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PSY10 Week 4 memory
PSY10 Week 4 memory
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Memory

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Memory defintion
Stages of Memory
Capacity of storage
How to increase the capacity
what is Chunk ?
Using Cues to Aid Retrieval
Why we forget
Kinds of Interference
Measures of Forgetting

Memory defintion
Stages of Memory
Capacity of storage
How to increase the capacity
what is Chunk ?
Using Cues to Aid Retrieval
Why we forget
Kinds of Interference
Measures of Forgetting

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Memory

  1. 1.  Memory refers to the process by which past experience and learning can be used in the present  According to Fieldsman:  The process by which we encode, store, retain and retrieve information is called Memory
  2. 2. Encoding Storage Retrieval
  3. 3.  When you form a memory code for a word, you might emphasize how it looks(Structural), how it sounds(Phonemic) or what it means(Semantic) › the process by which we place the things that we experience into memory. Unless information is encoded, it cannot be remembered
  4. 4.  Structural Encoding is a way that focuses on the physical structure of the stimulus.  E.g., By paying attention on capital letters, words length
  5. 5.  Phonemic Encoding is an intermediate level of processing which emphasizes what a word sounds like  Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”?
  6. 6.  Semantic encoding is the deepest level of processing which emphasizes the meaning of verbal input.  Information is analyzed in terms of its meaning.  Would the word fit in the sentence?
  7. 7. Level of processing Type of encoding Example Shallow processing Structural encoding: emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus Is the word written in capital letters? Intermediate processing Phonemic encoding: emphasizes what a word sounds like Does the word rhyme with weight? Deep processing Semantic encoding: emphasizes the meaning of verbal input Would the word fit in the sentence: “He met a _____________on the street”? Depth of processing
  8. 8.  The process of holding information in memory to be processed or used  There are three memory stores › Sensory memory › Short Term memory › Long term memory
  9. 9. Short term memory Long term memory Sensory memory Information Repetitive rehearsal Elaborative rehearsal Forgetting typically within 1 second Forgetting within 15 to 25 seconds Attention
  10. 10.  The sensory memory preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second. OR  The initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only an instant.
  11. 11.  Short-term memory (STM) is a limited- capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed information for up to almost 25 seconds.  However, there is a way that you can maintain information in your short-term store indefinitely by engaging in rehearsal.
  12. 12.  Rehearsal is the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information.  Example  when you look up a phone number, you probably recite it over and over until you can dial it.
  13. 13.  Short-term memory is also limited in the number of items it can hold.  Miller noticed that people could recall only about 7 items in tasks that required the use of STM.  So, he gave the idea of “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two”
  14. 14.  You can increase the capacity of your short-term memory by chunking.
  15. 15.  Chunk  A meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory. OR  A chunk is a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit.
  16. 16.  EXAMPLE  Ask someone to recall a sequence of 12 letters grouped in the following way:  FB INB CCIAIBM  It will be difficult for your subject to remember each letter separately because there are no obvious groups or chunks
  17. 17.  Now present the same string of letters to another person, but place the pauses in the following locations:  FBI - NBC - CIA - IBM  The letters now form four familiar chunks, resulting in successful recall.  167156631  1-67-15-66-31
  18. 18.  Long-term memory (LTM) is an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time.
  19. 19.  Unlike sensory and short-term memory, which have very brief storage durations, LTM can store information indefinitely.  In fact, one point of view is that all information stored in long-term memory is stored there permanently.
  20. 20.  Long-term memory has several different components, or memory modules . 1. Declarative memory/Explicit i) Semantic memory ii) Episodic memory 2.Non-declarative memory/Implicit(procedural, skills)
  21. 21.  Memory for factual information: names, faces, dates, and the like.  Example  “a bike has two wheels
  22. 22.  Memory for skills and habits and information about how to do things is stored in procedural memory.  Example  such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, typing, and tying one’s shoes.
  23. 23.  To illustrate the distinction, if you know the rules of tennis (the number of games in a set, scoring, and such), this factual information is stored in declarative memory. If you remember how to hit a serve and swing through a backhand, these are procedural memories that are part of the non declarative system (procedural memory).
  24. 24.  Semantic memory  Memory for general knowledge and facts about the world and it is not tied to the time when the information was learned.
  25. 25.  Semantic memory contains information such as Christmas is December 25, and dogs have four legs.  You probably don’t remember when you learned these facts. Such information is usually stored undated.
  26. 26.  The episodic memory system is made up of temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences. OR  Memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context.
  27. 27.  For example, recall of learning to ride a bike, or arranging a surprise 21st birthday party for our brother, how you celebrated 25th December is based on episodic memories.  Episodic memory is a record of things you’ve done, seen, and heard. It includes information about when you did these things, saw them, or heard them. It contains recollections about being in a ninth-grade play, attending any concert, or going to a movie last weekend.
  28. 28.  The function of episodic memory is “time travel”—that is, to allow one to re experience the past.  Episodic memory may be unique to humans.
