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Understanding the world of science and scientists

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Findings from the 2018 OECD Survey of Scientific Authors (ISSA2018)
http://oe.cd/issa

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Understanding the world of science and scientists

  1. 1. Understanding the world of science and scientists Findings from the 2018 OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors
  2. 2. Purpose of the 2018 ISSA survey Provide evidence on selected, priority aspects of scientific research to inform science and research policies Focus on statistical evidence on the digitalisation of science
  3. 3. The digitalisation of science: What do we seek to measure? Enablers/Obstacles Impact Extentandnature Digital tools Research methods Data Performance Open access Collaboration Communication Research assessment Infrastructure Skills Trust Socio- demographic factors
  4. 4. The ISSA approach  Contact information  Survey sampling frame  Monitor respondent profiles (weighting and nonresponse an.)  Complementary to survey data (e.g. research quality – citations, collaboration,… )  Online global survey of corresponding autors of sci. pubs  Centralised OECD data collection = data comparability  Focus on urgent policy needs  Obtained responses from 12k corresponding authors of scientific publications Bibliografic data Survey data
  5. 5. RESULTS: WHO ARE THE AUTHORS FRONTING SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS?
  6. 6. Science field (ASJC) and sector code (Frascati Manual) abbreviations Code Field AGRBIO Agricultural and Biological Sciences ALL All fields combined ARTHUM Arts and Humanities BIOCHEM Biochemistry, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Immunology and Microbiology BUSMAN Business, Management and Accounting CHEMENG Chemical engineering and Chemistry COMPSCI Computer Science ECODEC Economics, Finance and Decision sci. ENERENV Energy and Environmental Science ENG Engineering EARPLAN Earth and Planetary Sciences MATHS Mathematics MEDHEAL Medicine and Health Professions MATSCI Materials Science MULTIDIS Multidisciplinary PHARNEU Pharmacology, Toxicology, Pharmaceutics and Neuroscience PHYSAST Physics and Astronomy SOCPSY Social Sciences and Psychology HE= Higher education PNP= Private non profit GOV= Government BE= Business enterprises (including public)
  7. 7. Age of corresponding scientific authors, by field 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 Years Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  8. 8. Female corresponding scientific authors, by field 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 % Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  9. 9. Female corresponding scientific authors, by country of residence Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 %
  10. 10. Scientific authors’ employment sector, by science field 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % HE GOV PNP BE Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  11. 11. Scientific authors’ job security, by country 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Indefinite protected employment contract Fixed term employment contract Other indefinite Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  12. 12. Scientific authors’ job security by age and occupation Indefinite protected employment contract Other indefinite Fixed term employment contract Age groups Up to 34 16.45 8.88 74.67 35 to 44 34.37 14.38 51.25 45 to 54 52.69 18.08 29.22 55 to 64 61.63 12.94 25.43 65 or more 49.12 15.63 35.25 Occupation groups University and Higher Education Teaching Professionals 52.84 11.15 36.02 Senior managers and legislators 48.49 23.23 28.28 Science Professionals 35.4 15.09 49.51 Other Professionals 34.85 17.46 47.69 Associate professionals 21.36 13.66 64.98 Other occupations 35.24 6.33 58.43 Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  13. 13. Engagement in research-related activities, by sector 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % All sectors GOV PNP BE HE Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  14. 14. Sci authors’ gross annual earnings 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 200 000 or more 150 000 - 199 999 120 000 - 49 999 105 000 - 119 999 90 000 - 104 999 75 000 - 89 999 60 000 - 74 999 45 000 - 59 999 30 000 - 44 999 15 000 - 29 999 Under 15 000 % USD Percentage of authors whose annual earnings belong to a specific range Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020a), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  15. 15. RESULTS: DIGITALISATION OF SCIENCE
  16. 16. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Only data Both data and code Only code Neither data nor code Scientific production resulting in new data or code 65% of scientific production results in new data or code Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  17. 17. Dissemination channels for data and code 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 % Repository Journal Fellow researchers As percentage of authors with data or code  Data sharing practices are highly dependent on the field of research.  Interpersonal exchanges is the most common practice Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  18. 18. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 % Conventional data Big data Computational methods Sensors Autonomous machines Participative networks Use and development of advanced digital tools or methods  Computer science standing out in big data and computational methods use/development  Some use in less common fields (e.g. social science) Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  19. 19. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % Generic social networks Individual webpage or site within the author's organisation Specialised academic profile or networking site An individual webpage created and maintained by the author Channels used for online dissemination of information about research, by field  Significant uptake of generic social networks for communicating research to a wider audience (35% of authors) Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  20. 20. -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Score Digital productivity tools Data/Code dissemination Advanced digital tools/big data Online presence and communication Patterns of digitalisation in science, by field Above average Below average Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  21. 21. -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 Score Digital productivity tools Data/Code dissemination Advanced digital tools/data Digital identity and communication Patterns of digitalisation in science, by country Above average Below average Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  22. 22. Links between digitalisation patterns and author profile Note:Country- and science field- fixed effects included in all regressions. Other variables included in the regressions are: normalised citations, collaboration, open access publications, AI-related reference publication dummy. Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa Least square regression coefficients and confidence intervals
  23. 23. Authors’ earnings and their profiles Least square regression coefficients and confidence intervals Note: Country- and science field- fixed effects included in all regressions. Other variables included in the regressions are: number of working hours; percentage of weekly working time spent on research; number of publications; and collaboration. Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  24. 24. Drivers of lifetime citation impact and journal prestige Least square regression coefficients and confidence intervals Note: Country- and science field- fixed effects included in all regressions. Source: Bello and Galindo-Rueda (2020b), based on OECD ISSA2018. http://oe.cd/issa
  25. 25. • Bello M. and F. Galindo-Rueda (2020a), “The 2018 OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors”, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/18151965 • Bello, M. and F. Galindo-Rueda (2020b). “Charting the digital transformation of science: Findings from the 2018 OECD International Survey of Scientific Authors (ISSA2)”, OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, OECD Publishing, Paris. https://doi.org/10.1787/18151965 References
  26. 26. Website: http://oe.cd/issa Contact: ISSA@oecd.org Find about more about ISSA

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