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spring 2012   introduction
the course team

➝  Prof.Jeffrey Huang (responsible)
➝  teacher: Hendrik Knoche
➝  teaching assistants: Michal Fok, Oscar Bolanos
➝  guest lecturers – tba
course basics               

➝  6   credits
   ➝  2 h lecture
   ➝  4 h studio/lab
   ➝  6 h home based preparation
   ➝  no written exam
the course structure
➝  1  design brief
➝  4 design reviews
➝  13 interactive lectures/seminars
➝  13 studio sessions (attendance mandatory)
➝  1 sketch book
➝  reading assignments
➝  interactive exercises

  
all in English
assessment
the final grade is based on:
 the grades of four mandatory reviews "
     (submitted documentation and its presentation):
1.   results and design ideas from requirements capture (i)"
     through sketches, scenarios, storyboards and personas
2.   design idea presentation through first (lo-fi) prototype (i)
3.   interactive prototype / demonstrator on device (g)
4.   final presentation interactive prototype on device (g)"
     and
5.   participation in the class/studio (i) 
6.  sketch book (i)
7.   final short video (produced in week 14) (i)"
     ✱(i) = individual
    
✱(g) = group
assignment dates
➝  10th   Mar 
– Microsoft Imagine Cup summary"
              
 round 1 competition deadline 
➝  19th Mar   
– 1st review (rc results + ideas)
➝  2nd April  
– 2nd review (design solutions)
➝  30th April 
– 3rd review (prototype)
➝  21st May   
– final review
 
documentation for each review is due on the
   Sunday before the review at 12:00
 
✱ late submissions are subject to penalty
how is your design evaluated? 

by a panel of experts
Q: 
how do you assess concepts or designs?
A: 
Scott Jenson (former director of Symbian):
     
“First I ll be asking ‘what’s the value of
     
this? , that is ‘Will people really want
     
it? [… the] second is simplicity.” Jones & Marsden (2006)
 

 
 
“…being humble as these [designs] are
     
evaluated and seen to fall short, and to need
     
refining.” 
  
   
Jones & Marsden (2006)
what is this course?
Personal Interaction Studio focuses on
  ➝  mobile  devices as the platform (personal) 
  ➝  interaction design
  ➝  studio as the teaching format



  ➝  the  idea is to generate, communicate, evaluate,
     iterate and improve design ideas through synthesis
     by re-defining problem and the solution

  ➝  it   is NOT a programming course
resources
➝  all communication and further readings, links etc.
   will go through moodle 
➝  please enroll with the key: persint


➝  http://moodle.epfl.ch/course/view.php?id=6881
syllabus
1.    introduction
2.    data collection
3.    analysis
4.    design techniques
5.    mobile i/o
6.    screen design
7.    prototyping
8.    -14. guest lectures and seminar
relation to design process
➝  understand   brief
➝  research background – refine problem
➝  ideate candidates
➝  prototype solution(s)
➝  select solution
➝  implement delivery
➝  learn from feedback
example
➝  Don’t   forget your friends!
   ➝  “Can’t   do it today. But I’ll call you next time.”
things you will learn (about)
➝  brainstorming, ice breaking
➝  interviewing
➝  qualitative analysis
➝  sketching
➝  personas
➝  scenarios
➝  storyboarding
➝  elevator pitch
➝  lo-fi prototyping 
➝  hi-fi prototyping
➝  designing, critiquing, re-designing
➝  communicating your ideas – show and tell, posters,
   presentation "
topics addressed in this class
➝  design  thinking 
➝  interaction design
➝  user experience
design brief
People’s physical and mental health are one of the most
precious goods available to them.

Mobile phones have become a large collection platform for
sensor data either direct through e.g. GPS and
accelerometer or indirectly by providing sensor data from
other sources, which can be used to inform people’s
decision making and daily life.

Your task is to design an application that empowers people
to leverage sensed data for their well-being in terms of either:
- personal health, "
- environmental health or "
- social health.
imagine cup 2011
attention
➝  http://www.youtube.com/watch?
  v=vJG698U2Mvo
more details…
✱
attribution: parts of these slides are based on Angela Sasse
  and Sven Laqua s course on interaction design at UCL
why mobiles?




