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What is strategy by Michael Porter

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What is Strategy by Michael Porter

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What is strategy by Michael Porter

  1. 1. What is Strategy? Professor Michael E. Porter Harvard Business School Business Strategy Executive Education June 3, 2008 This presentation draws on ideas from Professor Porter’s books and articles, in particular, Competitive Strategy (The Free Press, 1980); Competitive p , p , p gy ( , ); p Advantage (The Free Press, 1985); “What is Strategy?” (Harvard Business Review, Nov/Dec 1996); “Strategy and the Internet” (Harvard Business Review, March 2001); and a forthcoming book. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means—electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise—without the permission of Michael E. Porter. Additional information may be found at the website of the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, www.isc.hbs.edu. Version: May 20, 2pm 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 1 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  2. 2. How Managers Think About Competition COMPETING TO BE THE BEST COMPETING TO BE UNIQUE • The worst error in strategy is to compete with rivals on the same dimensions 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 2 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  3. 3. Flawed Concepts of Strategy • Strategy as action – – – – – “Our strategy is to merge…” “… internationalize…” “… consolidate the industry…” y “… outsource…” “…double our R&D budget…” • Strategy as aspiration – – – – “Our strategy is to be #1 or #2…” “Our strategy is to grow…” “Our strategy is to be the world leader…” “Our strategy is to provide superior returns to our shareholders…” • St t Strategy as vision i i – “Our strategy is to best understand and satisfy our customers’ needs…” – “… provide superior products and services ” services… – “…to advance technology for mankind…” 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 3 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  4. 4. Setting the Right Goals • The fundamental goal of a company is superior long-term return on investment • Growth is good only if superiority in ROIC is achieved and sustained – ROIC threshold • Profitability must be measured realistically, capturing the actual profits on the full investment • Profitability metrics besides ROIC (e.g., return on sales; ebitda margin; pro-forma earnings; and cash flow margin) are risky for strategy • Prevalent accounting adjustments to reported profitability (e.g., writeoffs, restructuring charges) can obscure true economic performance and lead to bad competitive choices • Goodwill must be treated as part of investment • Setting unrealistic profitability or growth targets can undermine strategy 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 4 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  5. 5. Economic Performance versus Shareholder Value Economic Performance Shareholder Value • Sustained ROIC • Stock Price • S t i bl R Sustainable Revenue Growth • EPS • EPS Growth • Shareholder value is the result of creating real economic value • Pleasing today’s shareholders is not the goal 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 5 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  6. 6. Levels of Strategy Competitive or Business Strategy • How to compete in each distinct business or industry Group or Corporate Strategy • The company’s mix of businesses and the way that business unit strategies are integrated 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 6 Copyright 2008 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  7. 7. Economic Foundations of Competition • The fundamental unit of strategic analysis is the business or industry − Defining the relevant industry is important to strategy • Company economic performance results from two distinct causes Industry Structure Relative Position Within the Industry - Overall Rules of Competition - Sources of Competitive Advantage • Strategic thinking must encompass both 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 7 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  8. 8. Disaggregating Economic Performance: Industry vs. Position 35% 31.4% 30.8% 30% Return on Invested Capital 1992-2006 25% 25.4% 20% 15% 10% 9.6% 5% 0% Reebok International Paccar Industry Average Note: ‘Invested capital less excess cash’ is the average of the beginning period and the ending period values. Excess cash is calculated by subtracting cash in excess of 10% of annual revenue. Source: Compustat (2007), author’s analysis 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 8 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  9. 9. Determinants of Industry Profitability Threat of Substitute Products P d t or Services S i Bargaining Power of Suppliers Rivalry Among Existing Competitors Bargaining Power of Buyers y Threat of New Entrants 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 9 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  10. 