Data Input Storage Managemen t & Analysis Presentation Modeling Database Component
  6. 6. PointsPoints Lines Polygons
  7. 7. GIS: a simplified view of the real world • Points • Lines • Areas • Networks –A series of interconnecting lines Discrete Features interconnecting lines • Road network • River network • Sewage network • Surfaces –Elevation surface –Temperature surface Continuous features
  8. 8. • RASTER • VECTOR• VECTOR • Real World
  9. 9. 500 600 Trees B B B G G G 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 2 3 Real World Vector Representation X-AXIS 400 300 200 100 600500400300200100 Y-AXIS River House Trees B B B B B B B B G G BK B G G Raster Representation 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 G G
  10. 10. Raster Real world Vector Source: Heywood et al. 2006
  11. 11. Digital data Maps and Plans Paper files Data Photogrammetry Remote Sensing Field survey Interviews Data GIS
  12. 12. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) • In the field of GIS, one cannot ignore the importance and use of GPSthe importance and use of GPS technology as a tool for data input and data reconnaissance. This is a relatively new and advance technology but with increasing applications in the field of GIS.
  13. 13. The Global Positioning system (GPS) is a satellite-based navigation system that consists of 24 orbiting satellites, each of which makes two circuits around the Earth every 24 hours. With four or more satellites,With four or more satellites, a GPS receiver can determine a 3D position (i.e., latitude, longitude, and elevation).
  14. 14. IRNSS is an independent regional navigation satellite system being developed by India. It is designed to provide accurate position information service to users in India as well as the region extending up to 1500 km from its boundary, which is its primary service area. An Extended Service Area lies between primary service area and area enclosed by the rectangle from Latitude 30 deg South to 50 Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) deg North, Longitude 30 deg East to 130 deg East. IRNSS will provide two types of services, namely, Standard Positioning Service (SPS) which is provided to all the users and Restricted Service (RS), which is an encrypted service provided only to the authorised users. The IRNSS System is expected to provide a position accuracy of better than 20 m in the primary service area.
  15. 15. Some applications of IRNSS are: 1. Terrestrial, Aerial and Marine Navigation 2. Disaster Management 3. Vehicle tracking and fleet management 4. Integration with mobile phones 5. Precise Timing5. Precise Timing 6. Mapping and Geodetic data capture 7. Terrestrial navigation aid for hikers and travellers 8. Visual and voice navigation for drivers
  16. 16. Remote sensing is a method for getting information about of different objects on the planet, without any physical contacts with it.
  17. 17. • Balloon photography (1858) • Pigeon cameras (1903) • Kite photography (Thread) (1890) • Aircraft (WWI and WWII) • Space (1947) Images: Jensen (2000)
  18. 18. Geostationary Satellites A geostationary satellite is one of the satellites which isone of the satellites which is getting remote sense data and located satellite at an altitude of approximately 36000 kilometres and directly over the equator.
  19. 19. Polar-Orbiting Satellites A polar orbit is a satellite which issatellite which is located near to above of poles. This satellite mostly uses for earth observation by time.
  20. 20. What we can see from satellite data?
  21. 21. Various Platforms on the Ground, in the Air, and in Space Platforms for remote sensors may be situated on the ground, on an aircraft or balloon (or some other platform within the Earth's atmosphere), or on a spacecraft or satellite outside of the Earth's atmosphere.
  22. 22. Ground Based
  23. 23. Some Remote SensorsSome Remote Sensors
  24. 24. All remote sensing systems have four types of resolution: Spatial Spectral Resolution Spectral Radiometric Temporal
  25. 25. • The earth surface area covered by a pixel of an image is known as spatial resolution • Large area covered by a pixel means low spatial resolution and vice versa
  26. 26. High vs. Low? Source: Jensen (2000)
  27. 27. • Is the ability to resolve spectral features and bands into their separate componentscomponents • More number of bands in a specified bandwidth means higher spectral resolution and vice versa
  28. 28. Three spectral recorded at low, medium and high spectral resolution, illustrating how the high resolution mode yields sharper peaks, and separates close lying peaks, which are merged together at low resolution
  29. 29. • Frequency at which images are recorded/ captured in a specific place on the earth. • The more frequently it is captured, the better or finer the temporal resolution is said to bethe temporal resolution is said to be • For example, a sensor that captures an image of an agriculture land twice a day has better temporal resolution than a sensor that only captures that same image once a week.
