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Resilience tech

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Dr. Steve Cole discusses resilience technology: how can we measure resilience and change 'threat psychology'?

Publié dans : Santé & Médecine
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Resilience tech

  1. 1. Kids
  2. 2. Adversity chaos ecological threat social interactions World view Social theory trust/safety vigilance defense SNS HPA biological defense responses • neural remodeling • inflammation & impaired antiviral resp. • niche selection (smoke, alcohol, activity) Disease How do we measure? How do we change?
  3. 3. connection purpose control
  4. 4. 3 questions of recent interest: How powerful is psychological resilience in biological health? How can we measure “threat” and “resilience”? How can we change them?
  5. 5. 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Civilian ChildSoldier CPSS Low MedLow Average MedHigh High Resilience CTRAgeneexpression (proinflam–interferon–antibody) Nepali former child soldiers Nepal child soldier study PI: Dr. Brandon Kohrt N = 254 blood sampled in 2013, at age 15-26 yrs, 46% female 7 years out from war’s end in 2006 52% former child soldier (1/4 combat exposure), 48% civilian child control 11% significant post-traumatic stress symptoms
  6. 6. Lonely Integrated How not to live
  7. 7. How should we live? How often do you feel happy? How often do you feel satisfied? Keyes MHC-SF - Hedonic Life has direction and meaning? Grow and become a better person? Keyes MHC-SF – Eudaimonic Fredrickson et al., PNAS, 2013
  8. 8. FOS FOSB FOSL1 FOSL2 JUN JUNB JUND NFKB1 NFKB2 REL RELA RELB Eudaimonic Hedonic IL1A IL1B IL6 IL8 TNF PTGS1 PTGS2 IGJ IGLL1 IGLL3 GBP1 IFI16 IFI27 IFI27L1 IFI27L2 IFI30 IFI35 IFI44 IFI44L IFI6 IFIH1 IFIT1 IFIT1L IFIT2 IFIT3 IFIT5 IFITM1 IFITM2 IFITM3 IFITM4P IFITM5 IFNB1 IRF8 IRF2 IRF7 MX1 MX2 OAS1 OAS2 OAS3 OASL Favorable Adverse Fredrickson et al., PNAS, 2013
  9. 9. 3 questions of recent interest: Does psychological resilience really matter for biological health? How can we measure the “threat psychology” that drives effects of adversity?
  10. 10. Just listen better… Don’t ask. Ignore the content. Pay attention to the style.
  11. 11. 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Demog+BMI+Smoke PsychScales EARMeta FunctionWords PersonalPronouns OtherFunctionWords Predictivepowerforgeneexpression (Fratio) Natural language markers of “threat/safety” gene expression Emory CALM study PIs: Dr. Charles Raison, Tad Pace, Matthias Mehl N = 144, blood sampled in 2012, age 25-56 yrs, 66% female Mostly Emory University staff EAR data from 1-week baseline period of a subsequent RCT of mindfulness vs compassion meditation * * * * * *
  12. 12. 3 questions of recent interest: Does psychological resilience really matter for biological health? How can we measure the “threat psychology” that drives effects of adversity? How can we change threat psychology?
  13. 13. Cultivating positive leukocytes Cognitive-behavioral Antoni et al. (2012) Biological Psychiatry 71:366–372 Mindfulness Creswell et al. (2012) Brain, Behavior, & Immunity 26:1095-1101 Relaxation response / mindfulness Bhasin et al. (2013) PLoS ONE, 8:e62817 Yogic meditation Qu et al. (2013) PLoS ONE, 8:e61910 Black et al. (2013) Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38:348-55 Yoga Bower et al. (2014) Psychoneuroendocrinology, 43:20-29 Tai Chi Irwin et al. (2014) Journal of the National Cancer Institute, in press.
  14. 14. What if you can’t stand… medication? Or meditation? Maybe try just being nice!