10. Strategic Implications of Industry Structure Positioning to Mute the Five Forces Heavy Truck Industry Threat of Substitute Products or Services • Railroads • Water transportation Bargaining Power of Suppliers • Large independent suppliers of engines and drive train components Rivalry Among Existing g Competitors • Heavy price competition on standardized models Bargaining Power of Buyers y • Large fleets • Leasing companies • Small fleets and owner operators Threat of New Entrants • Many truck producers are assemblers 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 10 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  11. 11. Paccar Competitive Positioning • Focus on owner-operators • D i t k with special f t Design trucks ith i l features and amenities d iti • Customization and build-to-order • Achieve low truck operating costs • Offer extensive roadside assistance to truckers 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 11 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  12. 12. Determinants of Relative Performance Differentiation (Higher Price) Competitive Advantage Lower Cost 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 12 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  13. 13. Foundations of Economic Performance The Value Chain Firm Infrastructure (e.g. Financing, Planning, Investor Relations) Human Resource Management Support Activities (e.g. Recruiting, Training, Compensation System) ( R iti T i i C ti S t ) Technology Development (e.g. Product Design, Testing, Process Design, Material Research, Market Research) M (e.g. Components, Machinery, Advertising, (e g Components Machinery Advertising Services) Inbound Logistics Operations (e.g. (e g Incoming Material Storage, Data Collection, Service, Customer Access) ) (e.g. Assembly, (e g Assembly Component Fabrication, Branch Operations) Value a Procurement r g Outbound Logistics Marketing & Sales After-Sales Service (e.g. (e g Order Processing, Warehousing, Report Preparation) (e.g. (e g Sales Force, Promotion, Advertising, Proposal Writing, Web site) ) What buyers are willing to pay (e.g. Installation, (e g Installation Customer Support, Complaint Resolution, Repair) i n Primary Activities • Competing in a business involves performing a set of discrete activities, in which competitive advantage resides 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 13 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  14. 14. Defining the Value Chain Homebuilding Firm Infrastructure (e.g. Financing, Planning (e g Financing Planning, Investor Relations) Human Resource Management Support Activities (e.g. Recruiting, Training, Compensation System) Technology Development (e.g. Product Design, Testing, Process Design, Materials Research, Market Research) M (e.g. Materials, Subcontracted Labor, Advertising, Services) Land Acquisition q & Development (Identify attractive markets, Secure land, Procure entitlements and permits, Prepare site) Construction Value a Procurement Marketing g & Sales (Design, (Lead generation, Engineering, Model home Schedule and display, Sales manage force, Customer construction selection of process) personalized options) Closing (e.g. Customer Financing, Contract, Title, Closing) r g After-Sales Service i n What buyers are willing to pay (e.g. Warranties, Customer Complaints) Primary Activities • There can be different ways of configuring the value chain in the same industry 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 14 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  15. 15. Achieving Superior Performance Operational Effectiveness is Not Strategy Operational Effectiveness Strategic Positioning • Assimilating, attaining, and extending best practices • Run the same race faster 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt Creating a unique and sustainable competitive position Choose to run a different race 15 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  16. 16. Five Tests of a Good Strategy • A unique value proposition compared to other organizations • A different, tailored value chain • Clear tradeoffs, and choosing what not to do • Activities that fit together and reinforce each other • Strategic continuity with continual improvement in realizing the strategy 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 16 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  17. 17. Strategic Positioning Enterprise Rent-A-Car Distinctive Activities Value Proposition • Numerous, small, inexpensive offices in each • Home-city replacement cars for drivers whose cars are being repaired or who need an extra vehicle, at low rates (30% below airport rates) p ) metropolitan area, including on-premises offices at major accounts • Open during daylight hours • Deliver cars to customers’ homes or rental sites, or deliver customers to cars • Acquire new and older cars, favoring soon-to-be discontinued older models • Keep cars six months longer than other major rental companies • In-house reservations • Grassroots marketing with limited television • Cultivate strong relationships with auto dealerships, body shops, and insurance adjusters • Hire extroverted college graduates to encourage community interaction and customer service • Employ a highly sophisticated computer network to track the fleet 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 17 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  18. 18. Defining the Value Proposition What Customers? C ? • • Which Needs? N d ? • • • What end users? What h Wh t channels? l ? Which products? Which features? Whi h f t ? Which services? What Relative Price? • A novel value proposition can grow the pie/expand the industry 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 18 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  19. 