“The most profound technologies are those that disappear.” Mark Weiser
mobile life
what is design?
    
hard to grasp – industrial design, graphic design,
     software design, interface design, product design
     …

 
in interaction design (Fallman 2003) :
➝  scientific/eng. process (conservative)
➝  art form (romantic)
➝  ad-hoc activity (pragmatic, bricoleur)
 
none are adequate – design is unfolding "
   both problem and solution evolve through sketching
   (prototyping)
why design?
➝  post  WWII declining American manufacturing
   quality disillusioned purchasers who, after being
   attracted by external style, found products
   unsatisfactory in use
➝  American industry got decimated from 1960s on
   from imports from Japan and Germany where
   greater attention to production quality and a more
   holistic approach to design were the norm.
➝  key differentiator for products
➝  key skill in IT – differentiator for employees
why design digital products
➝  digital   products shortcomings:
   ➝  requirecomputer-centred thinking
   ➝  poor behaviour, rudeness



➝  reasons
   ➝  ignorance  about users
   ➝  conflicting interests
   ➝  lack of process
the design funnel



  concept                                                                  concept
generation                                                                 selected




 iterative   overall concepts   exploratory   clarification   resolution
 granularity          general       coarse        medium            fine
sketchbook
➝  jotdown and annotate ideas (no idea is bad)
➝  explore & refine
➝  develop variations, alternatives and details
➝  refer back, reflect
➝  record other good ideas you see 
➝  collection material (pictures, screen shots), tape
   them
what is interaction design (IxD)? 

➝  it's   about the design of behavior"
  http://designmind.frogdesign.com/blog/behaving-badly-in-vancouver.html

➝  designing          the mechanisms for interacting with a
   product (Cooper 2007)
➝  …designing interactive products to support
   people in their everyday and working life 
  
(Preece et al, 2002)
interaction design within a company
➝  management
➝  marketing
➝  engineering
➝  design   team

How to achieve buy-in for your ideas? How do you
   communicate your ideas to them? What’s the
   language – same as yours? 
Scott Jenson: 
  
“Design is about semantics and syntax. First you
   need to see what people do and want – the
   semantics and then you have to find a way to
   make that possible – the syntax.”
jobs - interaction design
responsibilities include: 
➝    lead interaction design (entire product lifecycle), tools and deliverables,
     including:
      ➝    persona development 
      ➝    use cases, user task flows
      ➝    user interface concepts and interaction models 
      ➝    annotated wireframes
      ➝    information architecture
      ➝    documentation of design concept in detailed UI specs 
➝    effectively communicate interaction models and design ideas to the
     team, leveraging above tools / documents
➝    identify appropriate user research techniques and metrics for gauging
     success
➝    guide product direction and set UI requirements based on user
     research, functional requirements, and business goals
➝    recommend concepts for testing and interpret consumer feedback /
     results
design philosophy
➝  centred   on human needs
   ➝  individualor group
   ➝  support goals and activities
   ➝  design technology to fit human needs and
     characteristics
➝  involve users whenever possible
➝  mix analytical, creative and pragmatic approaches
➝  pick from range of design tools
➝  use existing best practices but not uncritically
➝  monitor design process and reflect on it
what is UX?
 “User experience encompasses all aspects of the end-
 user's interaction with the company, its services, and its
 products. The first requirement for an exemplary user
 experience is to meet the exact needs of the customer,
 without fuss or bother. Next comes simplicity and elegance
 that produce products that are a joy to own, a joy to use.
 True user experience goes far beyond giving customers
 what they say they want, or providing checklist features. In
 order to achieve high-quality user experience in a
 company's offerings there must be a seamless merging of
 the services of multiple disciplines, including engineering,
 marketing, graphical and industrial design, and interface
 design.”
                                              Nielsen, Norman Group
user-centred
 “User experience and interface design in the context
 of creating software represents an approach that
 puts the user, rather than the system, at the center
 of the process. This philosophy, called user-
 centered design, incorporates user concerns and
 advocacy from the beginning of the design process
 and dictates the needs of the user should be
 foremost in any design decisions.”
                                              Microsoft
product centred
 “The user experience for Mac OS X applications
 encompasses the visual appearance, interactive
 behavior, and assistive capabilities of software. With
 the Aqua graphical user interface, Universal Access
 features, and user-assistive technologies like the
 Address Book framework, Apple Help, and
 VoiceOver, you can deliver the cohesive and
 professional user experience that Macintosh users
 have come to expect. It's easy to leverage the user
 experience technologies of Mac OS X to make great
 Macintosh software.”
                                                   Apple
bad UX
➝  “Technology    that does not work the way they
   expect makes people feel stupid.” 
➝  “if you intend to drive people away from your site,
   it’s hard to imagine a more effective approach
   than making them feel stupid.”
➝  JJ Garrett: Elements of User Experience
impact on users’ lives
➝  User: “… so I have all these files and documents, all over
   my desktop, different versions of documents in different
   folders, and documents I don’t need any more. I never get
   round to tidying up. I keep emails because I might need
   because of the address, or the content. But I never get
   round to putting them into the address book and deleting
   the mails, so they just pile up. My electronic workspace is
   a mess.”
➝  Q: How does that make you feel?
➝  User: [thinks] “It makes me feel that I am a bad person.”



