Lattice is what gives us those crystalline
It is a set of points, regularly arranged in
space, for which the environment of each
point is identical
A method that uses x-rays to determine the
microscopic structures of crystalline solid
It is a solid in which the constituent
particles (atoms, ions, or molecules) have
an orderly arrangement, that is, it has
regularly arranged structure units with
characteristic geometric forms.
Having flat surface and sharp edges.
Examples: Gems, Salts, Sugar and Ice
are those in which the atoms, ions,
or molecules that make up the solid
exist in a regular, well-defined
The smallest repeating pattern of
crystalline solids is known as the unit
cell, and unit cells are like bricks in a
wall—they are all identical and repeating.
Considered as true solid
From the Greek word for “Without Form”
Are considered super cooled liquids or
The particles do not have a repeating lattice
do not have much order in their structures.
Though their molecules are close together
and have little freedom to move, they are not
arranged in a regular order as are those in
These solids are the results of the melting,
cooling, and solidifying of liquids before the
particles can achieve internal order (like
glass) or having large molecules that are
tangled together (like rubber and plastic
Some amorphous solids, such as window
glass, are hard, brittle, and have a high
melting point, while other amorphous
solids, such as rubber or plastic, are soft
and have very low melting points.
It does not have a definite melting point,
instead, it melts gradually over a range of
temperatures, because the bonds do not
break all at once.
This means an amorphous solid will melt
into soft, malleable state(candle wax)
before turning completely into a liquid
Common examples of this type of solid are
glass, rubber, gels and plastics.
Another example include thin film
lubricants, metallic glasses, polymers, and
Made up of positive and negative ions
Held together by electrostatic attractions.
They’re characterized by very high melting
points and brittleness and are poor
conductors in the solid state.
They tend to crackle and crush down on
An example of an ionic solid is table salt,
Made up of atoms and/or molecules
Held together by London dispersion forces,
dipole-dipole forces, or hydrogen bonds.
Characterized by low melting points and
flexibility and are poor thermal and
An example of a molecular solid is sugar,
dry ice,CO2, H2O.
Are Giant molecules or Macromolecules
Made up of atoms connected by covalent
bonds; the intermolecular forces are
covalent bonds as well.
Characterized as being very hard with very
high melting points and being poor
The sheets of graphite are held together
by only weak London forces
Examples of this type of solid are diamond
and graphite, and the fullerenes.
Made up of metal atoms and molecules
Held together by metallic bonds.
Characterized by high melting points, can
range from soft and malleable to very hard
Good conductors of electricity.
All metallic elements: Cu, Na, Zn, Fe, and