19. Strategic Positioning IKEA, Sweden Distinctive Di ti ti Activities Value Proposition • • Young first time or price-sensitive buyers who Young, time, price sensitive want stylish, space efficient and scalable furniture and accessories at very low price points. • • • • • • • • • • 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 19 Modular, ready to assemble Modular ready-to-assemble, easy to package designs In-house design of all products Wide range of styles displayed in huge warehouse stores with large on-site inventories on site Self-selection Extensive customer information in the form of catalogs, explanatory ticketing, do-it-yourself videos, and assembly instructions y Ikea designer names attached to products to inform coordinated purchases Long hours of operation Suburban locations with large parking lots On-site, low-cost, restaurants Child care provided in the store Self-delivery by most customers Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  20. 20. Strategic Positioning Whole Foods Markets Distinctive Activities Value Proposition • • Natural fresh, organic and prepared foods and Natural, fresh organic, health items with excellent service at premium prices • • • Educated, middle class, and affluent customers passionate about food as a part of a healthy lifestyle • • • • • • • 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 20 Well-lit, Well lit inviting supermarket store formats with appealing displays and extensive prepared foods sections Produce section as “theater” Café-style seating areas with wireless internet y g for meetings and meals Each store carries local produce and has the authority to contract with the local farmers Information and education provided to shoppers along with products High touch in-store customer service via knowledgeable, non-unionized, highly motivated personnel Egalitarian compensation structure Own seafood procurement and processing facilities to control quality (and price) from the boat to the counter Donates 5% of profits to non profits non-profits Each store has “green projects,” directed by employees, to improve environmental performance Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  21. 21. Strategic Positioning BMW Value Proposition • S Superior-engineered, hi h performance, i i d high f sporty, customized automobiles at a premium price Distinctive Activities • “A ti driving” design philosophy “Active d i i ” d i hil h • Highly unique product and engine performance • Centralized engineering • Design department with high degree of autonomy to encourage creativity • Factories configured for customization • High craft labor input in production with selective automation • High vertical integration to achieve proprietary components • One global brand • Limited dealer system Non traditional, brand focused • Non-traditional, brand-focused marketing • BMW-sponsored race team Source: Draws on research conducted by Harvard Business School students M. Collardin, F. Cueto, J. Encinar, A. Gonzalez, A. Kulyk, and D. Smith, April 1997 21 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt
  22. 22. Making Strategic Tradeoffs • Tradeoffs occur when strategic positions are incompatible – The need for a choice Sources of Tradeoffs – Incompatible product / service features or attributes – Differences in the best configuration of activities in the value chain to deliver the chosen value proposition – Inconsistencies in image or reputation across positions – Limits on internal coordination, measurement, motivation, and control • Tradeoffs make a strategy sustainable against imitation by established rivals i l • A essential part of strategy is choosing what not t do An ti l t f t t i h i h t t to d 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 22 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  23. 23. Strategic Tradeoffs Neutrogena Soap (1990) • Forgo cleaning, skin softening, and deodorizing features • Choose higher costs through the configuration of: – packaging – manufacturing – detailing – medical advertising – skin research • Give up the ability to reach customers via: – promotions – television – some distribution channels 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 23 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  24. 24. Strategic Tradeoffs IKEA, Sweden Typical Furniture Retailer IKEA Product • Low-priced, modular, ready-to-assemble p , , y designs • No custom options Product • Higher p g priced, fully assembled p , y products • Customization of fabrics, colors, finishes, and sizes • Design driven by image, materials, varieties • Furniture design driven by cost, manufacturing simplicity, and style Value Chain • Centralized, in-house design of all products Value Chain • Source some or all lines from outside suppliers • Medium sized showrooms with limited portion of available models on display • Limited inventories / order with lead time • Extensive sales assistance • All styles on display in huge warehouse stores • Large on-site inventories • Limited sales help, but extensive customer help information • Long hours of operation 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt • Traditional retail hours 24 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  25. 