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  1. 1. Defensive Driving OBJECTIVES To know the hazards & danger involved in driving a vehicle and take necessary precautions to save lives, time and money.
  2. 2. Defensive Driving Vehicle Light Defensive Driving
  3. 3. Defensive Driving: ? It is the driving to save lives, time & money in- spite of the conditions around you and the actions of others. Conditions: Roads, weather, traffic, light etc. Actions of others: Violations, discourtesy, lack of knowledge of other Drivers etc. Defensive Driving
  4. 4. TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS: • Every 8th minute, there is 01 road casualty in India. • There are 11 accidents for every 1000 vehicles. • Every year out of 01 lacs unnatural deaths in India, nearly 68000 (more than 34%) are due to road accidents. • Mostly males, who are earning members in the family, die. Defensive Driving
  5. 5. SPOTS OF ACCIDENTS: Narrow Roads 385 15.26% Turns 414 16.38% Slopes & climbs 296 11.71% Straight Roads 1431 56.65% Defensive Driving
  6. 6. ACCIDENT BLACK SPOTS: • Uncontrolled junction • Bus stop • Gaps within Road Dividers • On street Parking places • Building access (while reversing) • Road Bend • National Highway Defensive Driving
  8. 8. STOP • Do not cause – stop next • Accidents need to be stopped • By whom ? • How ?  By defensive driving. Defensive Driving
  9. 9. Factors involved for causing road accidents • Light • Road • Weather • Vehicle • Traffic • Driver Defensive Driving
  10. 10. ORDER OF THE DAY • Jumping red lights • Violating traffic rules • Crushing an injury Defensive Driving
  11. 11. ROAD SPACE • Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata & International Standard; Delhi 25% of urban area Mumbai 12% of urban area Kolkata 6% of urban area International Standard 25% of urban area Defensive Driving
  12. 12. ROAD USERS IN INDIA Pedestrians: • No Footpath • No Zebra Crossing • They cross out of zebra crossing • Bus Stops not provided • Walk in groups • Creating fun on the road • They do not walk facing the incoming traffic Defensive Driving
  13. 13. ROAD USERS IN INDIA Animals: • Foster Animals (Dogs, Cats etc.) • Slow moving animals (Cow, Buffalo etc.) They are not visible at night. Defensive Driving
  14. 14. ROAD USERS IN INDIA Vehicles: • Major vehicles are old • Roughly handled • Poorly maintained Defensive Driving
  15. 15. DRIVER • Low education level • Inadequate training • Easily obtained License • Lack of knowledge of rules & regulations • Long working hours fatigue • Health fitness is poor Defensive Driving
  16. 16. DRIVER • Drinking habits • Emotional stress • Over confidence in driving • Seeing Ability: -Colour blindness -40% elderly drivers can not see road signs at night. -10 to 30 times more illumination level is required to see at night. Defensive Driving
  17. 17. DRIVER • Physical stress • Illumination • Knowledge and skill • Attitude Defensive Driving
  18. 18. Traffic Control Devices Promote Safety Types: • Traffic Signs • Road Markings • Traffic signals • Hand Signal Defensive Driving
  19. 19. ROAD MARKING • Central Line • Lane line • Double while lines • Stop lines Defensive Driving
  20. 20. Two way road Defensive Driving
  21. 21. Marking in the lane Slow Medium High Defensive Driving
  22. 22. Centre line Defensive Driving
  23. 23. Defensive Driving
  24. 24. Defensive Driving
  25. 25. Defensive Driving
  26. 26. Road Safety Signs Cautionary Informatory Defensive Driving
  27. 27. Road Safety Signs Mandatory Signs:- In accordance with the Motor Vehicles Act 1988, every driver of a motor vehicle shall drive the vehicle in conformity with any indication given by the mandatory signs. Defensive Driving
  28. 28. Road Safety Signs Cautionary Signs:- Cautionary signs are meant for cautioning the driver about the hazards lying ahead on the road. The driver should obey these for safety. Defensive Driving
  29. 29. Road Safety Signs Informatory Signs:- Informatory signs are erected on the road to provide information on direction, destination, roadside facilities, etc. to the road user. Defensive Driving
  30. 30. Road Safety Signs • Railway crossing sign board: 200 Meters & 100 Meters before the crossing. • For road sign boards: before 50 meters each. Defensive Driving
