2. Grammar 1: Action Verbs
• The predicate of a sentence tells what the subject is or does. The
main word in the predicate is the verb. Most verbs are action verbs.
An action verb shows what the subject does or did.
• Example: Jill pitches the ball.
• Example: The ball flew over the plate.
• Action verbs can also show action that you cannot see.
• Example: The coach thought about the players in the field.
3. Grammar 2: Direct Objects
Some sentences express a complete thought with only a subject and an
Example: The ship sails.
In other sentences, a direct object is used with the action verb. A
direct object is a word in the predicate that receives the action of a
verb. It can be a noun, pronoun, or a word that takes the place of a
Example: The captain steers the ship.
Subject Verb Direct Object
• An easy way to find a direct object if there is one in the sentence is
to follow these steps:
• First, find the verb and determine if it is an action verb or not. It has to be
an action verb to have a direct object.
• Second, look for a noun or pronoun following the verb. The direct object
always follows the action verb if there is a direct object.
• Third, ask yourself whom or what is receiving the action from the verb. If
you can answer that question, you have a direct object.
• Example: I gave water to the puppy.
• Gave is the action word, and water answers the question whom or what, so
it is the direct object.
5. Grammar 3: Verbs and Helping Verbs
• A verb may have two parts, a main verb and one or more helping
verbs. The main verb shows the action of the sentence. The helping
verb works with the main verb. Helping verbs do not show action.
The main verb and helping verb form the verb phrase.
Example: Fran helps everyone. Main Verb
Fran is helping everyone. Helping Verb Main Verb
7. Grammar 4: Linking Verbs
• A linking verb links the subject of a sentence with a word or words in
the predicate. Linking verbs do NOT show action, and it is NOT a
helping verb. It is followed by a word in the predicate that names or
describes the subject.
• Example: Anna looks happy. (Happy describes Anna.)
• Anna is a student. (Anna=student)
• Some words can be either linking or action depending upon how they
are used in the sentence.
• Example: The crowd looked at the divers. Action
• The crowd looked tired. Linking
9. Grammar 5: Present Tense
• A verb that tells what its subject is doing right now is in the present
tense. The subject and verb must match in number in the present
• Example: The farmer sees the rare butterfly.
• The farmers see the rare butterfly.
10. Rules for Forming the Present Tense
Most Verbs: Add -s get--gets play--plays
Verbs ending in s, ch,
sh, x, or z
Verbs ending with a
consonant and y
Change the y to i and
11. Grammar 6: Past Tense
• A verb that shows something has already happened is in the past
• Example: She liked the cookies.
• Usually the past tense of a verb is formed by adding –ed. However,
some words must undergo a spelling change before adding –ed.
12. Rules for Forming the Past Tense
Verbs ending with e:
Drop the final e and add –ed
Verbs ending with a consonant and a y:
Change the y to I and add –ed
One-syllable verbs ending with a single
vowel and a consonant:
Double the final consonant:
Double the final consonant and add –ed
13. Grammar 7: Future Tense
• A verb that tells that something is going to happen is in the future
• Example: John will bring his book to class tomorrow.
• Example: John and Bob will look for their books tonight.
• To form the future tense of a verb, use the helping verb will or shall
• with the main verb. Shall is often used with I or we.
14. Grammar 8: Verb Agreement
• A present tense verb and its subject must agree in number. If the
subject is singular, then the verb must be singular. If the subject is
plural, then the verb must be plural.
15. Rules for Subject-Verb Agreement
1. Singular subject
Add –s or –es to the verb
The driver trains his dog team.
He teaches one dog to lead.
He studies his map.
2. Plural subject:
Do NOT add –s or -es
The dogs pull the sled.
The driver and his team travel far.
3. I or you
Use the plural form of the verb.
I like your report on dogs.
You write well.
16. Grammar 9: Agreement with Be and Have
• You must change the forms of the verbs be and have in special ways
to agree with their subjects.
17. Present and Past Tense forms of Be and Have
Subject Form of Be
Form of Be
Form of Have
Form of Have
He, She, It (for
They (for plural
18. Grammar 10: Contractions with NOT
• You can combine some verbs with the word not to make contractions.
A contraction is a word formed by joining two words, making one
short word. An apostrophe (‘) takes the place of the letter or letters
dropped to shorten the word.
19. Contractions Made with Verbs and Not
20. Grammar 11: Regular and Irregular Verbs
• Most verbs form their past tense by adding –ed to the verb. Verbs
that follow this rule are called regular verbs.
• Some verbs do not form their past tense by adding –ed to the verb.
They are called irregular verbs, and they have special forms to show
21. Irregular Verbs
Verb Past Tense Past with Helping Verb Uses a Form of Have (has, have, had)
Bring Brought Have brought
Come Came Have come
Go Went Have gone
Make Made Have made
Run Ran Have run
Say Said Have said
Take Took Have taken
Think Thought Have thought
Write Wrote Have written
22. More Irregular Verbs
Verb Past Tense Past with a Form of Have (has, have, had)
Ring Rang Have rung
Sing Sang Have sung
Swim Swam Have swam
Begin Began Have begun
Tear Tore Have torn
Wear Wore Have worn
Break Broke Have broken
Speak Spoke Have spoken
23. More Irregular Verbs
Verb Past Tense Past with Helping Verb Form of Have (has, have, had)
Steal Stole Have stolen
Choose Chose Have chosen
Freeze Frozen Have frozen
Blow Blew Have blown
Grow Grew Have grown
Know Knew Have known
Fly Flew Have flown
24. Grammar 13: Verb Phrases with Have
• A main verb can have more than one helping verb. The helping verb
have is often used with the helping verbs could, would, should, and
must. The two helping verbs and the main verb from the verb phrase.
These helping verbs are often spoken as contractions.
Helping Verb Contraction
Could have Could’ve
Would have Would’ve
Should have Should’ve
Must have Must’ve
25. Do NOT Use OF with Could, Would,
Should, or Must
• Incorrect: You should of seen the parade last week.
• Correct: You should have seen the parade last week.
• You should’ve seen the parade last week.
26. Teach-Learn; Let-Leave
Verb Meaning Example
teach To give instruction He will teach us grammar.
learn To receive instruction We will learn about grammar
let To permit Let Kerry go with us.
leave To go away from
To let remain in place
We will leave tomorrow.
Leave the money on the table.
27. Sit-Set; Can-May
• Do not confuse the verbs sit and set. Their meaning are different.
Also, do not confuse the verbs can and may. Their meanings are
similar, but not the same.
Verb Meaning Example
Sit To rest I will sit in the chair.
Set To place or put Set the book on the
Can To be able I can ride my bike
May To be allowed May I go to the park?