  15. 15. Goetz et al., Psychological Bulletin, 2010 Porges, Psychophysiology, 1995 Porges, Int J Psychophys, 2001
  16. 16. Adversity Chaos Ecological threat Social hx/intx trust/safety vigilance defense SNS HPA Biological defense responses • neural remodeling • inflammation / GCR • niche selection (smoke, alc, activity) Disease Purpose Connection Control Technology
  17. 17. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology
  18. 18. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology
  19. 19. As described in Decisive (2013), by Chip Heath & Dan Heath
  20. 20. As described in Decisive (2013), by Chip Heath & Dan Heath
  21. 21. As described in Decisive (2013), by Chip Heath & Dan Heath
  22. 22. As described in Decisive (2013), by Chip Heath & Dan Heath
  23. 23. Download from the App Store: Mood Meter—Building your emotional intelligence
  24. 24. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology
  25. 25. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp
  26. 26. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp
  27. 27. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp
  28. 28. Attentional path to Eudaimonia: direct attention away from the self, and outward, toward others and the world around us. How can we increase eudaimonic well-being? The happiness that comes from having a sense of purpose and meaning in life…. “Attention is the rarest and purest form of generosity.” ~Simone Weil
  29. 29. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp
  30. 30. sector eval: apps benchmarking study new metrics: biomarkers/genomics state analytics - natural language - big data 2. selection: evaluation infrastructure 1. mutation: tech development infrastructure Accelerating the evolution of resilience technology websystems: UCB Greater Good in Action mobile apps: RULER Mood Meter videogames: Re-Mission 2 SMS text: Text2Connect wearables: Zamzee 2G & mApp
  31. 31. Apps benchmarking study 2014 Assessed for Eligibilty Randomized > 18 years old English fluent Own iPhone, iOS ≥ 6.0 App-1 Live Happy [happiness] n=20 App-2 Happier [happiness] n=20 App-3 GPS-4-Soul [mindfulness] n=20 App-4 Calm [mindfulness] n=20 App-4 Weird Facts [control] n=20 Day 42 Survey, T3 Baseline Mid-Study Assessments End Study Informed Consent Day 0 Survey, T0 Dispense App Day 10 Survey, T1 Day 20 Survey, T2
  32. 32. -0.30 -0.20 -0.10 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 BMI Stress Depression Anxiety Loneliness Talking WordCount Words/Sen Alone Phone TV RadioMusic Deepconv i we you shehe they ipron article preps auxverb negate conj adverb CTRAgeneexpression (proinflam–interferon–antibody) Natural language markers of “threat/safety” gene expression Emory CALM study PIs: Dr. Charles Raison, Tad Pace, Matthias Mehl N = 144, blood sampled in 2012, age 25-56 yrs, 66% female Mostly Emory University staff EAR data from 1-week baseline period of a subsequent RCT of mindfulness vs compassion meditation EAR Meta Function wordsEAR Code * * * * * * * * ** *
  33. 33. Resilience scale – culturally adapted for Nepal 1. I am able to depend on myself more than anyone else 2. I can be on my own if I have to 3. I usually take things in stride 4. I feel that I can handle many things at a time 5. I am determined 6. I can usually find something to laugh about 7. My belief in myself gets me through hard times 8. I have enough energy to do what I have to do 9. I am resilient
  34. 34. -0.5 -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 Control Mindfulness Compassion Control Mindfulness Compassion Emory CALM study PIs: Dr. Charles Raison, Tad Pace, Matthias Mehl N = 119, genes = 41 blood sampled in 2012, age 25-55 yrs, 68% female Mostly Emory University staff * * ChangeinCTRAgeneexpression (proinflam–interferon–antibody) UNC SOBC2 study PI: Dr. Barbara Fredrickson N = 91, genes = 52 blood sampled in 2013-2014, age 35-67 yrs, 73% female Chapel Hill adults, UNC staff Effect of meditation on CTRA gene expression
  35. 35. Summary A mobile app that allows users to collect and share happy moments with people they care about. Users share moments and things in their lives that make them happier and can record 3 positive things a day that make them happy. How does is work? The application lets you choose from several different happiness promoting activities or by taking a quiz will suggest the best ones for you. The app provides information as to why and how the particular activity promotes happiness and about the different personality traits. App-1 [happiness] Live Happy Examples of Activities
  36. 36. App-2 [happiness] Happier Summary A mobile happiness boosting program that provides user’s with insight on their personality traits and provides exercises to boost gratitude, optimism and social connections. How does is work? A user posts something, with our with a photo, that made them happy, such as a yummy taco or a visit with a friend. A user can push out the post to Facebook or Twitter and tag friends who are also members of the Happier community. Posts from other users can be browsed and commented on or liked.