  31. 31. TRAFFIC SIGNALS Stop Ready Go Defensive Driving
  32. 32. TRAFFIC SIGNALS Stop Defensive Driving
  33. 33. Factors affecting driving skills • Fatigue (overworking hours) Stop when you feel tired/ sleepy, take rest, tea & arrange other driver to drive. • Medicine (calmpose, avil, benadryl) • Disturb mind • Distraction (pet, children at back seat, loud music, etc.) • Drunken driving Defensive Driving
  34. 34. Sign of Fatigue • Constant yawning • Driving across the lane • Eyes closing • Difficulties in keeping head up • Increase/ decrease of speed Defensive Driving
  35. 35. Mental Stress Defensive Driving
  36. 36. LOADING Defensive Driving
  37. 37. Overloading – a serious problem • Maximum permissible single axle loading is 10.2 T. For tandem axle it is 19 T. Majority vehicles are mostly two axle rigid vehicles. • Container revolution has added to the problem and 90% vehicles carry excess load. Defensive Driving
  38. 38. RESULT OF OVERLOADING • Damage to the Road • Stress on axle, steering, wheels, brakes & chesis • Physical stress to the driver causing fatigue Defensive Driving
  39. 39. TYRES & ROAD SAFETY • Tyres form a vital link between vehicle and road. • Safe journey depends largely on the fitness of tyres. Defensive Driving
  40. 40. Radial Radial Defensive Driving
  41. 41. Ordinary Ordinary Defensive Driving
  42. 42. Radial Ordinary Defensive Driving
  43. 43. ALCOHOL & DRIVING Effects of alcohol; • Promotes risk taking • Lower reflexes • Vision and hearing capacity diminishes • Reaction time increases • No control over controlling devices Defensive Driving
  44. 44. ALCOHOL & DRIVING Driving errors: • Fast & slow • Wrong lane • Running over the footpath • Not signaling • Quick & jerky start • Changing lanes frequently Defensive Driving
  45. 45. DRUGS Effects; discuss Defensive Driving
  46. 46. EMERGENCIES • Bursting of tyres • Accelerator sticks • Skidding • Brake failure • Bonnet flies up • Vehicle stalls • Running off the road • Fire Defensive Driving
  47. 47. BREAKDOWN • Inform convoy supervisor • Switch on warning lights • Keep vehicle away from movement of traffic • Display warning triangle • Apply hand brake • Convoy supervisor will inform to the control room • Control room will inform emergency breakdown control point. Defensive Driving
  48. 48. MECHANICAL FAILURE • Brake failure What to do? • Tyre burst What to do? • Sudden loss of acceleration What to do? • Bonnet flies up What to do? Defensive Driving
  49. 49. If vehicle lights go off • Keep the vehicle straight on the road, slowly • Take to the shoulder • Brake to stop • Park Defensive Driving
  50. 50. FIRE Disconnect the battery. Discuss, what to do? Defensive Driving
  51. 51. Responsibility in case of Accident Inform police; -if to man -if to animal -in case of Fire Defensive Driving
  52. 52. Accidents (what to do?) • Note the vehicle no. • Stop the vehicle • Switch on warning lights • Render first-aid to injured • Rush to the hospital • Inform police, irrespective who is at fault. • Get medically checked if you also have received injury or head hit. Defensive Driving
  53. 53. Accidents (what to do?) • Note the name of Driver, license no. Defensive Driving
  54. 54. PEDESTRIANS They walk on the roads and have risks. Safety hints for pedestrians; • Use footpath, keep away from the edge of the carriage way. • If no footpath, walk on the extreme edge on the road facing oncoming traffic. • Watch pot holes, fruit skins and other obstacles on the road. Defensive Driving
  55. 55. PEDESTRIANS • Never play on the road and footpath. • Use footwear to avoid injury from glass pieces, nails, etc. • At night/ dark cloudy weather, wear light colour clothes. • Never accept a ride from strangers. • While crossing the road, use the zebra crossing, if a zebra crossing is not available, choose a safe point where traffic is clearly visible on both the sides. Defensive Driving
  56. 56. PEDESTRIANS • Never cross a blind curve • Five steps for crossing a road; 1. Stop at the curve 2. Look to your right 3. Look to your left 4. Look to your right again 5. If the road is clear, walk straight across. Do not run. Defensive Driving
