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Asteroids
Lecture 7

Tuesday, November 12 2013

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
What is an asteroid?

Tuesday, November 12 2013

2

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Outline

•

•

Diversity among the asteroids
• The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics
• Asteroids fami...
At the beginning of our solar system

Tuesday, November 12 2013

4

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
At the beginning of our solar system

Discs around young stars in Orion
nebula (HST image)

Tuesday, November 12 2013

5

...
At the beginning of our solar system

Disc around the young star AU Mic
(Keck telescope)

Vertical structure

Accretion of...
From planetesimals to planetary embryos… and asteroids

Growth process for
planetary embryos

Tuesday, November 12 2013

7...
From planetesimals to planetary embryos… and asteroids

The small Mars problem
and the Grand Tack Scenario

Tuesday, Novem...
Detection of asteroids

Giuseppe Piazzi
(1746-1826)

Tuesday, November 12 2013

9

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Detection of asteroids

Tuesday, November 12 2013

10

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Detection of asteroids

Tuesday, November 12 2013

11

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Detection of asteroids

Tuesday, November 12 2013

12

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Outline

•

•

Diversity among the asteroids
• The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics
• Asteroids fami...
The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics

MGS
TES - 1996

MO
GRS - 2001

Gamma spectroscopy

MO
THEMIS -...
The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics

Planck’s law
relation between the temperature of a body and th...
The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics

Stefan’s law
Stefan’s law is the integration of Planck’s law f...
The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics
Wien’s law
For a given temperature, Wien’s law give the wavelen...
The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics
Black body spectrum

Tuesday, November 12 2013

Dr Harold Clene...
The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics

Tuesday, November 12 2013

19

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics

2 process producing absorptions

Tuesday, November 12 2013

Dr...
Asteroids families

Classification of asteroids based on
their spectral shape
Tuesday, November 12 2013

21

Dr Harold Cle...
Asteroids families

Tuesday, November 12 2013

22

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Asteroids families
Tholen classification
(source Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteroid_spectral_types)

253 Math...
Asteroids families

Carbonaceous chondrite
(enriched in C + O)
Asteroid from C-group

Links to meteorites

Mesosiderite an...
Asteroids families

Carbonaceous chondrite
(enriched in C + O)
Asteroid from C-group

Links to meteorites

Mesosiderite an...
Asteroids families

Tuesday, November 12 2013

26

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Some physical properties

25143 Itokawa
̴ 600 x 300 m

4 Vesta
̴ 500 km diameter

Tuesday, November 12 2013

27

Dr Harold...
Some physical properties

Tuesday, November 12 2013

28

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Some physical properties

Ida and its moon Dactyl

Tuesday, November 12 2013

29

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Outline

•

•

Diversity among the asteroids
• The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics
• Asteroids fami...
Asteroids as hazard

Mercury

The Moon

Tuesday, November 12 2013

31

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Asteroids as hazard

65 My ago, end of dinosaurs…

Gravity map
Tuesday, November 12 2013

32

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Asteroids as hazard

Tuesday, November 12 2013

33

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Asteroids as hazard

Tunguska (Siberia), 1908

Peekskill (New York), 1992

Tuesday, November 12 2013

34

Dr Harold Clenet...
Asteroids as hazard

The Tcheliabinsk event
Tuesday, November 12 2013

35

Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
Asteroids as hazard

Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs)
> 1400 as early 2013

Tuesday, November 12 2013

36

Dr Harold...
Asteroids as resources

Orion approaching robotic asteroid capture vehicle

Tuesday, November 12 2013

37

Dr Harold Clene...
Asteroids as resources

Phoebe

Orion approaching robotic asteroid capture vehicle

Tuesday, November 12 2013

38

Dr Haro...
Asteroids as resources

Economic factors

•
•
•

Resources (metal/water)
Costs of the mission
Timing

Orion approaching ro...
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Lecture EPFL Asteroids

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Publié le

Lecture 7 part 2 of the "Introduction to Planetary Science" course at EPFL/Swiss Space Center
Asteroids (where do they come from?, their diversity, relation with society)
http://moodle.epfl.ch/course/view.php?id=6281&lang=fr

Publié dans : Formation, Technologie
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Lecture EPFL Asteroids