25. Typical Thinking on the Sources of Competitive Advantage • “Key” Success Factors • “Core” Competencies • “Critical” Resources • Competitive advantage is seen as concentrated in a few parts of the g value chain 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 25 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  26. 26. Mutually Reinforcing Activities Zara Apparel Word-ofWord-ofmouth th marketing and repeat buying CuttingCuttingedge fashion at moderate price and quality Customers C t chic but costcostconscious Wide Wid range of styles Global team of trendspotters Majority of productio n in Europe Very frequent product changes Little media advertising Advanced Ad d productio n machiner y Extensive use of store sales data Prime store locations in high traffic areas JIT delivery Tight coordination with 20 wholly-owned factories Very flexible productio n system • Fit is leveraging what is different to be more different Source: Draws on research by Jorge Lopez Ramon (IESE) at the Institute for Strategy and Competitiveness, HBS 26 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  27. 27. IKEA Activity System Suburban locations with ample parking Instructions and support for customer assembly Ease of transport and assembly Self delivery and assembly by most customers Increased likelihood of follow-on purchase Modular, Modular scalable furniture designs ‘Knock-down’ kit packaging 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt High traffic g store layout Limited Sales Staffing Explanatory catalogs, informative displays and labels Selfselection by customer More impulse buying Ample inventory on site Complete line of furniture and accessories to furnish home In-house design focused on cost of manufacturing High variety, but ease of manufacturing 27 Designer identification of compatible lines Year-round stocking to even out production Low manufacturing cost 100 percent t sourcing from long-term suppliers Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  28. 28. Strategic Continuity • Continuity of strategy is fundamental to sustainable competitive advantage – – – – e.g., allowing the organization to understand the strategy building truly unique skills and assets related to the strategy g y gy establishing a clear identity with customers, channels, and other outside entities strengthening fit across the value chain • R i Reinvention and f ti d frequent shifts in direction are costly and confuse the t hift i di ti tl d f th customer, the industry, and the organization • Maintain continuity in the value proposition • Continuously improve ways to realize the value proposition – Strategic continuity and continuous change should occur simultaneously. They are not inconsistent • Continuity of strategy allows learning and change to be faster and more effective 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 28 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  29. 29. Barriers to Strategy Flawed Management Concepts • Misunderstanding of strategy itself • Poor industry definition Industry Convergence Pressures y g • Industry conventional wisdom leads all companies to follow common practices • Labor agreements limit ways of configuring activities • Regulation constrains price, product, service or process alternatives • Customers ask for incompatible features or request new products or services that do not fit the strategy 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 29 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  30. 30. Barriers to Strategy Internal Practices • Inappropriate goals and performance metrics bias strategy choices – Size over profitability – Short time horizon • Rapid turnover of leadership undermines strategic direction to achieve short-term performance benefits • A desire for consensus blurs strategic tradeoffs • Inappropriate cost allocation leads to too many products, services, or customers • Outsourcing makes activities homogenous and less distinctive 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 30 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  31. 31. Barriers to Strategy Capital Market Biases • Strong pressure for short-term “surprises” in earnings or revenue • Strong pressure to grow faster than the industry y y g • Industry-wide analyst metrics are misaligned with true value and drive strategic convergence • Strong pressures to emulate currently “successful” peers • A strong bias for “doing deals” (M&A) • Over-weighting of equity-based management compensation Over weighting equity based amplifies such unhealthy pressures 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 31 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  32. 32. Defining the Relevant Industry Foodservice Distribution Broadline Distribution Systems Distribution • Customers are independent restaurants and institutions • Customers are national chains • The product line consists of well over 10,000 SKUs • The product line consists of several hundred SKUs • Sales and service activities are carried out by local sales reps • Customer relationships and services are specified by national contracts • Value-added services, credit terms, and distributors’ private-label products are valued and allow support product/service differentiation • Price is the key basis for selection; customers do not purchase valueadded services or private-label p products • Logistical activities are heavily local in nature (local warehouses and trucks) • A national distribution and warehousing network is required • Tools for industry definition: the 5 Forces and the Value Chain 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 32 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  33. 