  57. 57. PEDESTRIANS • At an intersection, never try to cross diagonally. • Do not cross in between parked vehicles or run out from behind them. Defensive Driving
  58. 58. COLLISION WITH PEDESTRIANS • Common type of accident • Major injury/ death is sure • Causes; 1. Living in road sides 2. Many people walk on the road as if they are walking in the garden. 3. They move without making visible lights Defensive Driving
  59. 59. COLLISION WITH PEDESTRIANS Remedy; • Be alert • Blow horn • Slow down • Give them priority Defensive Driving
  60. 60. TYPES OF RAILWAY CROSSINGS • Manned • Unmanned • Indicators provided • Collision is common Defensive Driving
  61. 61. COLLISION • Electrical poles/ walls etc. • Many while reversing Defensive Driving
  62. 62. COLLISION WITH ANIMALS • Cows, buffalos, horses, cats, dogs, etc. REMEDY • Slow down • Their behaviour is unpredictable • Give them priority Defensive Driving
  63. 63. COLLISION WITH BICYCLE • It is a vehicle • Expected to follow traffic rules • Two wheelers are vulnerable to death Defensive Driving
  64. 64. Convoy at cross roads What to do? discuss Defensive Driving
  65. 65. Expecting collision with approaching vehicle • Stay left • Do not cross centre line. Defensive Driving
  66. 66. Collision with an oncoming vehicle Rule 1: Read the road ahead Rule 2: Drive to the left Never crowd the central line. Ride in the centre of a lane & give the centre line plenty of room. Make a habit of using the far left lane. Rule 3: Reduce speed Slow down, blow horn/ flash your lights to warn the erring driver. Continue slowing down and be prepare to stop until the hazard is gone. Defensive Driving
  67. 67. Rule 4: Ride on the left off the road If oncoming vehicle is still on your path, you have only one choice left, to right ride off the road on the left, either on the footpath or even to the ditch, if necessary. The negative fear of overturning should be avoided. Anything is better than a head-on-collision. Defensive Driving
  68. 68. VEHICLE BEHIND • You are equally responsible from a cross from behind a vehicle. • Keep watch through rear view mirror. • Indicate them by indicator or by hand. • Avoid sudden stop. • Allow the vehicle to pass/ don’t increase your speed. • If the vehicle does not pass, slow down. Defensive Driving
  69. 69. OVERTAKING • Most accidents happen while overtaking/ being overtaken. • You may have head on collision & a side sweep or run off the road. Defensive Driving
  70. 70. DO NOT OVERTAKE • On a marked NO OVERTAKING ZONE. • On curves • On hills • 100 meters before & at railway crossing or cross roads. • A vehicle, slowing down to give way to pedestrians Defensive Driving
  71. 71. Avoid following too closely • Reaction time: 3/4th of a second • Gap between the vehicles: keep one vehicle distance for every 10 kmph speed. Defensive Driving
  72. 72. Defensive Driving Good Habits • Observation; -Who, where, when & what to look for. • Communication • Coordination • Consideration Defensive Driving
  73. 73. DISCOURTESY • Excess speed • Reckless passing • Crossing the lane • Blocking the traffic • Excessive horn • Wrong signaling These are in your hand. Defensive Driving
  74. 74. COOPERATIVE DRIVING • Not blocking the intersection • Using signals while turning or changing the lane • Not following too closely • Smooth driving • Changing the lane correctly Defensive Driving
  75. 75. Keep your mind cool, Manage stress Defensive Driving
  76. 76. SCHEDULE DELAY • Plan your trip, this will reduce driving time. • Hurry leads to mistakes and accidents • Beware of bad weather, traffic conditions & route. Defensive Driving
  77. 77. ATTITUDE • Willing to admit mistakes • Tolerance towards the mistakes of others • Respect for the law • Respect for other road users • Courtesy Defensive Driving
  78. 78. EFFECT OF OVER SPEED • Impact is more Defensive Driving
  79. 79. DAILY INSPECTIONS: • Leakage of Oil, hydraulic oil & fuel • Oil, hydraulic oils & water levels • Lights & indicators • Horn • Reverse horn & lights • Wipers • Tyre pressure • Jack, wooden plate & spare parts Defensive Driving
  80. 80. DAILY INSPECTIONS: • Presence of safety equipments • Brakes • Tyres • Fire extinguishers • Rear view mirrors Defensive Driving