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Timeline of Human History & Leaders (1071 AD - 1370 AD)

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Timeline of Human History & Leaders (1071 AD - 1370 AD)

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This content is all about the history of previous leaders. Here we can know about the mistake that was made by those previous leader and their raise and fall. In fact, we can know about the legacy and contribution of the leader. Here we know about the leader of 1171 AD to 1370AD.

This content is all about the history of previous leaders. Here we can know about the mistake that was made by those previous leader and their raise and fall. In fact, we can know about the legacy and contribution of the leader. Here we know about the leader of 1171 AD to 1370AD.

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Timeline of Human History & Leaders (1071 AD - 1370 AD)

  1. 1. Timeline of Human History & Leaders (1071 AD - 1370 AD)
  2. 2. Timeline and Empires Presentation Outline Leaders
  3. 3. Timeline of Human History from 1071 AD to 1370 AD The High Middle Ages or The High Medieval Period
  4. 4. Americas Africa Europe Asia Pacific 1000 1100 1200 1300 Kingdom of Cusco Toltecs Great Pueblo Mississippian Culture Mali Empire Great Zimbabwe Zagwe Dynasty Byzantine Empire Holy Roman Empire France England Ayyubid Dynasty Sultanate of Rum Fatimid Caliphate Great Seljuk Empire Timurid Empire Golden Hordes Mongol Empire Khanag Mongol Yuan Empire Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate Kamakura Shogunate Ashikaga Shogunate Timeline of Empires
  5. 5. The Mongol Empire (1206- 1368)
  6. 6. Expanding Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire (1206-1368) • Largest contiguous land empire • Leadership of Genghis Khan, Mongolia • Sea of Japan to parts of Eastern Europe, Indian subcontinent and Arctic
  7. 7. Expanding Mongol Empire • Largest contiguous land empire • Leadership of Genghis Khan, Mongolia • Sea of Japan to parts of Eastern Europe, Indian subcontinent and Arctic The Mongol Empire (1206-1368)
  8. 8. Expanding Mongol Empire • Largest contiguous land empire • Leadership of Genghis Khan, Mongolia • Sea of Japan to parts of Eastern Europe, Indian subcontinent and Arctic The Mongol Empire (1206-1368)
  9. 9. Splitting of the Khanates Split into four Khanates: • Golden Hordes in the Northeast • Yuan Dynasty or Great Khanate in China • Ilkhanate in the Southeast and Persia • Chagatai Khanate in Central Asia The Mongol Empire (1206-1368)
  10. 10. Fall of the Mongol Empire WHY DID THEY FALL? • Failure of military campaigns • Inept successors • Disputes over succession The Mongol Empire (1206-1368)
  11. 11. Decline of the Khanates WHY DID THEY FALL? • Failure of military campaigns • Inept successors • Disputes over succession The Mongol Empire (1206-1368)
  12. 12. Americas Africa Europe Asia Pacific 1000 1100 1200 1300 Kingdom of Cusco Toltecs Great Pueblo Mississippian Culture Mali Empire Great Zimbabwe Zagwe Dynasty Byzantine Empire Holy Roman Empire France England Ayyubid Dynasty Sultanate of Rum Fatimid Caliphate Great Seljuk Empire Timurid Empire Golden Hordes Mongol Empire Khanag Mongol Yuan Empire Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate Kamakura Shogunate Ashikaga Shogunate Timeline of Empires
  13. 13. The Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171) Seljuk Empire (1037-1194) Ayyubid Dynasty (1171-1517)
  14. 14. The Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) The Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) Most powerful monarchy in Europe Political entity Western, Central & Southern Europe Byzantine Empire: Eastern Roman Empire (330-1453) Capital: Constantinople WHY DID THEY FALL? • Invasion by barbaric tribes • Economic troubles • Slave labour • Overexpansion • Corruption • Loss of Christian values Imperial Banner (1430-1806) Coat of Arms (1790- 1806)
  15. 15. Middle East Fatimid Caliphate (909-1171) • Claimed descent from Fāṭimah, daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) • Ismaili Shia political and religious dynasty
  16. 16. Middle East Ayyubid Dynasty Ayyubid Dynasty (1171- 1517) • Founding dynasty of the medieval Sultanate of Egypt • Saladin Ayyub • Sunni Muslims seeking to convert others • Resurgence in intellectual activity in the Islamic world • Conquered by Ottomans