     From Richard Boardman’s (2005) PhD thesis on 
     Improving Tool Support for Personal Information Management
user experience (UX)

                     industrial/graphic
                          design

                          form


        behaviour                  content
                               information architecture,
       interaction designer        animation etc.

                                                           Cooper 2006
lived experience
 any account of what is often
 called the user experience
 must take into consideration
 the ‘felt’ experience:
 emotional, intellectual, and
 sensual aspects of our
 interactions with technology.
 
 “We don't just use
 technology, we live with it.”
 


 John McCarthy, Peter Wright 2004: Technology as experience. 
 MIT Press
framework for design
                                             and interaction takes place in a
   has general & specific characteristics                   CONTEXT

                                            physical
                                            incl. other
    USER                           SYSTEM   technologies



                  interacts with

      to attain                             social

                                            cultural
        GOAL


                                            temporal
Garret’s planes of UX
➝  strategy  – what user wants to achieve
➝  scope – what functions and features are required
➝  structure – navigation – how are screens linked
   and grouped
➝  skeleton – placement of buttons, tabs, blocks of
   text, pictures
➝  surface – series of pages in high fidelity
Garret’s planes of UX
                                        concrete

        surface
                                                      “When designers make choices that
                                                      do not align with planes above and
                                                      below, you end up with a jumble of
                   skeleton
                                                      components that don’t fit.”
                                                      
                           structure




                                         scope

Garrett’s planes Of UXP

                                                  strategy
              abstract
levels of interaction

user’s/corporate goals
   output in the real world
   GOAL LEVEL

user’s knowledge 
        computer’s representation   TASK 
of task domain
           of task domain
             LEVEL



user’s knowledge 
        computer command            DIALOGUE
of language
              language
                   LEVEL




user’s hands, eyes
       computer keyboard,          INPUT/
                          display
                    OUTPUT
                                                      LEVEL
human structures
         Computer structures
personas
➝  represent user groups 
➝  system may be used by
   one or several personas
     ➝    different characteristics
     ➝    different goals
➝    e.g. buyers of a new car
     ➝  Jean-David (playboy): "
        go fast, impress women
     ➝  Aurelie (soccer mum): "
        fit in many kids, be safe
     ➝  Bob (the Builder): "
        haul big loads, be reliable
scenarios
➝  persona-based     scenarios "
   concise narrative description of how persona
   interacts with system to achieve goals
➝  context-based scenarios "
   how product can serve needs of persona, created
   before any design is done
➝  to key path scenarios – refined with design
➝  to validation scenarios – based on ❛what … if❜"
   focus on illustrate requirements (the what), "
   top-down decomposition to functionality (the how)
storyboards
scenarios vs. use cases
 ❝… scenarios are an interactive means of defining
 the behaviour of a product from the standpoint of
 specific users (personas). This includes not only the
 functionality of the system, but the priority of
 functions and the way those functions are
 expressed in terms of what the user sees and how
 she interacts with the system. 
 use cases, on the other hand, are based on
 exhaustive descriptions of the functional
 requirements of the system, often of a transactional
 nature, focussing on low-level user actions and
 accompanying system response.❞
 Cooper 2006
eliciting UX requirements
➝  in-depth qualitative data
➝  interviews
➝  in-depth analysis such as Grounded Theory and
   Discourse Analysis
➝  ethnographic methods
   ➝  mostly observational
   ➝  can be combined with surveys, interviews, qualitative
     studies
general reading
➝  recommended     books (available at EPF-BIB)
  ➝  Cooper,Reimann & Cronin (2007) "
    About Face 3, Wiley
  ➝  Jones& Marsden (2004) "
    Mobile Interaction Design, Wiley
  ➝  ScottMcCloud (1993)"
    Understanding Comics, Harper Perennial (on order)
  ➝  Schneiderman & Plaisant (2010) "
    Designing the User Interface. Addison-Wesley. 
  ➝  Preece, Rogers & Sharp (2002)"
    Interaction Design, Wiley
summary
➝  focus  on design approaches, methods and tools
➝  learning by doing
➝  interaction design is a relatively young and rapidly
   developing field
➝  interaction designers have to address new
   technologies and adapt their methods and tools
➝  collect artefacts: "
   paper, pictures, audio, video
practical part – design techniques
brainstorming
➝  group  size <10 – ideally between 5-7 + facilitator
➝  find and set up comfortable space
➝  appoint recorder - up-coming ideas on shared
   display, flip chart, whiteboard
➝  ice-breaking exercise – to familiarize members of
   groups
➝  define problem clearly
➝  goal: generate as many ideas as possible

