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Syntactic structures

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Syntactic structures

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Syntactic structures

  1. 1. SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES Gliezel L. Cabaltican
  2. 2. This is the house. This is the house that Jack built. This is the hay that lies in the house that Jack built. This is the rat that lives under the hay that lies in the house that Jack built. <modification, coordination, complementation, subordination>
  3. 3. SYNTAX The part of the grammar that represents a speaker’s knowledge of sentences and their structure Syntactic Structure – WORD ORDER She has what a man wants. She wants what a man has.
  4. 4. WHAT GRAMMATICALITY IS BASED ON (a) The boy found the ball. (b) The boy found quickly. (c) The boy found in the house. (d) The boy found the ball in the house.
  5. 5. WHAT GRAMMATICALITY IS NOT BASED ON Colorless green ideas sleep furiously. A verb crumpled a milk. Furiously sleep ideas green colorless. Milk the crumpled verb a.
  6. 6. Sentences have hierarchical structures as well as word order. The words in the phrase synthetic buffalo hides can be grouped in two ways. synthetic buffalo hides synthetic buffalo hides
  7. 7. SENTENCE STRUCTURE The child found the puppy. The child found the puppy (subject) (predicate) The child found the puppy (subject) (verb) (direct object)
  8. 8. The child found the puppy. The child found the puppy The child found the puppy the puppy
  9. 9. PHRASAL CATEGORIES: THE INTERNAL STRUCTURE Phrasal categories: a group of words that have a canonical structure and form a constituent. Head: the word the phrase is built around, gives the phrase its name and usually contributes the principal meaning of the phrase [the greedy politician] NP
  10. 10. Specifier: word or phrase that marks a boundary for the phrase; typically functions to further reine the meaning of phrase. [this apple] NP Complement: phrases that follow the head and typically provide further information about the entities or location implied by head [take a picture] VP
  11. 11. NOUN PHRASE: [(Det) (Adjective) Noun] NPs: the wise man, fancy dinner, rain 1. The couple had a fancy dinner. 2. A fancy dinner is definitely expensive. 3. *[At fancy] many couples eat dinner. Use phrasal categories to account for the natural groupings.
  12. 12. VERB PHRASE: [(Qual) Verb (NP)] VPs: always visit(s), filled the cup, clean 1. Sheryl always visits her grandmother at the nursing home. 2. The queen filled the cup of the prime minister. 3. Please, clean your room.
  13. 13. ADJECTIVE PHRASE: [(Deg) Adjective (PP) APs: so pretty, too deep in thought, busy 1. Oscar is so pretty. 2. She is too deep in thought to notice. 3. The chairman is busy right now.
  14. 14. PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE: [(Deg) Preposition (NP)] PPs: so into your subject, beyond the sea 1. Gary is so into your subject. 2. My father lives beyond the sea.