  17. 17. Middle East Seljuk Empire (1037- 1194) • Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim • Barrier to Europe against Mongols • Defending Islamic world against Western Crusaders • Later morphed into Ottoman Empire
  18. 18. Americas Africa Europe Asia Pacific 1000 1100 1200 1300 Kingdom of Cusco Toltecs Great Pueblo Mississippian Culture Mali Empire Great Zimbabwe Zagwe Dynasty Byzantine Empire Holy Roman Empire France England Ayyubid Dynasty Sultanate of Rum Fatimid Caliphate Great Seljuk Empire Timurid Empire Golden Hordes Mongol Empire Khanag Mongol Yuan Empire Chagatai Khanate Ilkhanate Kamakura Shogunate Ashikaga Shogunate Timeline of Empires
  19. 19. Mali Empire (1235-1670)
  20. 20. Mali Empire (1235-1670) • Founded by Sundiata Keita • 9th Mansa: Musa, wealthiest person in history ($400 billion) • Expanding trade: mining salt & gold, elephant ivory WHY DID THEY FALL? • Development of other trade centers and routes • Civil wars
  21. 21. 1077 1096- 1099 1121 1125- 1142 The Humiliation of Canossa Henry IV (Germany) walked barefoot in a blizzard to Canossa Castle to ask for Pope Gregory VII’s forgiveness from excommunication Henry IV crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 1084 The First Crusade Series of religious and political wars between Christians and Muslims over the Holy Land Jerusalem The Battle of Didgori Tiny Georgian force outsmarted the Seljuks using modern military tactics Jin conquest of Northern China Jin and Song Dynasties joined together to defeat Liao Dynasty. Then, Jin turned against Song.
  22. 22. 1128 1135- 1153 1147- 1192 1171 Portugal gains independence From the kingdom of Leon through the Treaty of Zamora after the Battle of Sao Mamede English and Norman civil war After King Henry I died, a destructive succession crisis known as “The Anarchy” occurred. Daughter Empress Matilda VS Nephew Stephen of Blois The Second and Third Major Crusades Kings of France & Germany VS Seljuk Turks Saladin VS England’s Richard the Lionheart The formation of the Ayyubid dynasty Saladin Ayyub deposed Fatimid Caliphate and became the Sultan of Egypt, Syria, and other parts of North Africa
  23. 23. 1180- 1185 1202- 1291 1206 1215 Japan’s Genpei War A dispute over succession between Taira and Minamoto Clans fueled this civil war. This established the shogunate (military dictatorship) with the emperor serving only a nominal role. The end of the big Crusades 9 crusades in total with mixed results Ultimately, Europeans defeated Muslim victory Mongol Empire founded by Genghis Khan United feuding tribes and formed a powerful army to conquer large portions of Asia and Eastern Europe Largest contiguous empire in the world The creation of the Magna Carta England’s King John signed this agreeing to a more balanced form of power. Foundation of today’s laws regarding protection against illegal imprisonment, fair taxing, basic human rights.
  24. 24. 1258 1271- 1295 1274- 1281 1296 The Siege of Baghdad The Mongols seized, looted, destroyed and wiped out the population of Baghdad, the capital of the powerful Abbasid Caliphate. Considered to be the end of the Islamic Golden Age Marco Polo explores Asia via the Silk Road Served as foreign emissary of the Chinese Emperor Kublai Khan First European to publish his travels to the Far East in depth Bringing unknown information and technology to Europe The Mongol’s attempted invasion of Japan Two storms of “divine wind” ruined two attempts by Yuan to invade Japan Yuan didn’t attack again The First War of Scottish Independence begins After the King of Scots Alexander III died with no obvious heir, 13 families put a claim to the throne. England’s King Edward forced the new King John Balliol to be servient to him. Scottish rebellion against England
  25. 25. 1324 1337 1347- 1352 1366 Mansa Musa Richest man in history 9th king of Mali in Africa Trade of salt and gold Pilgrimage to Mecca with 60,000 men The Hundred Years War England’s Edward III declared the Kingdom of France was rightfully his to claim Series of long and bloody conflicts between France & Britain The Black Death This disease killed half of Europe- between 30-40 million people. Infection spread by rats, poor hygiene, cramped living conditions Timur the conqueror Self-proclaimed “Sword of Islam” Last great nomadic conqueror Claimed to be Genghis Khan’s successor Ingenious but brutal military leader Killed 100,000 people