  30. 30. 16 days July 2 July 18 August 3 Time July 1 July 12 July 23 August 3 11 days
  31. 31. • Sensitivity of the sensor to the magnitude of the received electromagnetic energy determines the radiometric resolution • Finer the radiometric resolution of a sensor, if it is more sensitive in detecting small differences in reflected or emitted energy
  32. 32. 6-bit range 0 63 2-bit range 0 4 1023 8-bit range 0 255 0 10-bit range
  33. 33. Internet Mapping
  35. 35. Application of Remote sensing And GIS • Transportation – Updating road maps – Network Analysis – Identifying Shortest path • Agricultural – Crop health analysis – Precision agriculture – Yield estimation 53
  36. 36. • Mapping & updation of city/town maps • Urban sprawl monitoring • Town planning • Facility management • GIS database development Scope Lyari Express WayLyari Express Way –– Section (Essa Nagri)Section (Essa Nagri) • GIS database development • Better decision support, planning & management • Rapid information updation • Infrastructure development monitoring • Spatial information analysis Benefits
  37. 37. • Natural Resource Management – Habitat analysis – Environmental assessment – Impervious surface mapping – Lake monitoring – Hydrology – Landuse-Landcover monitoring – Mineral province – Geomorphology – Geology • National Security -Targeting - Disaster mapping and monitoring -Damage assessment -Weapons monitoring -Homeland security -Navigation -Policy 55
  38. 38. Application of RS & GIS – Oceans & Coastal Monitoring Potential Fishing Zones (PFZ), Coastal Zone Mapping Resources, Physical Oceanography. Ocean pattern identification Currents Regional circulation patternsRegional circulation patterns Internal waves, Gravity waves Upwelling zones, Frontal zones.
  39. 39. SindhSindh Coast Resource MappingCoast Resource Mapping • Mangrove forest monitoring • Change detection • Hazard impacts • Aqua-culture zones Scope Benefits • Availability of updated information Satellite image Mangroves forest map • Availability of updated information on mangroves forest • Planning strategies for aforestation and deforestation trend • Timely Intervention in specific areas as and when needed
  40. 40. Disaster Management Monitoring and Mapping of Disaster Areas (Forest fire, Flood and Landslide), Landslide Hazard Zonation, Flood Damage Assessment, Forest fire. FLOOD DAMAGE ESTIMATION GIS helps to documents the need for federal disaster relief funds , can be utilized by insurance agencies to assist in assessinginsurance agencies to assist in assessing monetary value of property loss. A local government need to map flood areas for evaluate the flood potential level in the surrounding area. The damage can be well estimate and can be shown using digital maps.
  41. 41. LanduseLanduse // LandcoverLandcover MappingMapping • Monitoring dynamic changes • Urban/Rural infrastructure • Waterlogging & salinity Scope • Assessment of spatial distribution of land Benefits • Assessment of spatial distribution of land resources • Infrastructure monitoring • Availability of usable land • Future planning for better land management for socio-economic development
  42. 42. Water Potential Drinking Water Zones, Monitoring of Catchment and Reservoir Areas, Surface Water, Watershed Development. WATER RESOURCE MANAGEMENT WITH RS AND GIS Irrigated lands assessment and inventory, Calculation of water requirement of crops and subsequent water budgeting for command areas. Assessment of water availability in rivers in reservoirs for optimal management to meet irrigation demand. Based on empirical relations with surface area, shoreline length and value or based onBased on empirical relations with surface area, shoreline length and value or based on topographic features- Determine volume of water stored and change in the level with time
  43. 43. APPLICATION OF GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS) land use planning Forest cover planning vegetation Urban planning Transport planning BiodiversityBiodiversity Tourism planning Environmental planning Pollution control Flood damage estimation Surveying Soil mapping Irrigation water management Natural resource management
  44. 44. Deforestation Desertification Geologic Mapping Location Identification Regional Planning GIS for Land Administration GIS for Wildlife ManagementGIS for Wildlife Management Coastal Development and Management Volcanic Hazard Identification Forest fire Hazard Zone Mapping Environmental Impact Analysis Forest Mapping