33. Finding a Unique Strategic Position Segmenting the Industry (not just the Market) • Creatively segmenting product varieties, customer groups, a d a e es, cus o e g oups, and purchase occasions Exploiting Tradeoffs • Identifying tradeoffs in the value proposition or in the value chain Leveraging Unique Activities g g q Capitalizing on Industry Dynamics p g y y • Building off activities with true • Identifying strategic positions opened uniqueness up by industry structural changes • Looking for new activity configurations and combinations • Migrate toward the chosen strategic position • Focus incremental investments on reinforcing the chosen strategy 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 33 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  34. 34. Segmentation and Strategic Positioning Automobile Insurance Progressive Geico Customer Group • High-risk drivers shunned by standard automobile insurers Customer Group • “Preferred”, lowest risk drivers Set of Activities • Distribution primarily through independent agents • Sales force that educates independent agents in complex information gathering techniques • 30-year database on high-risk drivers • Complex rating scheme • 14,000 different prices • 50-300% premium pricing over standard segment • Adjusters work from offices on wheels to provide immediate response. Adj t i di t Adjusters t i d and trained d empowered to write out check at scene of accident • Steep incentives to make a 4% underwriting profit • Conservative, liquid investment portfolio Set of Activities • Direct customer interaction through direct mail, telephone, and the Internet • Sophisticated direct mail targeting low risk households • 35+ year database and modeling utilities on preferred drivers • Complex rating and pricing system • Heavy advertising to drive requests for rate quotes (“I’ve got good news.”) • Quote rates to only 50% of customers who inquire about coverage • 15-20% lower prices than competition • Network of insurance adjusters with cell phones working out of own vehicles for immediate response • 24-hour customer service to handle sales, policy inquires, and claims • Conservative, liquid investment portfolio 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 34 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  35. 35. Growing Strategically 1. Make the strategy even more distinctive − Introduce new technologies features products or services that are tailored to technologies, features, the strategy and which leverage other distinctive activities within the value chain 2. Deepen the strategic position (rather than broaden it) – Raise the penetration of chosen customers / needs 3. Expand geographically to tap new regions or countries using the same positioning – Aggressively reposition foreign acquisitions around the company’s strategy 4. Expand the market for what the company can uniquely deliver – Find other customers and segments that value the strategy • • • • It is an illusion that growth (and especially profitability) are easier to achieve in untapped or growth segments It is difficult, and often dangerous, to try to grow faster than the underlying market for an extended period. Industry leaders should concentrate as much, or more, on growing the category as on growing share In many cases, shareholders are best served by earning a high return and returning capital, especially via dividends 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 35 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  36. 36. Strategy What is Not a Strategy? What Is a Strategy? • A unique value proposition compared to other organizations p g • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • A different, tailored value chain • Clear tradeoffs, and choosing what not to do • Activities that fit together and reinforce each other • Strategic continuity with continual improvement in realizing the strategy 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 36 Best practice improvement Execution Aspirations A vision Learning Agility Flexibility Innovation The Internet (or any technology) Downsizing Restructuring Mergers / Consolidation Alliances / Partnering Outsourcing Internationalizing Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter
  37. 37. The Role of Leaders in Strategy • Drive operational improvement but clearly distinguish it from strategy • Lead the process of choosing the company’s unique position – The CEO is the chief strategist – Th choice of strategy cannot b entirely d The h i f be i l democratic i • Communicate the strategy relentlessly to all constituencies – Harness the moral purpose of strategy • Maintain discipline around the strategy, in the face of many distractions. • Decide which industry changes, technologies, and customer needs to respond to and how the response can be tailored to the company s strategy to, company’s • Measure progress against the strategy using tailored metrics that capture the implications of the strategy for serving customers and performing particular activities • Sell the company’s strategy and how to evaluate progress against the strategy to the financial markets • Commitment to strategy is tested every day 20080603 – SBSCA (strategy Exec Ed).ppt 37 Copyright 2007 © Professor Michael E. Porter