  26. 26. Astrolabe Compass Eyeglasses Gunpowder Mechanical Clock Printing Press Inventions of the High Middle Ages
  27. 27. Saladin’s Background ❑ Name: Yousif Ayoub Abu Al-Mouthafar. Known in Arabic (Salah ad Dien Al-Ayoubi) ❑ Originally from: Kurdistan ❑ Place and Date of Birth: Tikrit, Iraq – 1138 ❑ Religion: Muslim ❑ Descriptive Epithet: Saladin means (Righteousness of the Faith) & Al-Malik Al-Nasir (Victorious King) ❑ He created: The Ayyubid Dynasty from 1174 to 1341; situated today in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Sudan, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Jordan, Iraq, Syria, Palestine, Israel & Turkey ❑ Death: 1193, Damascus at the age of 55
  28. 28. Early Adulthood ▪ In 1164 and 1169, Saladin assisted his uncle in a military expeditions ▪ Saladin was later given his Uncle’s position as Vizier of Cairo. ▪ Saladin wished to unite all the Muslims ▪ Unified Jerusalem to Muslim lands
  29. 29. ▪ In 1187, Saladin recaptured Jerusalem after defeating its King in the Battle of Hattin. ▪ Saladin and Richard signed a new truce Saladin And The Crusaders
  30. 30. Saladin: As A Hero ▪ Repelling the Crusaders ▪ Recapturing Jerusalem ▪ The most esteemed Muslim figures
  31. 31. Saladin: A Great Muslim ▪ Broad minded and Inclusive faith ▪ Treated them honorably ▪ Humble ▪ Forgiving mind
  32. 32. The Ayyubid dynasty
  33. 33. Saladin’s Death
  34. 34. ✔ Founder and first Great Khan (Emperor) ✔ Genghis Khan the “Universal Ruler” ✔ Ruling period : 1206-1227 Genghis Khan (1162-1227)
  35. 35. CHILDHOOD ✔ Got married at 09 Yrs of Age ✔ His father was poisoned & Killed ✔ Being rejected by his own clan My name is Temujin. Later I will become known as Genghis Khan.
  36. 36. EARLY STRUGGLES ✔ Poverty & Tribal upbringing ✔ Killing his half brother ✔ Returning to his wife’s tribe maintain an alliance
  37. 37. UNIFICATION OF MONGOL ✔ Forming strong alliances ✔ Rewarding loyalty ✔ Bringing defeated warriors into his band
  38. 38. CONQUERING THE WORLD ✔ Western Xia Dynasty ✔ Jin Dynasty ✔ Kara Kitay ✔ Attacks on Georgia & Vulgaria ✔ Attacks on Eastern Europe And Many More… The Name, The Legend
  39. 39. Postal or Messenger System The First Passport Deaths of 40 Million People Promoted Religious Tolerance A Unified Empire KHAN’S LEGACY
  40. 40. DEATH OF KHAN ✔ Exact cause of his death remains a mystery ✔ Exact burial site remains a mystery ✔ Genghis Khan left Ogedei Khan as his successor A True Leader, The First To Unite The Steppes, Thus Rested In Peace……
  41. 41. ● Lead From The Front ● Serve a Greater Good Than yourself ● Have a Vision ● Understand Your People ● Be Self Reliant, Be Humble & Be Moderate ● Change the World But Change it Gradually ● Morality ● Patience ● Strong Ethics LEARNING’S FROM KHAN
  42. 42. The Anglo Saxon/ Early Medieval England (871 – 899 CE) Alfred The Great -King of Wessex & Anglo Saxon
  43. 43. A Brief History of Alfred ● Alfred the Great (c. 849 – 26 October c. 899 ) ● King of the West Saxons from 871 to c. 886 and King of the Anglo-Saxons from c. 886 until his death in 899. ● Youngest son of King Æthelwulf and his first wife Osburh, who both died when Alfred was young. ● Reputation as a learned and merciful man who encouraged education along with improving the legal system and military structure. ● He was given the epithet "the Great" in the 16th century. ● Death reason was unknown but most probably caused by poor health experienced early on in his life.
  44. 44. Youth & Rise to Power • Learn poetry. At the age of four, his father sent him to Rome on pilgrimage, where he was confirmed in the faith by the Pope and according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, was anointed as king. • Alfred's family had low expectations of him as a warrior-king as he was more given to books than action and was often ill as a young man. • After King Æthelwulf died in 858, Wessex was ruled by three of Alfred's brothers. • Later on Alfred proved himself a capable leader in battle.
  45. 45. King At War ● The Viking Wars. The Battle of Eddington. ● The Battle of Edington was fought between the Saxons, led by Alfred the Great, and the Vikings, led by Guthrum. ● Alfred won a great victory at the Battle of Edington in 878 but continued to struggle with Danish advances until 896, when the invasions ceased. His success in quelling the attacks was largely due to his superlative defensive strategy.