  15. 15. STRUCTURE OF PREDICATION In structure of predication we are concerned with the properties or features of the verb which acts as the predicate and with the features of the noun which serves as the subject of the sentence. English verbs have seven distinctive properties: PERSON Common – present (verb base form) used with plural subjects and I and you Third singular – takes on the [verb+s] form (know- knows) used with singular subjects and he, she, it; this agreement in number subject and verb is called concord
  16. 16. TENSE Common – present (usually in the verb base form although it may be marked with –[s] morpheme depending on its agreement with the subject; past (takes on the past tense-marking bound morpheme (know-knew) PHASE Simple – the verb base form or the past tense Perfect – takes the various forms of [have + past participle] Resultative – made up of [he + past participle of intransitive verb]
  17. 17. ASPECT Simple – verb base – with or without the {-s} inflectional morpheme Durative – [verb to be + ing verb] Inchoative – [get + ing verb] MODAL modals (can, may, must…) which are followed by the verb base as well as the periphrastic modals (ought to, have to, used to) which are also followed by verb base VOICE Normal or active voice – made up of the verb base, its past, perfect or durative forms Passive voice – the get passive (get is used instead of the verb to be
  18. 18. STATUS Affirmative – have the subject coming before the verb Interrogative – the subject comes after the helping verb or the do form (this inverted form is generally used in questions) Negative – the negative marker not is placed between the helping verb and the main verb Negative interrogative – the auxiliary in the sentence initial position plus the negative marker coming before the main verb or attached to the auxiliary if the contraction of not is used
  19. 19. Subject – topic; usually a noun which also has distinctive features or properties NUMBER There must be agreement between the subject and the verb in number (concord) Singular or plural (boy-boys) Count or non-count (bottle-water) Concrete or abstract (tears-sorrow) Discrete or collective (members-committee) *some nouns are always singular such as mathematics, news, measles, politics, ethics, etc. *some nouns are always plural such as scissors, police, cattle which require a singular counter to make them singular (a pair of scissors)
  20. 20. Verb base – Common (are, were, have, do) We, you, they (I) Plural count nouns Plural concrete nouns Collective nouns (individuals) Nouns always plural Compound subjects Subjects joined by or Third Singular [Verb+s] (is, was, has, does) He, she, it Singular count nouns Abstract nouns/singular count nouns Collective nouns (group) Nouns always singular Subject joined by and referring to items as a unit Subjects joined by or
  21. 21. Verb base – Common (are, were, have, do) Relative pronoun subjects – depends on the referrent Indefinite pronouns - all, same, none – depends on referrentThere are/There is – depends on the noun that follows Nouns marked by the expression a number of Third Singular [Verb+s] (is, was, has, does) Relative pronoun subjects – depends on the referrent Indefinite pronouns – everybody, someone, everyone, etc.There are/There is – depends on the noun that follows Nouns marked by the expression the number of
  22. 22. GENDER Gender has nothing to do with predicate; rather, a knowledge of the gender of certain nouns is needed when it pertains to the pronouns used when referring to those nouns.
  23. 23. STRUCTURE OF MODIFICATION The structure of modification is made up of two components: a head or main word and a modifier which serves to qualify, broaden, specify or in some way affect the meaning of the head STATEMENT HEAD MODIFIER Angry men men Angry Young boy boy Young Boy in blue jeans boy In blue jeans Boy who is seated next to me boy Who is seated next to me
  24. 24. SINGLE WORD MODIFIER PHRASAL MODIFIER CLAUSE MODIFIER
  25. 25. In single word modifiers, some order of arrangement is involved •these four little ginger kittens [pronoun, number, size, color] •a cheap black plastic bag [article, cost, color, material] •the first three eager applicants [article, ordinal, cardinal, quality] •many hand-crafted wooden jewel cases [quantity, verbal adjective, nominalized adjective, material]
  26. 26. FUNCTION WORD articles quantifiers pronoun + LIMITING ADJECTIVES ordinal + cardinal number number + DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTVES size + color + shape + material verbal + nominalized adjective adjective In adjectival structure of modification the head is a noun and its modifiers are considered adjectives. W. Nelson Francis however, points out that any part of speech or form class may act as head and as modifier.