  1. 1. Asteroids Lecture 7 Tuesday, November 12 2013 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  2. 2. What is an asteroid? Tuesday, November 12 2013 2 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  3. 3. Outline • • Diversity among the asteroids • The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics • Asteroids families • Some physical properties • Tuesday, November 12 2013 Where do the asteroids come from? • At the beginning of our Solar System • From planetesimals to planetary embryos… and asteroids • Detection of asteroids Asteroids and society • Asteroids as hazards • Asteroids as resources 3 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  4. 4. At the beginning of our solar system Tuesday, November 12 2013 4 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  5. 5. At the beginning of our solar system Discs around young stars in Orion nebula (HST image) Tuesday, November 12 2013 5 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  6. 6. At the beginning of our solar system Disc around the young star AU Mic (Keck telescope) Vertical structure Accretion of planetesimals Tuesday, November 12 2013 6 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  7. 7. From planetesimals to planetary embryos… and asteroids Growth process for planetary embryos Tuesday, November 12 2013 7 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  8. 8. From planetesimals to planetary embryos… and asteroids The small Mars problem and the Grand Tack Scenario Tuesday, November 12 2013 8 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  9. 9. Detection of asteroids Giuseppe Piazzi (1746-1826) Tuesday, November 12 2013 9 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  10. 10. Detection of asteroids Tuesday, November 12 2013 10 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  11. 11. Detection of asteroids Tuesday, November 12 2013 11 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  12. 12. Detection of asteroids Tuesday, November 12 2013 12 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  13. 13. Outline • • Diversity among the asteroids • The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics • Asteroids families • Some physical properties • Tuesday, November 12 2013 Where do the asteroids come from? • At the beginning of our Solar System • From planetesimals to planetary embryos… and asteroids • Detection of asteroids Asteroids and society • Asteroids as hazards • Asteroids as resources 13 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  14. 14. The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics MGS TES - 1996 MO GRS - 2001 Gamma spectroscopy MO THEMIS - 2001 MRO SHARAD - 2005 MEx MARSIS - 2003 Radar MGS MOC - 1996 Thermal infrared MEx HRSC - 2003 MEx OMEGA - 2003 MRO CTX & HiRISE - 2005 MRO CRISM - 2005 Visible optical imagery Visible – Near Infrared spectroscopy Tuesday, November 12 2013 14 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  15. 15. The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics Planck’s law relation between the temperature of a body and the energy flux 2 hV E ( ,T ) 2 hV 5 (e kT 1) h = 6.63 10-34 J.s - Planck’s constant K = 1.38 10-23 J/s - Boltzmann’s constant V = 3.00 108 m/s - light speed - wavelength T - black body temperature Tuesday, November 12 2013 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  16. 16. The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics Stefan’s law Stefan’s law is the integration of Planck’s law for at all the wavelengths E emis 2 hV 2 1 hV 5 0 ek Stefan’s constant : 5 , 67 . 10 8 Wm d 2 K T T 4 1 4 T=6000K, Fp=Fi=73.000.000 W.m-2 T=300K, Fp=Fi=459 W.m-2 Tuesday, November 12 2013 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  17. 17. The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics Wien’s law For a given temperature, Wien’s law give the wavelength where the enerfy flux is maximal m T Cst 3000 mK T=6000K, max at 0.6 µm (middle of the visible) T=300K, max at 10 µm (in the thermal infrared) Tuesday, November 12 2013 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  18. 18. The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics Black body spectrum Tuesday, November 12 2013 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  19. 19. The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics Tuesday, November 12 2013 19 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  20. 20. The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics 2 process producing absorptions Tuesday, November 12 2013 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  21. 21. Asteroids families Classification of asteroids based on their spectral shape Tuesday, November 12 2013 21 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  22. 22. Asteroids families Tuesday, November 12 2013 22 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  23. 23. Asteroids families Tholen classification (source Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asteroid_spectral_types) 253 Mathilde 433 Eros 21 Lutetia Tuesday, November 12 2013 23 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  24. 24. Asteroids families Carbonaceous chondrite (enriched in C + O) Asteroid from C-group Links to meteorites Mesosiderite and pallasite (silicates and iron) Asteroids from S-group Iron meteorites Asteroids from M-group Tuesday, November 12 2013 24 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  25. 25. Asteroids families Carbonaceous chondrite (enriched in C + O) Asteroid from C-group Links to meteorites Mesosiderite and pallasite (silicates and iron) Asteroids from S-group Iron meteorites Asteroids from M-group Tuesday, November 12 2013 25 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  26. 26. Asteroids families Tuesday, November 12 2013 26 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  27. 27. Some physical properties 25143 Itokawa ̴ 600 x 300 m 4 Vesta ̴ 500 km diameter Tuesday, November 12 2013 27 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  28. 28. Some physical properties Tuesday, November 12 2013 28 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  29. 29. Some physical properties Ida and its moon Dactyl Tuesday, November 12 2013 29 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  30. 30. Outline • • Diversity among the asteroids • The electromagnetic spectrum and asteroids characteristics • Asteroids families • Some physical properties • Tuesday, November 12 2013 Where do the asteroids come from? • At the beginning of our Solar System • From planetesimals to planetary embryos… and asteroids • Detection of asteroids Asteroids and society • Asteroids as hazards • Asteroids as resources 30 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  31. 31. Asteroids as hazard Mercury The Moon Tuesday, November 12 2013 31 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  32. 32. Asteroids as hazard 65 My ago, end of dinosaurs… Gravity map Tuesday, November 12 2013 32 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  33. 33. Asteroids as hazard Tuesday, November 12 2013 33 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  34. 34. Asteroids as hazard Tunguska (Siberia), 1908 Peekskill (New York), 1992 Tuesday, November 12 2013 34 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  35. 35. Asteroids as hazard The Tcheliabinsk event Tuesday, November 12 2013 35 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  36. 36. Asteroids as hazard Potentially Hazardous Asteroids (PHAs) > 1400 as early 2013 Tuesday, November 12 2013 36 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  37. 37. Asteroids as resources Orion approaching robotic asteroid capture vehicle Tuesday, November 12 2013 37 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  38. 38. Asteroids as resources Phoebe Orion approaching robotic asteroid capture vehicle Tuesday, November 12 2013 38 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL
  39. 39. Asteroids as resources Economic factors • • • Resources (metal/water) Costs of the mission Timing Orion approaching robotic asteroid capture vehicle YOU? Tuesday, November 12 2013 39 Dr Harold Clenet, EPSL, EPFL

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