  46. 46. The Anglo Saxon Kingdoms • Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of England. It lasted from 519 until 927. Wessex ultimately unified England. • Essex was established early in the 6th century. It existed until 825 when it was taken over by Wessex. • East Anglia was established in the 6th century and lasted until 918 although it was taken over first by Mercia and then by the Danes.
  47. 47. Leadership • Alfred had a dream, or vision, of one unified kingdom for all English speaking people: England • His military, educational, legal and religious initiatives were all part of his strategy to accomplish his goal
  48. 48. Legacy ● Reforming the traditions and structure of early English society ● Maintaining peace in uncertain times ● Introducing structure, judicial processes and education ● Left a considerable cultural impact on the generations that followed
  49. 49. Death ● October 26, 899 at the age of 50 or 51 ● Unknown cause ● Suffered throughout his life with a painful and unpleasant illness ● Either Crohn’s disease or haemorrhoids ● His grandson King Eadred seems to have suffered from a similar illness
  50. 50. Alauddin khilji Sultan (Reign. 1296 – 1316)
  51. 51. About alauddin Khilji 13th Sultan of Delhi. Nephew and a Son-in-law of his predecessor Jalaluddin Khilji . Born in 1266, Ali Gurshap, Qalati Khaljī. (Afghanistan at present day). Considered as Sikander - e - Sani (Alexander the Second) Governor of kara, Governor of Awadh, Amir-i- Tuzuk (Equivalent to Master of ceremonies).
  52. 52. Ascension Alauddin was formally proclaimed as the Sultan in Delhi in 1296. Started March towards Delhi in 2nd week of October 1296. king Ruknuddin led an army against him but defeated by Alauddin at midnight. Ruknuddin escaped to Multan in the early morning.
  53. 53. Khilji dynasty
  54. 54. Rebuild the nation Social Reforms Administrative Changes Revenue Reforms Market Reforms Military Reforms Invasion of Mongol
  55. 55. Dissolution of power Alauddin I’llness Malik Kafur’s conspiracy Blinded Two Sons and killed Brother in law Alp khan Alauddin died 4 January 1316 Malik Kafur made 6 year’s old Shihabuddin as a puppet Monarch. Mubarak khan killed Malik Kafur and became the next king.
  56. 56. First Muslim ruler of Bengal Founder of Khalji Dynasty of Bengal Ikhtiyar al-Din Muḥammad Bakhtiyar Khalji
  57. 57. EARLY LIFE Born and Raised in Garmsir, Hemland First appointed as the Dewan-i-Ard at GHOR south-eastern corner of modern Mirzapur district
  58. 58. Conquest of Bengal and Bihar Attacked the south bihar Attacked Buddhist Bihar in 1199 Attacked Lakshman Sen and conquered Nadia
  59. 59. Failure in Tibbet ● Ignored the advice of king of Kamarupa ● Injured a lot of soldiers ● Returned to Devkot ● Jumped into the river
  60. 60. Madrasa Khanqahs Coins Mosques Began 500 years of ruling Bakhtiyarer Ghora Legacy of Khalji
  61. 61. DEATH OF KHALJI A revolution was declared against him In 1206 he died
  62. 62. ⮚ Very brilliant rider and a fencer. ⮚ expert on horse riding, sword using, and battle strategies ⮚ Daring, Bold, Brave, Vigours, Courageous, and aggressive. ⮚ Just, Fair, Gracious, Kind. ⮚ Soft hearted ABOUT OSMAN GAZI
  63. 63. Leadership Qualities of Osman Gazi Great politician Dedication Administrative skills Courage Great vision Great military strategy Self confidencence Influence Supportive
  64. 64. Skills of Osman Gazi as a leader Risk Taking Skills Political Skills Military Skills Administrative Skills
  65. 65. Maintained a Balance SENATE MILITARY
  66. 66. Military Strategy of Osman Gazi ⮚ Use gunpowder ⮚ Use Canon ⮚ Use Short arrows ⮚ Having excellent horsemanship ⮚ Building & keeping good bonding to the soldiers
  67. 67. OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I In 1281 After Ertugrul Gazi’s death, he became the leader of Kayi tribe
  68. 68. OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and, with the conquest of the Balkans & transformed into a transcontinental empire Kulucahisar Eskişehir Bursa constantinople
  69. 69. Ottoman empire OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I During the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, they conqured Asia, Europe & north Africa
  70. 70. Ottoman empire OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I
  71. 71. Ottoman empire OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I
  72. 72. Ottoman empire OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I
  73. 73. Ottoman empire OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I
  74. 74. OTTOMAN EMPIRE By Osman I
  75. 75. Administrative Changes Military reforms Social reforms Market reforms Revenue reforms CONTRIBUTION OF OSMAN GAZI
  76. 76. Forming an empire Adopting taxes Minting the first coins of ottoman CONTRIBUTION OF OSMAN GAZI
  77. 77. Administrative Reform 81 Society Education Taxation Criminal law formulate an effective & simplified code of laws, known as the Kanun- I-Osmani that served the Ottoman Empire for the next 300 years. CONTRIBUTION OF OSMAN GAZI
  78. 78. ULTIMATE TARGET ❖Through both warfare and diplomacy, he was able to unify inherited and captured lands under his rule. ❖Osman Gazi built the foundation of an Islamic empire that would expand over 3 continents and rule for more than 600 years, the Ottoman empire.