    
adapted from www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html
brainstorming – how to
➝  address  what, how, when, where and why
➝  give people time on their own (5 minutes silence)
   at beginning then ask to share them
➝  encourage 
   ➝  todevelop ideas of others further or use as new seeds
   ➝  enthusiastic, fun, criticism OK
➝  includeeveryone to contribute (practical and
  impractical ideas) and develop
ice breaker
➝  effective    to start a training, team-building event
➝  goal:    
   ➝  get to know each other 
   ➝  get into the event
   ➝  become comfortable contributing to event
   ➝  establish level playing field
   ➝  create common sense of purpose

➝  ingredients:    ice, a breaker (method), a facilitator
ice breaker – when to use
if participants
➝  come from different backgrounds
➝  need to bond quickly to work on common project
   or goal
➝  are unfamiliar with topic at hand
➝  don t know the facilitator but should and vice
   versa
the ice
participants have 
   ➝  not  met before
   ➝  different age, status or levels in an organization
   ➝  different backgrounds – different perceptions of each
     other
choose method accordingly &
don t try to uncover the whole iceberg
ice breaker – methods (introductory)
everyone draws name, nationality, focus of study
and one human element, e.g.:
   ➝  one  little known fact about me
   ➝  true/false - three to four short statements – the group
     guesses which one is false, or
   ➝  pair interview – interview and then introduce partner to
     the group
   ➝  trading cards



➝  lo-fi   social network
assignments
➝  fill   in questionnaire

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PxS'12 - week 1 - Introduction