  37. 37. App-3 [mindfulness] GPS for the Soul Summary A mobile mindfulness boosting program that gives sensor feedback on current physical state (stressed or calm) and provides guides for shifting your state through reflection or meditation. How does is work? A user can opt to go straight to one of the many provided guides or first measure their current state before starting a guide. The phone’s camera is used as a photoplethysmograph and a user is told if they are stressed or calm. A user can also create a custom guide with their own music, photos and quotes or use a custom guide created and shared by another user.
  38. 38. App-4 [mindfulness] Calm Summary A mobile app for meditation with images and sounds of nature. How does is work? The user choses a nature image to serve as the background. Each image has the natural associated sounds, such as rain, waves or a breeze blowing through a field. The user can then customize the length of the mediation session and if they want to activate the sleep mode. A user can also opt for a guided meditation that focus on breath or posture.
  39. 39. App-5 [control condition] Weird Facts Summary A mobile app that serves up one of 1000 an odd fact each time you open it. How does is work? When you open the app a random fact is on the screen. A user can opt to scroll through the pages of 1000 facts or can close the app and be served up a different fact next time they open the app. That is all it does.
  40. 40. Attentional path to Eudaimonia: direct attention away from the self, and outward, toward others and the world around us. How can we increase eudaimonic well-being? The happiness that comes from having a sense of purpose and meaning in life…. “Attention is the rarest and purest form of generosity.” ~Simone Weil
  41. 41. Attentional path to Eudaimonia: direct attention away from the self, and outward, toward others and the world around us. Tomorrow, you are to perform three nice things for others, all three in one day. Tomorrow, you are to perform three nice things to improve the world, all three in one day. Tomorrow, you are to perform three nice things for yourself, all three in one day. Tomorrow, as you go about your day, please keep track of your activities. Do not alter your routine in any way; simply keep track of what you do. How can we increase eudaimonic well-being? The happiness that comes from having a sense of purpose and meaning in life….
  42. 42. Psychology Department Subject Pool (n = 152) Amazon Mechanical Turk (n = 154) Community (n = 154) Others (n = 120) World (n = 118) Self (n = 118) Control (n = 116) Positive emotions Eudaimonic well-being Social well-being
  43. 43. 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 5.0 Week 1 Week 5 Week 7 FlourishPWB World Other Self Control Eudaimonic well-being
  44. 44. Attention as a key resource for resilience #2 Direct attention toward others, to support empathy, compassion, connection and the good personal health that comes from eudaimonic well-being. Next step: Gene expression profiling blood in UC Riverside random acts of kindness study. Next step: EAR language markers of PCC. Next step: mTech attentional interventions. (S. Konrath, E. Falk, L. Weiss)
  45. 45. Natural language markers of “threat/safety” gene expression 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 Demog+BMI+Smoke PsychScales EARMeta FunctionWords PersonalPronouns OtherFunctionWords Predictivepowerforgeneexpression (Fratio) Emory CALM study PIs: Dr. Charles Raison, Tad Pace, Matthias Mehl N = 144, blood sampled in 2012, age 25-56 yrs, 66% female Mostly Emory University staff EAR data from 1-week baseline period * * * * * *
  46. 46. Mehl language threat marker results Good CTRA: • more “they” less “we” and “I” • Also: more conjunctions, less articles & adverbs • Also: more DeepConvo, less TV; more talking, more alone • New non-conscious objective metrics for impact. • Language is the primary medium of community. • And it is the primary interface to individual psychology. As long as we don’t get too self-conscious about it. Which is exactly what happens in questionnaires.

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