  79. 79. DEATH OF A GREAT LEADER AND WARRIOR ❖According to some sources he died of natural causes before the fall of the city, while other suggests he heard the news of the fall of the city. ❖Buried in Bursa. ❖Osman left a written will to his son Orhan instructing him to move on with conquests and jihad against the Byzantines, that he abides by the teachings of Islam, accompany the ʿUlamāʾ, amend his parish, and dedicates himself to spread the word of Islam.
  80. 80. The Mongol Empire (c.1259 – c. 1294) Kublai Khan
  81. 81. The first Yuan ruler of all of China. Reign: 1259 to 1294 Lifetime: c. 1215 – c. 1295 Childhood: Skilled fighter, hunter and horseman Kublai Khan
  82. 82. Start to Raise Power In 1236, Ogodei granted Kublai a fiefdom of some 10,000 households in the Hopei (Hebei) province.
  83. 83. 1245 When Kublai was in his thirties his older brother Mongke became Khan of the Mongol Empire. Mongke promoted Kublai to the ruler of Northern China Early Ruling Territory
  84. 84. 1252 1253 1256 Mongke ordered Kublai to attack Yunnan and conquer the Dali Kingdom Preparing for his first military campaign By the end of 1256 he had conquered Yunnan. The Battle of Yunnan
  85. 85. 1259 To attack and conquer southern China and the Song Dynasty. Kublai agreed to a peace treaty with the Song where the Song would pay him tribute each year and then returned back north. The Battle with Song Dynasty
  86. 86. Civil War & Succession A civil war ultimately broke out between the two main candidates: Kublai and his younger brother Ariq Boke
  87. 87. KUBLAI: As a Successful Leader ⮚ He ensure there were no rebellions ⮚ In 1263, he moved Mongol capital ⮚ The Invasions of Japan
  88. 88. Legacy He built a new capital city in Beijing. Beijing is still the capital of China today Many roads and highways were built by the Mongols in China
  89. 89. DEATH OF KHAN Kublai died of natural causes in 1294 at the age of 79 or 80 - an extremely old age for often hard-living Mongol rulers.
  90. 90. The Mali Empire (c.1235 – c. 1255) Mansa Sundiata Keita -The Lion King
  91. 91. History of The Lion King ● Lifetime: c. 1217 – c. 1255 ● Son of Naré Maghann Konaté and Sukulung Conté ● Founder Emperor of The Mali Empire ● Crowned Mansa after The Battle of Kirina: c. 1235 ● Physically Challenged by born ● Unknown Death Reason
  92. 92. Childhood Was crippled from childhood & only by will the lion king first stepped at the age of four-a great day for the mali empire,West Africa.
  93. 93. Battle of Kirina ● Soumaoro Kante was defeated by Sundiata(c.1235) and his allies (perhaps when Sundiata shot the king with a poisoned arrow). ● This victory marked to first step in the rise of the Mali Empire. ● The task ahead of him was not an easy one and it involved uniting various tribes to defeat a common enemy.
  94. 94. The Mali Empire
  95. 95. Leadership • Sundiata was a lad full of strength; his arms had the strength of ten and his biceps inspired fear in his companions. • Loyalty by keeping the promise . • Voice carried authority, eyes were live coals, arms were iron, and was the husband of power. • Uncompromising determination.
  96. 96. Legacy ● A Strong Army to rule 12 states. ● Economic power as he controlled trade routes & gold fields ● Codified 1st social & political constitution. ● Developed mechanisms for agriculture, introduced cotton & weaving in Mali. ● Ensured absolute security throughout his reign.
  97. 97. Death ● Generally accepted death year of Mansa Sundiata Keita is c. 1255 ● According to some, he died of drowning while trying to cross the Sankarani River, near Niani. ● Delafosse - accidentally killed by an arrow during a ceremony
  98. 98. Thank You! Any Questions?

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