  • 1. spring 2012 introduction
  • 2. the course team ➝  Prof.Jeffrey Huang (responsible) ➝  teacher: Hendrik Knoche ➝  teaching assistants: Michal Fok, Oscar Bolanos ➝  guest lecturers – tba
  • 3. course basics ➝  6 credits ➝  2 h lecture ➝  4 h studio/lab ➝  6 h home based preparation ➝  no written exam
  • 4. the course structure ➝  1 design brief ➝  4 design reviews ➝  13 interactive lectures/seminars ➝  13 studio sessions (attendance mandatory) ➝  1 sketch book ➝  reading assignments ➝  interactive exercises all in English
  • 5. assessment the final grade is based on: the grades of four mandatory reviews " (submitted documentation and its presentation): 1.  results and design ideas from requirements capture (i)" through sketches, scenarios, storyboards and personas 2.  design idea presentation through first (lo-fi) prototype (i) 3.  interactive prototype / demonstrator on device (g) 4.  final presentation interactive prototype on device (g)" and 5.  participation in the class/studio (i) 6.  sketch book (i) 7.  final short video (produced in week 14) (i)" ✱(i) = individual ✱(g) = group
  • 6. assignment dates ➝  10th Mar – Microsoft Imagine Cup summary" round 1 competition deadline ➝  19th Mar – 1st review (rc results + ideas) ➝  2nd April – 2nd review (design solutions) ➝  30th April – 3rd review (prototype) ➝  21st May – final review documentation for each review is due on the Sunday before the review at 12:00 ✱ late submissions are subject to penalty
  • 7. how is your design evaluated? by a panel of experts Q: how do you assess concepts or designs? A: Scott Jenson (former director of Symbian): “First I ll be asking ‘what’s the value of this? , that is ‘Will people really want it? [… the] second is simplicity.” Jones & Marsden (2006) “…being humble as these [designs] are evaluated and seen to fall short, and to need refining.” Jones & Marsden (2006)
  • 8. what is this course? Personal Interaction Studio focuses on ➝  mobile devices as the platform (personal) ➝  interaction design ➝  studio as the teaching format ➝  the idea is to generate, communicate, evaluate, iterate and improve design ideas through synthesis by re-defining problem and the solution ➝  it is NOT a programming course
  • 9. resources ➝  all communication and further readings, links etc. will go through moodle ➝  please enroll with the key: persint ➝  http://moodle.epfl.ch/course/view.php?id=6881
  • 10. syllabus 1.  introduction 2.  data collection 3.  analysis 4.  design techniques 5.  mobile i/o 6.  screen design 7.  prototyping 8.  -14. guest lectures and seminar
  • 11. relation to design process ➝  understand brief ➝  research background – refine problem ➝  ideate candidates ➝  prototype solution(s) ➝  select solution ➝  implement delivery ➝  learn from feedback
  • 12. example ➝  Don’t forget your friends! ➝  “Can’t do it today. But I’ll call you next time.”
  • 13. things you will learn (about) ➝  brainstorming, ice breaking ➝  interviewing ➝  qualitative analysis ➝  sketching ➝  personas ➝  scenarios ➝  storyboarding ➝  elevator pitch ➝  lo-fi prototyping ➝  hi-fi prototyping ➝  designing, critiquing, re-designing ➝  communicating your ideas – show and tell, posters, presentation "
  • 14. topics addressed in this class ➝  design thinking ➝  interaction design ➝  user experience
  • 15. design brief People’s physical and mental health are one of the most precious goods available to them. Mobile phones have become a large collection platform for sensor data either direct through e.g. GPS and accelerometer or indirectly by providing sensor data from other sources, which can be used to inform people’s decision making and daily life. Your task is to design an application that empowers people to leverage sensed data for their well-being in terms of either: - personal health, " - environmental health or " - social health.
  • 18. more details… ✱ attribution: parts of these slides are based on Angela Sasse and Sven Laqua s course on interaction design at UCL
  • 19. why mobiles? “The most profound technologies are those that disappear.” Mark Weiser
  • 21. what is design? hard to grasp – industrial design, graphic design, software design, interface design, product design … in interaction design (Fallman 2003) : ➝  scientific/eng. process (conservative) ➝  art form (romantic) ➝  ad-hoc activity (pragmatic, bricoleur) none are adequate – design is unfolding " both problem and solution evolve through sketching (prototyping)
  • 22. why design? ➝  post WWII declining American manufacturing quality disillusioned purchasers who, after being attracted by external style, found products unsatisfactory in use ➝  American industry got decimated from 1960s on from imports from Japan and Germany where greater attention to production quality and a more holistic approach to design were the norm. ➝  key differentiator for products ➝  key skill in IT – differentiator for employees
  • 23. why design digital products ➝  digital products shortcomings: ➝  requirecomputer-centred thinking ➝  poor behaviour, rudeness ➝  reasons ➝  ignorance about users ➝  conflicting interests ➝  lack of process
  • 24. the design funnel concept concept generation selected iterative overall concepts exploratory clarification resolution granularity general coarse medium fine
