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Science ‐ Middle 1st Grade
St. George's College
How do things interact?
Middle 1st Grade ‐ Matter II
Name Oral Intervention Coin Chocolate Name Oral Intervention Coin Chocolate
Maria Fernanda Arianne
Alejandro Maria Gracia
Hettore Gonzalo N.
Anna Paula Gonzalo R.
Cristina Maria Claudia
• Calculate density of objects.
• Identify physical properties and describe physical changes.
• Describe how mixtures are made, and how to separate
• Identify different kinds of mixtures and solutions.
• Compare physical and chemical changes.
• Describe chemical reactions.
• Classify compounds as acids or bases.
• Explain how an indicator is used.
• Describe common uses of acids and bases.
Note: Most of the objectives will be covered in class,
however the student must be responsible for those objectives
not covered or concluded.
• Physical property: a property that describes a substance by itself, such as color, shape, density, or
• Mass: the amount of matter something has.
• Volume: the amount of space something takes up.
• Density: the amount of mass something has in relation to its volume.
• Physical change: a change that does not make a substance into a new substance.
• Mixture: a combination of two or more substances that keep their original properties.
• Solution: a mixture in which all of the substances are evenly distributed.
• Suspension: a mixture that contains particles that are large enough to be seen.
• Colloid: a mixture that contains particles that are too small to see.
• Chemical change: a change in which one or more new substances are formed.
• Chemical property: a property that involves the ability of a substance to react with other materials
and form new substances.
• Reactivity: the ability of a substance to go through a chemical change.
• Stability: the ability of a substance to resist going through a chemical change.
• Acid: a substance that turns blue litmus paper red.
• Base: a substance that turns red litmus paper blue.
• Indicator: a material that indicates whether a substance is an acid or a base.
• pH scale: a measure of the strength or weakness of acids and bases.
Note: Most of the vocabulary words will be covered in class,
however the student must be responsible for those words
not covered or concluded.
What are the
• Almost everything you see, touch, and smell is matter.
• Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. But, what is matter made of?
• How can you describe matter?
• You describe matter through its physical properties. A physical property is something that
describes a substance by itself and can be observed or measured without changing the
identity of the substance.
Mass, Volume and Density
• Mass is the amount of matter something has, and it doesn't
depend on where the thing is. It can be measured in grams or
• Volume is the amount of space something takes up. it can be
measured in liters or milliliters, pints, gallons, or cubic centimeters.
• Density is the amount of mass something has in relation to its
volume. Density is equal to mass divided by volume and might be
measured in grams per liter, grams per cubic centimeter, etc.
• Any substance will float on a liquid that has a higher density than
• When a substance undergoes a physical change, one or more of
its physical properties change, but it does not become a different, it
conserves its identity.
Dissolving, Melting, and Boiling
• The ability of a substance to dissolve is a physical property.. the
term for this property is solubility, a measure of how much of a
substance will dissolve in a liquid.
• Glass is a solid when it is cold. When you apply enough heat it
softens and becomes a liquid. This property is based on melting or
the change from solid to liquid.
• Boiling is the change from a liquid form to a gas form.
• A Mixture is a combination of two or more substances that keep
their original properties.
Mixture, or Not?
• If the materials in a mixture keep all their original properties, it
should be possible to separate them from the mixture.
• Some mixtures are easy to separate. And, remember, things in a
mixture keep their original properties.
How would you separate...?
Salt and Pepper Saltwater solution
• All solutions are mixtures, but not all mixtures are solutions.
• A Solution is a mixture in which all the substances are evenly
• A solution results when a solute dissolves in a solvent.
• In any solution, the substance that is dissolved is called the
solute, and the substance it's dissolved in is called the solvent.
• Many substances dissolve easily in water, others dissolve better
in other liquids.
• Some dissolve completely and some dissolve only a little.
• Solubility is the measure of how much of a substance will dissolve
in a given solvent. It is also a physical property.
Other types of Mixtures
• A suspension is a uniform mixture that contains particles that are
large enough to be seen.
• One kind of mixture that stays mixed is a colloid. A colloid is a
mixture that contains particles that are too small to see, so they
never settle to the bottom. Except for the size of its particles, a
colloid is exactly like a suspension.
• Another type of mixture is called an emulsion, which is a mixture
of two liquids that don't dissolve.
What are chemical
Chemical Properties and Changes
• When a substance goes through a physical change, the substance
itself is not changed.
• A chemical change is a change in which one or more new
substances are formed.
• One way to observe if a chemical reaction has happened is to
observe for new chemical properties. A chemical property is
something that describes the ability of a substance to react with
other materials and form new substances.
• Reactivity is the ability of a substance to go through a chemical
• The opposite of reactivity is stability. Stability is the ability of a
substance to resist going through a chemical change.
Types of Reactions
• There are millions of possible chemical reactions, but all of them
can fit onto one of four categories:
Synthesis means quot;putting togetherquot;. In a synthesis reaction, two or
more substances are put together to form a single substance.
Carbon + Oxygen Carbon dioxide
Decomposition means quot;breaking upquot;. In a decomposition reaction,
a single substance breaks up, forming two or more different
Water Hydrogen + Oxygen
Types of Reactions
Single Displacement Reaction
In a single displacement reaction, one substance replaces another.
Magnesium + Lead nitrate Lead + Magnesium nitrate
Double Displacement Reaction
In a double displacement reaction, two substances switch places.
Sodium chloride + Silver nitrate Sodium nitrate + Silver Chloride
Preventing Chemical Changes
• Heat can start or speed up a chemical reaction.
• The spoiling of food is a chemical reaction. Putting food into a
refrigerator slows this reaction, freezing it slows it even more.
That's why food stays better and longer in the freezer than in the
Acids and Bases
• An acid is a substance that turns blue indicator paper into red.
Acids are compounds that donates protons [H+] in solution.
• A base is a substance that turns red indicator paper into blue.
• An important property of acids and bases is that they react
together to form water and an additional substance, in a reaction
• Indicators are substances or objects that
indicate if a substance is an acid or a base.
• The pH scale is a measure of the strength
or weakness of acids and bases.
• the pH scale ranges from 0 to 14. Neutral
is right in the middle, at 7. That means it is
neither an acid nor a base.
• The pH of acids ranges from 7 to 0. the
lower pH value, the stronger the acid is.
• The pH of bases ranges from 7 to 14. the
higher the pH value, the stronger the base