  27. 27. HEAD Modifier NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE ADVERB FUNCTION WORD Noun the dog DAYS a dog’s LIFE a dining TABLE LIVED a year SAW a mile stone COLD bone DRY a foot AWAY same way UP a mile OFF base Verb running WATER MONEY to burn CAME running CAME to scoff boiling HOT HARD to get Adjective the gloomy ROOM barbed WIRE a pleasing TABLE RAN wild FEEL flat icy COLD cold SOBER Adverb PEOPLE here EUROPE now DRIVES rapidly seldom SPEAKS wildly FAMOUS everywhere DARK unusually EAGERLY far AWAY exactly ON the mark soon AFTER dark Prepositional phrase a MAN above suspicion a PLACE in the sun CAME down the street LIVED in the country GOOD for nothing GREEN as grass OUTSIDE in the cold AWAY at school MORE than enough work ENOUGH for now Function word the BOOK MONEY enough very STRONG a lot STRONGER very EASILY much AHEAD very MUCH rather MORE
  28. 28. EXERCISE older used to walk sisters every morning my around the park briskly by themselves three in the past people young in their twenties nowadays jogging who are figure conscious often go whenever they can many
  29. 29. 1. In the past, my three older sisters used to walk briskly by themselves around the park every morning. 2. In the past, my three older sisters used to walk briskly by themselves every morning round the park 3. Every morning in the past, my three older sisters used to walk briskly by themselves around the park. 1. Nowadays, many young people in their twenties who are figure conscious often go jogging whenever they can. 2. Many young people in their twenties who are figure conscious often go jogging nowadays whenever they can.
  30. 30. STRUCTURE OF COMPLEMENTATION The structure of complementation refers to the different complements that linking and transitive predicate verbs may take to complete the comment that they make about the subject. 1.[Subject + Linking Verb + Subjective Complement]. 2.[Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object] 3.[Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object] 4.[Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object +
  31. 31. [Subject + Linking Verb + Subjective Complement] Today is her birthday. (noun) Today is all there is. (function word) Today is dark and gloomy. (adjective) Today is almost over. (adverb) Her plan today is to settle unfinished business. (verb{infinitive}) Today has been quite taxing. (verb{present participle}) Today will remain imprinted in our memory. (verb{past participle}) Today seems of little consequence. (prepositional phrase) Today can become whatever you want to be. (clause)
  32. 32. [Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object] He sees something. (single word indefinite pronoun) He sees the object. (single word – noun) He loves to open the presents. (infinitive verb phrase) He loves opening the presents. (gerund) He knows what I’m doing. (clause)
  33. 33. [Subject + Transitive Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object] The committee awarded him first prize. Grandfather left my mother an inheritance. [Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Object of Preposition] The committee awarded the first prize to him. Grandfather left an inheritance to my mother.
  34. 34. [Subject + Transitive Verb + Direct Object + Objective Complement] Everybody considers him very lucky. They named the dog Natalie.
  35. 35. WHAT ABOUT INTRANSITIVE VERBS?Intransitive verbs do not need an object to complete its meaning. It can stand by itself as predicate of the sentence. Those three types of verbs may be differentiated one from the other as follows: Intransitive verbs: Has neither complement nor passive Transitive verbs: Has both complement and passive Linking verbs: Has complement but no passive Since the intransitive verb requires no complement, then the sentence pattern would be:
  36. 36. EXERCISE. Identify the type of verb used (LV, TV, IV) and the syntactic structure of complementation in the following sentences: 1. He got sick. 2. I will get him some medicine. 3. The fish got away. 4. He doesn’t feel well. 5. I feel his pain, too. 6. I felt him move. 7. I will not stay there. 8. You should stay calm.
  37. 37. STRUCTURE OF COORDINATION This structure consists of two or more syntactically equivalent units by connectors to form a structure which acts as a single unit. 1.Coordinators - appear between elements that they join and so do the phrasal connectors although the latter may also occur in split constructions and, but, nor, not, or, phrases such as rather than, as well as, together with, and along with
  38. 38. 2. Correlatives – appear in two parts; the first part appears at the beginning of the structure whereas the second part comes between the last two components being joined. not (only), but (also), either…or, neither…nor and both…and
  39. 39. With coordinators as connectors Function words: over and above, in not out Adjectives: young but terrible Verbs: to stay put or to leave Nouns: books nor magazines With phrasal connectors Function words: up rather than down Adjectives: intelligent as well as good natured Nouns: good looks together with good breeding With correlatives Nouns: not only books but also magazines Clauses: Either you do this or
  40. 40. SYNTACTIC STRUCTURES January 31, 2015 Thank you for listening!

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