  • 25. sketchbook ➝  jotdown and annotate ideas (no idea is bad) ➝  explore & refine ➝  develop variations, alternatives and details ➝  refer back, reflect ➝  record other good ideas you see ➝  collection material (pictures, screen shots), tape them
  • 26. what is interaction design (IxD)? ➝  it's about the design of behavior" http://designmind.frogdesign.com/blog/behaving-badly-in-vancouver.html ➝  designing the mechanisms for interacting with a product (Cooper 2007) ➝  …designing interactive products to support people in their everyday and working life (Preece et al, 2002)
  • 27. interaction design within a company ➝  management ➝  marketing ➝  engineering ➝  design team How to achieve buy-in for your ideas? How do you communicate your ideas to them? What’s the language – same as yours? Scott Jenson: “Design is about semantics and syntax. First you need to see what people do and want – the semantics and then you have to find a way to make that possible – the syntax.”
  • 28. jobs - interaction design responsibilities include: ➝  lead interaction design (entire product lifecycle), tools and deliverables, including: ➝  persona development ➝  use cases, user task flows ➝  user interface concepts and interaction models ➝  annotated wireframes ➝  information architecture ➝  documentation of design concept in detailed UI specs ➝  effectively communicate interaction models and design ideas to the team, leveraging above tools / documents ➝  identify appropriate user research techniques and metrics for gauging success ➝  guide product direction and set UI requirements based on user research, functional requirements, and business goals ➝  recommend concepts for testing and interpret consumer feedback / results
  • 29. design philosophy ➝  centred on human needs ➝  individualor group ➝  support goals and activities ➝  design technology to fit human needs and characteristics ➝  involve users whenever possible ➝  mix analytical, creative and pragmatic approaches ➝  pick from range of design tools ➝  use existing best practices but not uncritically ➝  monitor design process and reflect on it
  • 30. what is UX? “User experience encompasses all aspects of the end- user's interaction with the company, its services, and its products. The first requirement for an exemplary user experience is to meet the exact needs of the customer, without fuss or bother. Next comes simplicity and elegance that produce products that are a joy to own, a joy to use. True user experience goes far beyond giving customers what they say they want, or providing checklist features. In order to achieve high-quality user experience in a company's offerings there must be a seamless merging of the services of multiple disciplines, including engineering, marketing, graphical and industrial design, and interface design.” Nielsen, Norman Group
  • 31. user-centred “User experience and interface design in the context of creating software represents an approach that puts the user, rather than the system, at the center of the process. This philosophy, called user- centered design, incorporates user concerns and advocacy from the beginning of the design process and dictates the needs of the user should be foremost in any design decisions.” Microsoft
  • 32. product centred “The user experience for Mac OS X applications encompasses the visual appearance, interactive behavior, and assistive capabilities of software. With the Aqua graphical user interface, Universal Access features, and user-assistive technologies like the Address Book framework, Apple Help, and VoiceOver, you can deliver the cohesive and professional user experience that Macintosh users have come to expect. It's easy to leverage the user experience technologies of Mac OS X to make great Macintosh software.” Apple
  • 33. bad UX ➝  “Technology that does not work the way they expect makes people feel stupid.” ➝  “if you intend to drive people away from your site, it’s hard to imagine a more effective approach than making them feel stupid.” ➝  JJ Garrett: Elements of User Experience
  • 34. impact on users’ lives ➝  User: “… so I have all these files and documents, all over my desktop, different versions of documents in different folders, and documents I don’t need any more. I never get round to tidying up. I keep emails because I might need because of the address, or the content. But I never get round to putting them into the address book and deleting the mails, so they just pile up. My electronic workspace is a mess.” ➝  Q: How does that make you feel? ➝  User: [thinks] “It makes me feel that I am a bad person.” From Richard Boardman’s (2005) PhD thesis on Improving Tool Support for Personal Information Management
  • 35. user experience (UX) industrial/graphic design form behaviour content information architecture, interaction designer animation etc. Cooper 2006
  • 36. lived experience any account of what is often called the user experience must take into consideration the ‘felt’ experience: emotional, intellectual, and sensual aspects of our interactions with technology. “We don't just use technology, we live with it.” John McCarthy, Peter Wright 2004: Technology as experience. MIT Press