  29. 29.  In short, Subdivided declarative memory into episodic and semantic memory. Both contain factual information, but semantic memory contains general facts and episodic memory contains personal facts.  example,  the fact itself (that 2+2=4) is a semantic memory.  Remembering when and how we learned (that 2+2=4) would be an episodic memory;
  30. 30.  Distinction between episodic and semantic memory can be better appreciated by drawing an analogy to books:  Semantic memory is like an encyclopedia while episodic memory is like an autobiography.
  31. 31. Long term memory Declarative memory Non declarative memory Semantic memory Episodic memory
  32. 32.  Tip-of-the-tongue  It is the temporary inability to remember something you know, accompanied by a feeling that it’s just out of reach. OR  The inability to recall information that one realizes one knows—a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory.
  33. 33.  The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon clearly constitutes a failure in retrieval.  Example  while taking exams you blank out on a term that you’re sure you know, but you can’t quite come up with it. Later, perhaps while you’re driving home, the term suddenly comes to you. “Of course,” you may say to yourself, “how could I forget that?”
  34. 34.  Retrieval cues  It is the stimulus that help gain access to memories.  Example  Study was conducted by Brown and McNeill in which they gave subjects definitions of obscure(unclear) words and asked them to come up with the words. Brown and McNeill found that subjects grouping for obscure words were correct in guessing the first letter of the missing word 57% of the time.
  35. 35.  To recall an event by putting yourself back in the context in which it occurred involves working with context cues to aid retrieval
  36. 36.  Example # 1  What did you have for breakfast two days ago? If you can’t immediately answer, you might begin by imagining yourself sitting at the breakfast table. Trying to recall an event by putting yourself back in the context in which it occurred involves working with context cues to aid retrieval.
  37. 37.  Example # 2  How often you have gone from one room to another to get something (scissors, perhaps), only to discover that you can’t remember what you were after. However, when you return to the first room (the original context), you suddenly recall what it was (“Of course, the scissors!”).
  38. 38.  Example # 3  when people return after a number of years to a place where they used to live, they are typically flooded with long- forgotten memories.  These examples illustrate the potentially powerful effects of context cues on memory.
  39. 39.  Ineffective encoding  Decay  Interference  Motivated forgetting
  40. 40.  Often, we don’t even encode the features necessary to remember an object/event.  The information may never have been inserted into memory in the first place. Since you can’t really forget something you never learned, this phenomenon is sometimes called pseudo forgetting.
  41. 41.  Example  People usually assume that they know what a penny looks like, but most have actually failed to encode this information.  Pseudo forgetting is usually due to lack of attention.
  42. 42.  Decay theory proposes that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.  According to decay theory, the mere passage of time produces forgetting.
  43. 43.  Interference theory proposes that people forget information because of competition from other material. OR  The phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information.
  44. 44.  Interference is assumed to be greatest when intervening material is most similar to the test material.  Decreasing the similarity should reduce interference and cause less forgetting.
  45. 45.  Retroactive interference (New learning interferes with old)  Proactive interference (old/previous learning interferes with new)
  46. 46.  Retroactive interference occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information.
  47. 47.  for example, you have difficulty on a computer achievement test because new information (psychology) interferes and impairs the retention of previously learned information (computer). Study computer Study psychology Computer Test Interference
  48. 48.  Proactive interference occurs when previously learned information interferes with the retention of new information.
  49. 49.  Example  You have difficulty on psychology achievement test because previously learned information (computer) interferes and impairs the retention of new information (psychology). Study computer Study psychology Psychology test Interference
  50. 50.  The tendency to forget things one doesn’t want to think about is called motivated forgetting.  Example when you forget unpleasant things such as a dental appointment, a promise to help a friend move, or a term paper deadline, motivated forgetting may be at work.
  51. 51.  The three principal methods used to measure forgetting are 1. Recall 2. Recognition 3. Relearning  Measures of forgetting inevitably measure retention as well.
  52. 52.  Refers to the proportion of material retained (remembered).
  53. 53.  A recall measure of retention requires subjects to reproduce information on their own without any cues.
  54. 54.  Example  If you were to take a recall test on a list of 25 words you had memorized, you would simply be told to write down as many of the words as you could remember.  In educational testing, essay questions and fill-in-the-blanks questions are recall measures of retention.
  55. 55.  A recognition measure of retention requires subjects to select previously learned information from an array of options.  Subjects not only have cues to work with, they have the answers right in front of them.
  56. 56.  Example  In a recognition test you might be shown a list of 100 words and asked to choose the 25 words that you had memorized.  In educational testing, Multiple choice, true-false, and match the columns are recognition measures.
  57. 57.  A relearning measure of retention requires a subject to memorize information a second time to determine how much time or how many practice trials are saved by having learned it before.  Subjects’ savings scores provide an estimate of their retention.

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