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Ijaret 06 10_019

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Ijaret 06 10_019

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Ijaret 06 10_019

  1. 1. http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 127 editor@iaeme.com International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET) Volume 6, Issue 10, Oct 2015, pp. 127-130, Article ID: IJARET_06_10_019 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=6&IType=10 ISSN Print: 0976-6480 and ISSN Online: 0976-6499 © IAEME Publication ___________________________________________________________________________ NOVEL AND ECO FRIENDLY ANT CHALK AND MOSQUITO MAT FROM COCONUT SHELL OIL H. Ajith Hebbar Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, Malnad College of Engineering, Hassan, India Anvith A Hebbar Student, Sharada Vidyanikethana Public School, Talapady, Mangalore, India, Dayananda Patwardhan Industrialist and Arecanut Product Expert, Mundaje, India ABSTRACT The mosquito repellents and ant chalks available in the market are made of toxic chemicals. Though they are effective, but extremely harmful to human being. In this context, as an alternative, in this study, coconut shell oil based ant chalk and mosquito mat were prepared. Coconut shell oil is an organic based blackish brown liquid derived from agro waste coconut shell (Cocos nucifera). It can be extracted by indirectly burning the shredded coconut shells. The lab tests and various literatures related to this extracted liquid reveal that it is an organic acid containing Phenolic group. Ant chalk was prepared by mixing the shell oil with lime, clay and water. Mosquito mat was prepared using a mixture of shell oil, cow dung, Fenugreek and water. Well dried ant chalks and mosquito mats were taken for the study and distributed to the households for testing their effectiveness as repellents. The results of both products were extremely good. Key words: Coconut shell oil, Clay, Lime, Fenugreek and Phenol. Cite this Article: H. Ajith Hebbar, Anvith A Hebbar and Dayananda Patwardhan. Novel and Eco Friendly Ant Chalk and Mosquito Mat From Coconut Shell Oil. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology, 6(10), 2015, pp. 127-130. http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/issues.asp?JType=IJARET&VType=6&IType=10
  2. 2. H. Ajith Hebbar, Anvith A Hebbar and Dayananda Patwardhan http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 128 editor@iaeme.com 1. INTRODUCTION In urban areas due to bad management of solid and liquid wastes from households and industries, the presence of Mosquitoes is a common scene. People make extensive use of hazardous chemical based mosquito coils, mats, liquids. Ant nuisance is another commonly reported problem. People rely on commercially available ant repellents, which are toxic. In long run these chemical products are harmful to human health. Keeping in this view, the shell derived liquid was taken for the study. Various literatures available were referred to analyze characteristics of the shell liquid [1]. A team of researcher referred this oil as Wood Vinegar [2]. These literatures revealed the presence of Phenol, Acetic acid, 2-6 Dimethoxy Phenol, 2 Methyl Propyl Ester Butanoic Acid, Oleic Acid and many other phenol derivatives. A study made by researchers also indicated insecticidal and repellent effect of this shell oil [3]. An attempt was made to produce harmless, cheap, natural, simple products from this liquid derived from agricultural waste coconut shell (Kalpa Vriksha) as replacement to mosquito and ant repellants products available commercially. The mosquito repellent was in the form of mat and ant repellent was in chalk form. 2. MATERIALS AND METHOD Preparation of Shell oil The method of extracting the oil from the shell is shown in the accompanying flowchart. Ant Repellent Chalk The extracted Coconut shell oil was thoroughly mixed with Lime powder, Clay and water to get a consistent mix (2 part Shell Oil, 10 part Lime powder, 1 part fine clay, 10 part water). The mix was rolled to shape of chalk piece and dried for 3 days (Fig.1). Mosquito Mat The shell oil was mixed with Cow dung, powdered Fenugreek and water (5 Part shell oil, 10 part cow dung,1 part Fenugreek powder, 10 part water). Initially the mix was dried for 2 days and rolled to approximately 3 centimeters of circular mat. The mats were again allowed to completely dry for 3 more days. The Fenugreek enhanced the binding property of the mix. The cow dung assisted the burning of the mat (Fig.1). Collection of Coconut Shells Drying Crushing Placing in the Setup Indirect Heating Evaporation of the Chemical Contents CondensationExtractionStorage
  3. 3. Novel and Eco Friendly Ant Chalk and Mosquito Mat From Coconut Shell Oil http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 129 editor@iaeme.com Figure1. Photographic view of Ant chalks and Mosquito mats. Testing of Products The shell oil was tested for its compounds in the chemical laboratory for functional group and pH. For studying the effectiveness of repellent action, the dried mosquito mats and ant chalks were given to 45 households around the study area where mosquito and ant nuisance prevailed. People were requested to use mosquito mats with direct burning as well as electrical burning. The people were interviewed to get the results and feedback. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Shell oil testing Various results of tests on the extracted liquid are shown in Fig. 2. Figure2 Results of chemical tests on shell oil. The summary of results and feedback obtained during the study are shown in Table 1.
  4. 4. H. Ajith Hebbar, Anvith A Hebbar and Dayananda Patwardhan http://www.iaeme.com/IJARET/index.asp 130 editor@iaeme.com Table 1 Summary of results and feedback on effectiveness of repellents Mosquito Mats Ant Chalks No. of households - 45 No. of households - 45 Very Effective 38 Very Effective 42 Moderately Effective 3 Moderately Effective 3 Defective Burning 4 Feedback  No reports of smoke irritation. Burning of mats lasted for 30 minutes.  Electrical burning was equally effective. Overall results showed very effective performance of ant and mosquito repellent products. The cases of defective burning can be attributed to absorption of moisture during the storage when not in use. As agro wastes and easily available materials were used, cost of production of mat and chalk was nominal. 4. FURTHER STUDY Testing of the shell oil is further continued on Termites in the form of spray, but studies are in initial stages. The studies are also under way to test medicinal benefits (anti microbial) of coconut shell oil and its use in veterinary field. 5. CONCLUSION Based on the study carried out, following conclusions can be drawn-  As all the materials used in the products are natural and organic, they harmless and eco friendly.  Product preparation easy and simple.  Coconut shells are easily available as agricultural wastes.  Charcoal obtained during the extraction, can be used for burning. REFERENCES [1] V. Verma, A.Bhardwaj , S.Rathi and R.B. Raja, A Potential Antimicrobial Agent from Cocos nucifera mesocarp extract- Development of a New Generation Antibiotic., ISCA Journal of Biological Sciences, 2012, 1(2), 48- 54. [2] Ervina Mela, Yandra Arkeman, Erliza Noor and Noer Achsani, Potential Products of Coconut Shell Wood Vinegar, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, 4 (4), 2013, 1480-1492. [3] J. Rakmai, Pharmaceutical Science (Thesis) 2009, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand. [4] Dr. R.Sivanesan and Mr. S.Prabin. Problems and Prospects of Coconut Industries in Kanyakumari District of Tamilnadu. International Journal of Management, 4(6), 2013, pp. 135 - 144. [5] Abi Vargheser and Jippu Jacob. A Review of Coconut Husking Machines. International Journal of Design and Manufacturing Technology, 5(3), 2014, pp. 68 - 78.