  • 37. framework for design and interaction takes place in a has general & specific characteristics CONTEXT physical incl. other USER SYSTEM technologies interacts with to attain social cultural GOAL temporal
  • 38. Garret’s planes of UX ➝  strategy – what user wants to achieve ➝  scope – what functions and features are required ➝  structure – navigation – how are screens linked and grouped ➝  skeleton – placement of buttons, tabs, blocks of text, pictures ➝  surface – series of pages in high fidelity
  • 39. Garret’s planes of UX concrete surface “When designers make choices that do not align with planes above and below, you end up with a jumble of skeleton components that don’t fit.” structure scope Garrett’s planes Of UXP strategy abstract
  • 40. levels of interaction user’s/corporate goals output in the real world GOAL LEVEL user’s knowledge computer’s representation TASK of task domain of task domain LEVEL user’s knowledge computer command DIALOGUE of language language LEVEL user’s hands, eyes computer keyboard, INPUT/ display OUTPUT LEVEL human structures Computer structures
  • 41. personas ➝  represent user groups ➝  system may be used by one or several personas ➝  different characteristics ➝  different goals ➝  e.g. buyers of a new car ➝  Jean-David (playboy): " go fast, impress women ➝  Aurelie (soccer mum): " fit in many kids, be safe ➝  Bob (the Builder): " haul big loads, be reliable
  • 42. scenarios ➝  persona-based scenarios " concise narrative description of how persona interacts with system to achieve goals ➝  context-based scenarios " how product can serve needs of persona, created before any design is done ➝  to key path scenarios – refined with design ➝  to validation scenarios – based on ❛what … if❜" focus on illustrate requirements (the what), " top-down decomposition to functionality (the how)
  • 44. scenarios vs. use cases ❝… scenarios are an interactive means of defining the behaviour of a product from the standpoint of specific users (personas). This includes not only the functionality of the system, but the priority of functions and the way those functions are expressed in terms of what the user sees and how she interacts with the system. use cases, on the other hand, are based on exhaustive descriptions of the functional requirements of the system, often of a transactional nature, focussing on low-level user actions and accompanying system response.❞ Cooper 2006
  • 45. eliciting UX requirements ➝  in-depth qualitative data ➝  interviews ➝  in-depth analysis such as Grounded Theory and Discourse Analysis ➝  ethnographic methods ➝  mostly observational ➝  can be combined with surveys, interviews, qualitative studies
  • 46. general reading ➝  recommended books (available at EPF-BIB) ➝  Cooper,Reimann & Cronin (2007) " About Face 3, Wiley ➝  Jones& Marsden (2004) " Mobile Interaction Design, Wiley ➝  ScottMcCloud (1993)" Understanding Comics, Harper Perennial (on order) ➝  Schneiderman & Plaisant (2010) " Designing the User Interface. Addison-Wesley. ➝  Preece, Rogers & Sharp (2002)" Interaction Design, Wiley
  • 47. summary ➝  focus on design approaches, methods and tools ➝  learning by doing ➝  interaction design is a relatively young and rapidly developing field ➝  interaction designers have to address new technologies and adapt their methods and tools ➝  collect artefacts: " paper, pictures, audio, video
  • 48. practical part – design techniques
  • 49. brainstorming ➝  group size <10 – ideally between 5-7 + facilitator ➝  find and set up comfortable space ➝  appoint recorder - up-coming ideas on shared display, flip chart, whiteboard ➝  ice-breaking exercise – to familiarize members of groups ➝  define problem clearly ➝  goal: generate as many ideas as possible adapted from www.mindtools.com/brainstm.html
  • 50. brainstorming – how to ➝  address what, how, when, where and why ➝  give people time on their own (5 minutes silence) at beginning then ask to share them ➝  encourage ➝  todevelop ideas of others further or use as new seeds ➝  enthusiastic, fun, criticism OK ➝  includeeveryone to contribute (practical and impractical ideas) and develop
  • 51. ice breaker ➝  effective to start a training, team-building event ➝  goal: ➝  get to know each other ➝  get into the event ➝  become comfortable contributing to event ➝  establish level playing field ➝  create common sense of purpose ➝  ingredients: ice, a breaker (method), a facilitator
  • 52. ice breaker – when to use if participants ➝  come from different backgrounds ➝  need to bond quickly to work on common project or goal ➝  are unfamiliar with topic at hand ➝  don t know the facilitator but should and vice versa
  • 53. the ice participants have ➝  not met before ➝  different age, status or levels in an organization ➝  different backgrounds – different perceptions of each other choose method accordingly & don t try to uncover the whole iceberg
  • 54. ice breaker – methods (introductory) everyone draws name, nationality, focus of study and one human element, e.g.: ➝  one little known fact about me ➝  true/false - three to four short statements – the group guesses which one is false, or ➝  pair interview – interview and then introduce partner to the group ➝  trading cards ➝  lo-fi social network
  • 55. assignments ➝  fill in questionnaire